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Über dieses Buch

This book presents recent advances and developments in control, automation, robotics, and measuring techniques. It presents contributions of top experts in the fields, focused on both theory and industrial practice. The particular chapters present a deep analysis of a specific technical problem which is in general followed by a numerical analysis and simulation, and results of an implementation for the solution of a real world problem.

The presented theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines will be useful for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and for practitioners solving industrial problems.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Control and Automation

Frontmatter

Rational Use of Primary Energy in Single-Family Residential Houses

This work presents results of the primary energy use for heating residential single-family house. Analysis includes domestic hot water system (DHW) and heating, ventilation and air condition system (HVAC). During researches the conventional and alternative energy sources (natural gas, biomass, fuel oil, bituminous coal, lignite, or electric energy obtained from electric power system – EPS) were used in DHW and HVAC systems. Furthermore in the article, the analysis of sulfur dioxide emission to the atmosphere during energetic combustion of energy source was performed.

Dominik Ambroziak, Łukasz Skarbek, Piotr M. Tojza, Jacek Jaworski, Dawid Gradolewski, Grzegorz Redlarski

Determination of Jiles-Atherton Model Parameters Using Differential Evolution

Effective and robust method of determination of Jiles-Atherton model’s parameters is one of the most significant problem connected with magnetic hysteresis loop modelling. Parameters of this model are determined during the optimisation process targeting experimental results of hysteresis loop measurements. However, due to appearance of local minima, the cognitive methods have to be applied. One of the most common method are evolutionary strategies. On the other hand, typical evolutionary strategies, such as

μ

 + 

λ

are expensive from the point of view of calculation time. To overcome this problem, differential evolution was applied. As a result, the calculation time for determination of Jiles-Atherton model’s parameters was significantly reduced.

Rafał Biedrzycki, Roman Szewczyk, Peter Švec, Wojciech Winiarski

The Application of Microcontrollers Diagnostic System for Evaluation of Stirling Engine

The article presents the microcontroller system for diagnostic and evaluation of the Stirling engine performance. For this purpose the model for the prototype engine analysis has been developed, to present the engine’s improved benchmarking results. The most relevant objective in this respect was to achieve a uniform heat transfer across each tube of the hot gas heat exchanger. The functioning of this engine has been analyzed with the aim to find and optimize the main working parameters. To obtain this goal the Stirling engine has been equipped with different kinds of electronic sensors. A microcontroller testing circuit has been designed, which uses the acquisition of data from the data module. One of the important tasks of testing a Stirling engine is to present a model, which is able to represent the dynamics involved in all essential processes of the engine.

Bohdan Borowik, Barbara Borowik, Igor P. Kurytnik

Simulation Model of PEM Fuel Cell Operating at Hydrogen and Oxygen

Effective control of a fuel cell requires a proper mathematical model. Plenty of completely described models of PEM fuel cells operating on hydrogen and air are to be found in the literature. However, there is a lack of the models for the PEM fuel cells operating on pure hydrogen and oxygen. The paper proposes a static model of such an energy source. Parameters of the model are determined by the Genetic Algorithms using experimental data gathered during operation of the real hydrogen/oxygen PEM fuel cells stack.

Jerzy Garus, Adam Polak

Development of Wireless Passive Sensing Platform – Communication Issues

This paper presents a concept and investigations on wireless sensing platform utilizing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. The platform should serve as a completely passive wireless communication interface between any connected sensor (strain gauge, accelerometer, pressure sensor) and standard RFID reader. Entire energy needed for powering is delivered via magnetic coupling between the reader and a planar coil antenna, which is one of the platform parts. The same electromagnetic signal serves for communication and data acquisition based on backscattering technique. Designed platform could be used in many applications, especially in structural health monitoring (SHM) and for advanced diagnostic purposes. Scope of the parts of investigations presented in this work was acceleration of data rate between the platform and the reader. Efficient data transfer is the primary problem in many potential applications. By improvement of communication and data storage algorithms, as well as testing of different types of RFID readers, we achieve effective data rate on the level of 18 Kbit/s. By meaning of the effective data rate, it is defined data stored from sensor on EEPROM memory, not only UID, that is transferred in typical RFID systems.

Przemysław Gonek, Mateusz Lisowski, Tadeusz Uhl

Value of the Internet of Things for the Industry – An Overview

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a concept according to which uniquely identifiable things can indirectly or directly collect, process or exchange data via Wide Area Network – the Internet. Recently this concept has become a hot topic in science and resulted in multiple new technology developments. There is however also a lot of ambiguity surrounding the topic, which leads to questions if the IoT is a fad or a profound phenomenon. This article aims at answering the question about the value of the IoT idea for the industry. Academic definition of the concept is presented, global standardization initiatives reviewed, and a short survey of key technologies made. Then several existing and prospective applications involving the Internet of Things technologies are analyzed to determine values of this phenomenon from the point of view of the Industry understood as production of goods and services. Business models enabled or supported by the Internet of Things are also briefly described. It is concluded that there is substance in the IoT idea and the Industry can benefit from its adoption.

Małgorzata Kaliczyńska, Przemysław Dąbek

Programming and Computer Simulation of an Experimental Station for Automatic Launching of Badminton Shuttlecocks

The aim of this work is to construct and program an experimental station for an automatic launching of badminton shuttlecocks. The station should operate as a prototype device used to help badminton players improve their training, provide recurrence and precision of various badminton shots. It extends certain knowledge in the field of programming of microcontrollers. The system of automatic launching of shuttlecocks has been designed and started by running two speed-controlled DC motors driving a spinning aluminum rings. In order to build the appropriate system a stepper motor based gripper has been applied to pull out all shuttlecocks from a tube. The control system of the designed device is based on a C program that has been implemented on a microcontroller. The speed, scope and frequency of shots are adjustable regarding to the player’s requirements and abilities. In order to widen the station’s applicability, the additional remote control system was incorporated into the control unit. The investigations performed with the station were focused on numerical simulations and basic experimental verification of the expected trajectory.

Jerzy Karamuz, Paweł Olejnik, Jan Awrejcewicz

Experimental Investigations of Stability in a Hybrid Stepper Motor

In our investigations we analyze the dynamics of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor. Its behavior is governed by a system of four non-linear ordinary differential equations. We focus on the instability phenomena occurring during the operation of the device at different frequency intervals. Such instabilities can lead to a loss of synchronism and consequently to motor’s failure. The dynamics of a realistic system driven by a stepper motor is analyzed experimentally using a phase current sensing method in order to understand the dynamical processes governing the instability phenomena. The applied measuring system allowed to acquire a number of phase plots showing the behavior of the system at different angular velocities. Results indicate that qualitative change is phase plots is correlated with the loss of motor stability.

Radosław Kępiński, Jan Awrejcewicz, Donat Lewandowski, Jakub Gajek

Influence of the Controller Settings on the Behaviour of the Hydraulic Servo Drive

The article presents the influence of the position loop gain setting on the position error values of the hydraulic servo drive. Results of the experimental tests have also been compared with the analytically determined gain values. For the tests, servo cylinder has been loaded with the active force of 2500 N, pointed in the direction opposite to the direction of piston rod extension. The result of the experimental tests was the discovery that the accuracy and stability of the servo drive positioning depends not only on the value of K

v

factor, but is also influenced by the direction of the active force loading the servo cylinder. In the tested hydraulic servo drive (hydraulic axis controller), the Compax3F controller by Parker Hannifin was used.

Klaudiusz Klarecki, Dominik Rabsztyn, Mariusz Piotr Hetmańczyk

Intelligent Monitoring and Optimization of Micro- and Nano-Machining Processes

The article describes an innovative concept of intelligent systems for monitoring and optimization of micro- and nano-machining processes, which are equipped with a speech interface and artificial intelligence. The developed concept proposes an architecture of the systems equipped with a data analysis layer, process supervision layer, decision layer, communication subsystem by speech and natural language, and visual communication subsystem using voice descriptions. The implemented computational intelligence methods allow for real-time data analysis of monitored processes, configuration of the system, process supervision and optimization based on the process features and quality models. The modern concept allows for the development of universal and intelligent systems which are independent of a type of manufacturing process, machining parameters and conditions.

Dariusz Lipiński, Maciej Majewski

Analog Electronic Test Board for an Estimation of Time Characteristics of the Basic Elements of Automatic Control Systems

This work presents the design and implementation of an analog electronic test board (AETB) for determining the time characteristics of basic elements of automatic control systems. Test signals are formed to study time responses of open and closed-loop basic control systems. In the practical part, a laboratory test board was designed and manufactured. Electronic components have been installed on a PCB prototype and the whole system has been enclosed in a polycarbonate box containing BNC junctions to connect it with an external oscilloscope. The device has been divided into functional blocks such as power supply, signal generator and a system containing basic elements of automation. Moreover, parameters of both the generator and the basic elements are tunable. By using the AETB test board, it is possible to analyze properties of the PID controllers as well as the first and second-order basic elements. In the preliminary stage of the design, numerical simulations allowed to choose proper values of most electronic components. Finally, a few waveforms were examined on the oscilloscope to make a comparison with the simulation results.

Paweł Olejnik, Damian Kociak, Jan Awrejcewicz

Improved Control System of PM Machine with Extended Field Control Capability for EV Drive

The paper presents novel concept of prototyping, analysis and optimization of an Electric Controlled Permanent Magnet Excited Synchronous Machine (ECPMSM) drive with a field weakening capability for electric vehicle (EV). Operation modes, features, characteristics, FEA and analytical results, improved control system of the machine, and schematic diagram of EV central drive system with ECPMSM machine were also presented.

Piotr Paplicki, Rafał Piotuch

The Positioning of Systems Powered by McKibben Type Muscles

In this paper a continuous control of the mechanical system positioning, powered by a pneumatic actuators (McKibben type muscles) is presented. The control system consists of appropriate sensors which allows to monitor the values of the characteristic parameters, i.e. displacement and pressure. Moreover, throttle valve controlled by stepper motor is used as regulated elements. Measured signals (displacement of the actuator and the load, calculated indirectly) provide feedback loop to the control system which operate the throttle valves. Proposed system, build of one valve (actuated by stepper motor), McKibben muscle, air compressor and electronic compartments allows for continuous control of the air flow, variable speed of shortening or stretching of artificial muscle and its smooth stop at the desired (set) position. Data acquisition system, used for measuring the characteristic parameters and for valve operation support is realized by an universal measurement and control multimodule in addition to the LabVIEW software package.

Wiktor Parandyk, Michał Ludwicki, Bartłomiej Zagrodny, Jan Awrejcewicz

Solenoid Actuator for a Camless Control System of the Piston Engine Valve

Simulation and experimental results of a camless valve control system for the piston engine are presented. The valve is designed to be used as a bleed valve for an additional energy recuperation system. The use of electromagnetic and not mechanical actuator follows from the need to close and open the valve on demand. The electromagnetic valve control allows for valve opening and closing independently of the engine cycle.

Eliza Tkacz, Zbigniew Kozanecki, Jakub Łagodziński

Controller Tuning Method by Shaping Its Output Step Response

Paper presents new method of PID controller tuning, focusing on controller output stability, in opposite to standard error minimization. Presented algorithm precisely calculate PID controller parameters by giving on its input the estimated linear model of the system, and desired time constant of the first order model step response, from the process disturbance input to the controller output. Thanks to this method stable controller output value can be achieved in a minimum amount of time. In addition, an example of the algorithm execution for identified model of a real system was shown. Unfortunately, at this moment algorithmic controller tuning work only for second order non-oscillating model of process and first order model of step response. In the future it is planned to extend this method on processes described by means of other transfer functions.

Robert Ugodziński, Roman Szewczyk

Vector Faxing System

The vector faxing system based on USB fax modems is presented. The system was implemented and made available to users. In the adopted approach, a vector of USB modems does replace solutions based on standalone fax machines, large size of which significantly hampers the construction of a multiple line faxing system in the PSTN environment (Public Switched Telephone Network) – necessary for the effective functioning of a large company. The abstract control model ACM, adopted in the USB hosts which supports analog modem hardware (including USB fax modem devices), is analyzed. It should be emphasized that explicit discussions of the method of mapping telephone lines to – randomly activated during startup of the fax server – USB fax modems, and of the mechanism for assigning user access rights to designated fax modems, are included. Use of the described system increases immunity to threats such as spam, computer viruses, spoofing, or redirecting to fake websites (phishing). The user communicates with the faxing system by the Winprint HylaFax+ Reloaded client.

Marian Wrzesień, Piotr Ryszawa

Robotics

Frontmatter

Personal Lower Limb Rehabilitation Robot for Children

The article describes the process of developing a concept, design and building a working lower limb rehabilitation device with comparison to other existing systems. The described robot was designed primarily for rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy (and other illnesses that need constant, long term rehabilitation).

Mariusz Giergiel, Aleksander Budziński, Grzegorz Piątek, Michał Wacławski

Some Problems of Navigation System for Criminalistic Robot

In the paper authors presented some results of development of navigation system for criminalistic robot. Robot destination is to support police officers during forensic activities in the buildings when we have potential CBRN hazards. Robot is remotely controlled based on visual cameras observation but it has also autonomous navigation system. The robot is at the beginning of police action carry out hazard identification and, if they occur robot perform forensic activities. As part of its tasks is to make a photographic documentation of the event. This involves the registration status of the room a special 3D camera and take pictures of individual items and disclosed fingerprints. Then taken are indicated by the operator or the entire sample items. Charges are also forensic traces of biological and existing on-site chemicals substances. Robot should be able to perform most of the tasks normally performed by police forensic technicians. Big problem is when during forensic activities operator lost communications with the robot. By the existing on place CBRN hazards man can’t enter the building where robot is lost. At this moment start work system of autonomy. Robot must return the same way how it arrive till the moment when operator will get communication with them again. The paper presents the autonomous control system that was created for visual navigation for police robot. The algorithm implemented on the platform already been simulated and tested in MATLAB/Simulink. The article presents the results of running the robot with the new algorithm.

Robert Głębocki, Antoni Kopyt, Paweł Kicman

Neural Network Control of a Four-Wheeled Mobile Robot Subject to Wheel Slip

The paper presents design of a control structure that enables integration of a kinematic and a neural network controller for a four-wheeled mobile robot subject to wheels slip. The controller is proposed to make the actual velocity of the wheeled mobile robot reach the desired velocity, although the wheeled mobile robot is even with system uncertainties and disturbances. The proposed tracking control system consists of: the kinematic and proportional controller, the neural approximated term and robust term derived from the stability analysis carried out using Lyapunov stability theorem. The proposed control system works on-line, weights adaptation is realized in every discrete step of the control process, and a preliminary learning phase of neural networks weights is not required. Computer simulation was conducted to illustrate performance of the control system.

Zenon Hendzel, Maciej Trojnacki

Advanced Task Tracking Control Design for Robotic-Like Systems

The paper presents an advanced control design platform for tracking predefined tasks for a class of servicing systems referred to as robotic-like. A common feature of these ground, space or underwater systems is that they are designed to perform a variety of tasks and missions, so they all can be viewed as constrained systems. The control platform takes advantage of model-based control for constrained systems, either on a dynamics or kinematics level. The models are control-oriented what means that they account for tasks to be controlled and all other constraints put on systems or controller properties. The control platform is a fusion of an advanced modeling method for constrained systems and a new control strategy for tracking predefined tasks. It outperforms existing control methods since constraints on systems may be of an arbitrary order and type, and a constrained dynamics is in a reduced-state form, so it is ready for a controller design. A control implementation may rely upon embedded robotics which provides small and inexpensive embedded computer systems for control execution. The control design conforms then to modern mechatronics solutions that enable realizations of sophisticated control algorithms. Examples of controller designs for robotic-like systems and the control platform comparison to the traditional, Lagrange model-based method are presented.

Elżbieta Jarzębowska

Exploration Mobile Robot, Project and Prototype

The following paper discusses a project of a mobile robot for exploration purposes. The robot’s goal is to inspect ambient conditions in places that are unavailable for a human being on account of their location, narrowness or possible danger. The robot needs to be equipped with a wireless video camera (rotated remotely in two axes to provide full visibility) in order to inspect such places. The algorithm controlling the robot includes two operation modes: manual mode, where the robot is controlled remotely by a human operator, and autonomous mode, where the robot has to reach a predefined point avoiding obstacles on the way. Autonomous mode algorithm demonstrates the robot’s capability to work without any operator’s supervision. The final step of the project, making a fully functional prototype, included building the robot, equipping it with a control system platform and uploading a program consistent with previously developed algorithm.

Waldemar Mucha, Wacław Kuś

Determination of Motion Parameters with Inertial Measurement Units – Part 1: Mathematical Formulation of the Algorithm

The paper tackles the problem of determination of motion parameters of a wheeled mobile robot using the inertial measurement method. By the motion parameters one means: positions, linear velocities and accelerations of characteristic points of the robot, as well as Euler angles and angular velocity and acceleration of a robot body. Existing methods of determination of robot motion parameters, including the inertial method, the satellite navigation method and hybrid methods, are briefly discussed. The method of determination of motion parameters of a wheeled mobile robot with Inertial Measurement Units is described in details. It involves measurement of three components of acceleration of a selected point on the robot using a three-axial accelerometer and three components of angular velocity of the robot body using a three-axial gyroscope. Desired motion parameters are obtained as a result of differentiation, integration and other mathematical transformations. It was assumed that most of the analyzed motion parameters are calculated both in the coordinate system associated with the robot (moving) and in the reference coordinate system (stationary). The presented method is simple, but enables measurement of wide range of 3D motions, and as such it can be used as a benchmark for advanced algorithms of determination of motion parameters. In the Part 2 of this article, the proposed measurement method is verified in empirical experiments with a wheeled mobile robot using the Inertial Measurement Unit based on low-cost MEMS sensors.

Maciej Trojnacki, Przemysław Dąbek

Determination of Motion Parameters with Inertial Measurement Units – Part 2: Algorithm Verification with a Four-Wheeled Mobile Robot and Low-Cost MEMS Sensors

The paper is concerned with the problem of determination of motion parameters of a wheeled mobile robot using the inertial measurement method. The algorithm proposed in Part 1 of the article is verified in empirical experiments with a four-wheeled mobile robot PIAP SCOUT. Main design features of the robot are presented. The measurement and control system is described in details. The measurement system is based on a low-cost MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit. Selected results of empirical experiments are shown and thoroughly discussed. Performance of the algorithm with the low-cost sensors is evaluated. It is concluded that the presented simple method enables determination of unknown motion parameters, especially in applications where only short duration of experiments is required. Quality of the obtained results, however, shows scope for improvement. The weakest point of the measurement system are unreliable changes of the Euler angles obtained from the low-cost MEMS gyroscopes.

Maciej Trojnacki, Przemysław Dąbek

Synchronized Trajectory Tracking Control of 3-DoF Hydraulic Translational Parallel Manipulator

The paper deals with a cross-coupled control approach to the spatial 3-DoF hydraulic translational parallel manipulator. The control system of the cross-coupling control (CCC) has been proposed in order to reduce the contour error for three electro-hydraulic axes. Control of the manipulator takes into account not only the position errors for each drive axis but also synchronization errors of neighboring axes. Cascade control system with inner and outer loop was proposed. Decentralized tracking system allows to adjust the trajectory of disturbances in the internal loops it is based on the defined synchronization of errors for each axis drive. There was specified the synchronization function for the control system which takes account of the errors positioning of each axis. The experiments were performed on a prototype parallel manipulator (3-DoF). The prototype hydraulic manipulator consists of a fixed base and a moving platform, that are connected by the joints with three hydraulic linear axes. They demonstrated improvement in the positioning accuracy of the movement of end effector manipulator. The aim of the research was to examine the effectiveness of synchronous control method with a simplified structure of the control system for the electro-hydraulic manipulator both theoretically and experimentally.

Piotr Wos, Ryszard Dindorf

Measuring Techniques and Systems

Frontmatter

Wireless Temperature Measurement System Based on the IQRF Platform

This paper presents model of wireless, distributed temperature measurement system based on the IQRF platform using IQMESH protocol, which allows to build a small-sized monitoring system with sufficient RF and metrological parameters for most of the industrial applications. Main elements of the system are IQRF TR-52D transceiver modules and 1-Wire Digital Thermometer Maxim DS18S20 running in parasitic power mode. In addition, the paper contains results of the model test carried out in industrial conditions, which confirms efficiency of the developed system.

Piotr Bazydło, Szymon Dąbrowski, Roman Szewczyk

Arm EMG Wavelet-Based Denoising System

These paper presents research results of muscle EMG signal denoising. In the same time two muscles were examined - an adductor muscle

(biceps brachii)

and an abductor muscle

(tricpeps brachii)

. The EMG signal was filtered using the wavelet transform technique, having selected the crucial parameters as: wavelet basis function

(Daubechies 4)

, 10

th

decomposition level, threshold selection algorithm

(Heurestic)

and a sln rescaling function (based on scaled white noise). After denoising the signal, a short analysis of the outcome signal is performed. Such developed system has a wide application possibility, mainly in Mechatronic systems where it can be used for example in teleoperation of a robot arm, control signals for a prosthetic arm, biomedical signal filtering or in rehabilitation aiding robots.

Dawid Gradolewski, Piotr M. Tojza, Jacek Jaworski, Dominik Ambroziak, Grzegorz Redlarski, Marek Krawczuk

Assessment of Temperature Coefficient of Extremely Stable Resistors for Industrial Applications

The article presents the results of tests of the temperature characteristics of resistors with very low TCR and the lowest price in their class. The study was conducted in terms of their use as reference in the processing current voltage system in the magnetomechanic part of the analytical scale. However, they are also widely used in applications where the constant value of resistance in the whole measuring range is critical. The results not only confirm the usefulness of the tested resistors, but can also ensure significant cost reduction in many applications.

Andrzej Juś, Paweł Nowak, Roman Szewczyk, Michał Nowicki, Wojciech Winiarski, Weronika Radzikowska

Magnetoelastic Characteristics of Constructional Steel Materials

Paper presents the methodology and results of magnetoelastic characteristics investigation of three types of constructional steels. Investigated steels were formed into frame-shaped samples with both magnetizing and sensing windings coiled on their columns. Magnetic characteristics of materials were measured by computer controlled hysteresisgraph. In order to apply tensile stresses in material of the sample, special force reversing system was used. The tested samples and the procedure of their investigation were described. Obtained results were processed and presented in the paper as charts, which were analyzed and discussed. On the basis of the results, the conclusions were formulated, which are also included in the paper.

Maciej Kachniarz, Dorota Jackiewicz, Michał Nowicki, Adam Bieńkowski, Roman Szewczyk, Wojciech Winiarski

Sensor Fusion Based Tool-Workpiece Contact Detection in Micro-Milling

Information about distance between tool and workpiece is crucial for proper machining process. In micro-milling, due to very small tool dimensions, observation of the tool position with regard to the workpiece is possible only with a microscope. Exploiting of different signals obtained during micro-milling process in establishing the tool-workpiece contact moment is an interesting and efficient way of improving accuracy of this activity. Data from sensors contain material that could be an large source of diagnostic information, which might be helpful from different points of view. This paper presents a method for detecting a contact between a tool and a workpiece based on a fusion of the data representing the cutting forces and the accelerations. A digital signal processing algorithm introduced in this research, basing on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the Root Mean Square (RMS) calculations give positive results in field of the tool-workpiece contact detection and stands an alternative for commonly used techniques exploiting microscopes with large magnification. The method is designed to work in real-time in order to be used in practical industrial applications and satisfy demands regarding the automatic tool-workpiece contact detection.

Marcin Matuszak, Paweł Waszczuk

Kinematic Analysis of the Finger Exoskeleton Movement in Distal and Proximal Interphalangeal Joints

Hand fingers have a high chance for injury during everyday life. Recovery of injured fingers is realized by physiotherapists, which manually conduct exercises. To help in therapy researchers are constantly inventing new methods of applying mechanical devices in the rehabilitation process. Actually there are conducted many studies of passive and active exoskeletons. Properly designed exoskeleton can help in movement and rehabilitation of paralyzed or not fully functional part of human body. It can be used also to increase human movement capabilities. This paper is a continuation of previously presented kinematic analysis of finger exoskeleton design which is based on three-link subsystem and one finger-leading link. In actual system the finger leading link is replaced by an exoskeleton that allows movement in distal and proximal interphalangeal finger joints. The main advantage of proposed design is that during operation finger is fully supported by the exoskeleton and there are no additional loads applied on its joints. The actually presented part of the full finger exoskeleton can be analyzed as an individual mechanism because in natural system the finger movement in metacarpophalangeal joint is realized separately in comparison to the movement in distal and proximal interphalangeal joints. The kinematic data are needed for the next step of design process, which define the dynamic forces acting in the system. This will allow the selection of actuators and proper design of all exoskeleton mechanical parts that will be used in a real life model.

Krzysztof Nasiłowski, Jan Awrejcewicz, Donat Lewandowski

Resistance of MAX 6325 Reference Voltage Source on Supply Voltage Variation

The article presents the problem of reference voltage sources based on Zener diode resistance to changes in power supply. The test stand, measurement methodology and results are presented. Reference voltage sources are crucial elements of analog-to-digital systems. They set the standard to which the measured voltage is compared to. Therefore, the stability of their work is critical for many areas of precision metrology.

Paweł Nowak, Andrzej Juś, Roman Szewczyk, Michał Nowicki, Wojciech Winiarski

Test Stand for Temperature Characteristics of Ultra-Precise Resistors

Paper presents the test stand, measurement methodology and exemplary results of measurements of thermal characteristics of ultra-precise resistors. Precise resistors are commonly used, as current-voltage converters or in precise current sources. Electric circuits are supposed to work in wide range of temperatures, which can change the resistance value, and thus be a source of unacceptable measurement error. Therefore it is important for designers and constructors to select the most temperature-stable resistors. The presented test stand is a reliable source of data about resistors temperature coefficients, with accuracy of 0.05 ppm/ºC.

Paweł Nowak, Andrzej Juś, Roman Szewczyk, Rafał Pijarski, Michał Nowicki, Wojciech Winiarski

Magnetovision Scanner System Investigation of Magnetic Field Disturbance Sources

Paper presents the methodology and results of magnetovision scanner system investigation of magnetic field disturbance sources. Special measurement test stand, utilizing magnetovision scanner and tri-axial Helmholtz coils was designed and built. The measurements of the homogenous magnetic field distortions caused by various ferromagnetic objects were carried out. The magnetic permeability related distortion effect was investigated. The ability for passive detection of ferromagnetic objects and determine their location was demonstrated.

Michał Nowicki, Roman Szewczyk

Analysis of Vibration of Rotors in Unmanned Aircraft

In the paper, solution of the problem of vibrations which appears during the maneuvers of quadrocopters is presented. Those special kinds of vibration aren’t related to mounting or manufacturing faults. In this kinds of flying machines the main sources of vibration comes from motors and/or propellers unbalance. The paper shows analytical description of the source of this problem. Mathematical description of rotor which was subjected of additional rotation had been modeled in MATLAB/Simulink environment. It was shown, that correct set of parameters lead to total elimination of this kind of vibration.

Stanisław Radkowski, Przemysław Szulim

Non-destructive Testing of Cylindrical Ferromagnetic and Non-magnetic Materials Using Eddy Current Tomography

Idea of the high-resolution eddy current tomography is presented. Proposed system gives possibility of cylinder-shaped elements made of both magnetic and non-magnetic materials testing. To validate the concept, the tomographic measurements were carried out on set of steel cylinders with non-magnetic copper inclusion. Measurements were done during both linear and rotational movement of the element. Achieved results indicate the high sensitivity of system, which creates possibility of its application for non-destructive testing of the elements made of ferromagnetic and non-magnetic materials.

Jacek Salach

Preparation, Processing and Selected Properties of Modern Melt-Quenched Alloys

Rapidly quenched amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys in form of thin ribbons are for several decades already among traditional materials used in construction, biomedical, catalytic and mainly electromagnetic applications. These alloys exhibit excellent properties tunable by a wide range of tools – compositional optimization, pre-preparation and post-preparation processing. The contribution focuses on recent technologies of preparation of metallic glasses with enhanced thickness and consisting of different alloy layers. Specific processing aspects to optimize the desired properties are presented. Attention is given also to possibilities of using these materials for power electronics, sensors, actuators and mechanical construction elements.

Peter Švec, Juraj Zigo, Michał Nowicki, Dorota Jackiewicz, Marek Franko, Marek Hamela, Wojciech Winiarski, Roman Szewczyk, Ivan Skorvanek, Peter Švec

Platform Supporting the Esophageal Impedance Analysis

The esophageal pH-impedance examination is one of the most popular diagnostic methods for identifying the upper gastrointestinal tract’s diseases. Inconclusive test evaluation criteria makes it difficult to state the definite diagnosis. In this paper, the computer platform supporting the research and teaching process in the area of pH-impedance analysis is presented. Users, having a variety of mathematical and statistical methods at their disposition, have the opportunity to study and search for new methods of the impedance courses evaluation, which could translate into a significant broadening of knowledge in the field of esophageal impedance analysis. This could lead to acceleration and improvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract diseases diagnosing process.

Piotr M. Tojza, Jacek Jaworski, Dawid Gradolewski, Grzegorz Redlarski

Application of Eddy Current Sensor System and LDV Device for Ultrasonic Vibrations Measurements

The article presents eddy current sensor system in respect to the measurements of vibrations for ultrasonic assisted machining processes. The comparison of eddy current sensor system with laser doppler vibrometer (LDV device) is also presented. The paper concerns the analysis of the influence of the distance between the tool and the sensor on amplitude value, filtering of raw voltage signals in MATLAB and amplitude values presentation for different tools after MATLAB and LDV software analysis. Functionality of two applied devices can be discussed after investigations. Differences in recorded amplitude’s values are also discussed. The examples of measurements and test stand configuration are presented. For better understanding of hybrid machining process, it is important to indicate the possible methods of amplitude measurements and to analyze the results of measurements.

Roman Wdowik, Piotr Nazarko, Janusz Porzycki

Moving Object Detection and Localization Using Stereo Vision System

The aim of this study was to design an moving object detection and localization algorithm able to detect and localize especially humans, vehicles and planes. We focused on classical methods for cameras calibration and triangulation techniques to calculate the position of the detected objects in a stereo vision rig coordinates frame. Verification of a proper operation of the proposed algorithm was made by conducting series of experiments. Our results indicates that the algorithm detects objects accurately and the troublesome un-stationary background regions can be excluded from detection using the presented localization method.

Bogdan Żak, Stanisław Hożyń

Mechatronics

Frontmatter

Stress Analysis of Stiffened Cylindrical Shells Under a Static Load

The presented work contains the numerical strain analysis of a ribbed shell of a rotary drum with two riding rings rigidly fixed to the drum shell. In the first stage of the conducted research a numerical model of a cylindrical shell was built with two stiffening rings of dimensions corresponding to the common constructions used in chemistry or the cement industry. The boundary conditions were set according to the mentioned machines working conditions and the model was subjected to loads corresponding to real data. The correctness of the numerical model was verified by a comparison with the results obtained in analytical calculations. The Fursow method was used in the analytical method. In the next step the model had been extended to include the longitudinal ribs added within the drum around the perimeter of the cylindrical shell. The ribs work as lifting flights. The bulk material was lifted by the flights during the rotation of the drum allowing for convective heat exchange between the material intended for drying and the air inside the shell. The bulk material was treated as a rigid body and the cylindrical shell of the drum was analyzed under its dead load. The effect of temperature was omitted due to the fact, that the drying was carried out at the temperature not exceeding 80 °C, hence the variability of Young’s modulus was negligible. An analysis was performed with the use of numerical methods and commercial software ANSYS. The influence of the position of material loads on the stress and deformation reduction of the cylindrical shell and running ring was analyzed. As a result of the numerical simulations, the distribution of bending moments and the areas of greatest stress concentration and maximum strain were identified.

Paweł Biesiacki, Jan Awrejcewicz, Jerzy Mrozowski, Jacek Jankowski

Multiaxial Fatigue Test Stand Concept – Stand and Control Design

The paper presents the concept of fatigue test stand designed for multiaxial tests. The main advantage of the test stand is the possibility to perform fatigue tests under any combination of bending and torsional moments – from constant amplitude loading with different loading frequency, phase shifts and amplitudes ratio to advanced tests under random loading with programmable stochastic dependence between loading components. The stand consists of two vibration shakers used as the source of the load being implemented on two separate levers. The levers are transferring the load in the form of bending moments to the experimental test sample. New designed control system of the stand with the use of the LabVIEW software was prepared. Currently the control of the test stand is at the stage of an open loop control. The preliminary tests have been performed with constant sinus loads. The paper also presents a finite element analysis of the maximum available stress for the test samples being used in the stand.

Michał Böhm, Mateusz Kowalski, Adam Niesłony

Mechatronic Approach in Inspection of Water Supply Networks

The paper describes design process of the two inspection robots. Both are able to work in water environment. There is provided problem statement which cause need of designing robots and solution for it. The paper presents exemplary usage of the robots and sample results of inspection tasks. The inspection process and equipment can be different for each robot. Common assumption in design of both robots was versatility of the construction. Tank inspection robot can be set in two different configuration with two different inspection equipment. Pipe inspection robot has configurable construction of tracks arms which enables work in different conditions.

Tomasz Buratowski, Michał Ciszewski, Mariusz Giergiel, Mateusz Siatrak, Michał Wacławski

Artificial Intelligence in Integrated Diagnostics of the Rotating System with an Active Magnetic Bearing

An implemented and experimentally verified diagnostic system for the rotating mechatronic system of machines with an active magnetic bearing is presented. An additional module that controls the correctness of its operation, employing artificial intelligence methods, is proposed. The results of preliminary investigations which will allow for an expansion of the diagnostic pattern base necessary to develop of an expert advisory system are given.

Małgorzata Gizelska

The Modified Graph Search Algorithm Based on the Knowledge Dedicated for Prediction of the State of Mechatronic Systems

The modified shortest path algorithm dedicated for a condition prediction of distributed mechatronic systems is shown in this article. From many of available methods the Dijkstra’s algorithm has been selected. Assumed restrictions of the proposed method (graph models containing interrelated groups of failures, effects and their causes) forced the need regarding changes of the structure of applied algorithms and their adjusting to the adopted predictive model. The method for identification and transformation of the current condition in the source vertex of the graph of causes and effects has been also presented by the authors.

Mariusz Piotr Hetmańczyk, Jerzy Świder

Modeling and Simulation of the Hybrid Powertrain for the Use in Urban Vehicle

This paper presents the results of mathematical modeling and simulation involving vehicle properties designed with a simple parallel hybrid powertrain and a planetary gear for the use in buggy hybrid vehicle. This system consists of a planetary set and combines two power sources: combustion engine (ICE) and electric motor (EM). The powertrain consists of a simple planetary set and two additional gears with constant speed ratios. A wide range of transmission ratios is obtained due to various speed of electric motor which is directly connected to the sun gear in the planetary set. The model of the whole vehicle has been developed in MATLAB/Simulink environment. It describes the vehicle, internal combustion engine, electric motor and a planetary set.

Andrzej Lechowicz, Andrzej Augustynowicz

Mathematical Modeling and Parameters Identification of the Mechatronical System Used in the Constructed Hexapod Robot

We present both design and test results of the servodrive (electric motor and its control system) used in the constructed hexapod-type walking robot. We are aimed on the construction analysis of the servo, modeling and functioning of the electronic feedback action in the applied type of the engine. The carried out research also includes a block diagram presenting working scheme of the used servo. In particular, we describe a control method of eight servodrives using only one control signal. The obtained results present the relationship between the current used by the system and the value of a specified torque generated by each servodrive. We illustrate and discuss the accuracy of the positioning of the particular drive depending on the applied dynamic load. The obtained results supported by analysis of the gait of the biologically inspired six-legged walking robot (Geotrupes stercorarius) allow to preliminary determination of the average energy required to realize given robot tasks. In addition, the maximum speed and the permissible load for the gait of the hexapod as well as the repeatability of the individual steps performance during the movement of the robot are also estimated.

Bartosz Stańczyk, Jan Awrejcewicz

Backmatter

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