If a solid is exposed to external forces that try to change its shape, it remains coherent but resists by the generation of an internal stress (Fig. 6.1). For instance, if we pull on a solid it would separate into two parts, if it were cut through in the center. The forces that need to be exerted to keep the two parts in contact correspond to the internal forces in the loaded solid. Let us use a simple model in which we visualize the solid as being composed of hard spheres (atoms) that are connected by springs (interatomic potential, Fig. 6.2). External tensile forces imposed on the solid will stretch the springs until their reaction force, which is proportional to the elongation of the springs, balances the external forces. The state of the stressed springs represents the internal forces.
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- Mechanical Properties
Professor Dr. Günter Gottstein
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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