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Über dieses Buch

This book provides a review of mechanical ice drilling technology, including the design, parameters, and performance of various tools and drills for making holes in snow, firn and ice. The material presents the historical development of ice drilling tools and devices from the first experience taken place more than 170 years ago to the present day and focuses on the modern vision of ice drilling technology. It is illustrated with numerous pictures, many of them published for the first time. This book is intended for specialists in ice core sciences, drilling engineers, glaciologists, and can be useful for high-school students and other readers who are very interested in engineering and cold regions technology.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction to Ice Drilling Technology

Abstract
It is well known that ice is the solid phase of water. The molecules in solid ice may be arranged in numerous different ways, called phases, depending on the temperature and pressure. At temperatures below 0 °C and above about −80 °C, at standard atmospheric pressure, water molecules are arranged in orderly repetitive positions to form a crystalline solid with hexagonal symmetry, which is the most abundant of the varying solid phases on the Earth’s surface and is referred to as normal hexagonal ice, namely “ice Ih” (Furukawa in Encyclopedia of snow, ice and glaciers. Springer, Berlin, pp 557–560, 2011).
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 2. Yearly History of Ice Drilling from Nineteeth to the First Half of Twentieth Century

Abstract
In the early stages of human development, making holes in ice was connected with ice fishing or accessing fresh water during winter in regions with a temperate or tundra climate, and the most popular device to use for this was a chisel-shaped blade attached to a wooden pole.
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 3. Direct-Push Drilling

Abstract
Direct-push drilling technology includes methods that advance a drill by pushing, hammering, or vibrating. Although these methods do not meet the proper definition of drilling, they do achieve the same result—a borehole and, if applicable, a core. Direct-push drilling tools do not remove cuttings from the hole. Rather, deepening occurs due to the compression of the formation. Properly speaking, direct-push drilling cannot be used in solid ice, but it can be considered for investigations of compressible snow-firn layers. Two direct-push methods for snow-firn drilling have recently been used: (1) drive sampling and (2) penetrative testing.
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 4. Hand- and Power-Driven Portable Drills

Abstract
These drills are small systems that can drill holes to maximum depths of approximately 50 m. Depending on the tasks, portable drills can be either coring or noncoring devices. They are relatively lightweight and do not require a drilling fluid.
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 5. Percussion Drills

Abstract
In a general sense, “percussion ice drilling” refers to the process of drilling boreholes by the percussive destruction of ice. The percussion drills used for ice drilling can be classed as: (1) cable-tool drill rigs, (2) pneumatic drills, and (3) rotary-percussion drills that combine rotary and percussive actions. The last two methods have been used for the shallow ice drilling (<2–2.5 m) of blast holes.
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 6. Conventional Machine-Driven Rotary Drill Rigs

Abstract
The concept of conventional drilling with a pipe string is frequently used in mineral exploration, where boreholes may be from dozens to a few thousand meters in depth. The scheme is simple. The bit is attached to a rod that is rotated from the surface using a drilling pipe string with the help of a machine-driven rotary rig. In order to remove cuttings, liquid, or air circulation is used for cleaning the hole and cooling the bit. In addition, flight augers could be used for lifting cuttings up the borehole.
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 7. Flexible Drill-Stem Drill Rigs

Abstract
Flexible drill-stem technology spools a flexible conduit onto a take-up reel to rapidly lower and hoist bits, motors, and other tools in and out of the borehole. Such operations proceed quickly compared to using a jointed-pipe drilling rig because the connection time is eliminated during tripping.
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 8. Cable-Suspended Electromechanical Auger Drills

Abstract
The main feature of electromechanical cable-suspended drills is the use of an armored cable with a winch instead of a pipe string to provide power to the down-hole motor system and retrieve the down-hole unit. In some instances, a lighter weight reinforced tough-rubber or plastic-sheathed cable can be used for shallow drilling. The use of cable allows a significant reduction in power and material consumption, a decrease in the time of round-trip operations, and a simplification when the cleaning cuttings out of the hole.
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 9. Cable-Suspended Electromechanical Drills with Bottom-Hole Circulation

Abstract
In 1947, in Oklahoma (USA), the first electromechanical cable-suspended drill, the “Electrodrill,” which was designed by A. Arutunoff (1893–1978) of the REDA Pump Co. of Bartlesville (REDA is an acronym for Russian Electrical Dynamo of Arutunoff), was tested in sedimentary rocks. In this test, numerous wells were drilled as deep as ~400 m. Because of the insufficient power and low drill bit weight produced by the Electrodrill, the penetration rates did not exceed 4.2 m/h. Moreover, the friction anti-torque system caused numerous accidents involving borehole wall collapses and drill sticking, resulting in the termination of these activities.
Pavel G. Talalay

Chapter 10. Drilling Challenges and Perspectives for Future Development

Abstract
More than 170 years ago, Louis Agassiz, one of the creators of glacial theory, made his first attempt to drill into the bed of Unteraargletscher, Swiss Alps. Since that time, various systems for mechanical drilling have been especially designed for boring into ice, and some conventional drill rigs have been adopted for ice coring.
Pavel G. Talalay

Backmatter

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