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Über dieses Buch

This book highlights scientific achievements in the key areas of sustainable electricity generation and green building technologies, as presented in the vital bi-annual World Renewable Energy Network’s Med Green Forum. Renewable energy applications in power generation and sustainable development have particular importance in the Mediterranean region, with its rich natural resources and conducive climate, making it a perfect showcase to illustrate the viability of using renewable energy to satisfy all energy needs. The papers included in this work describe enabling policies and offer pathways to further develop a broad range of renewable energy technologies and applications in all sectors – for electricity production, heating and cooling, agricultural applications, water desalination, industrial applications and for the transport sector.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Energy-Saving Solutions for Five Hospitals in Europe

This chapter is the result of a European research project developed by the University of Florence – Centro ABITA on adopting energy-saving strategies to reduce the annual energy demand in new and retrofitted hospital buildings. The research project, which is funded by the European Union, aims to apply energy-saving strategies, advanced technologies and plant solutions in five case studies in different climatic areas of Europe: Meyer Children’s Hospital in Italy, Fachkrankenhaus Nordfriesland Hospital in Germany, Torun City Hospital in Poland, Deventer Hospital in the Netherlands, and Aabenraa Hospital in Denmark. The research aims to demonstrate the significant opportunity to reduce energy demand in the European hospital sector, thereby contributing to a substantial reduction in CO2 emissions. The main goal is the integration of strategies for energy efficiency in the hospital sector, in compliance with current regulations, improving environmental quality and ecosystems and promoting sustainable management of natural resources. Innovative strategies for the integration of renewable energies in buildings are combined with bioclimatic design to improve building control and management, upgrading energy efficiency, thermal control and comfort, natural ventilation, and daylighting. Moreover, the use of photovoltaic modules, high-efficiency heat pumps, integration with surrounding green areas, and the use of vegetation inside buildings are explored as opportunities to both reduce energy demand and improve patient comfort. At the end of the project, the researchers provide an overview of the results achieved on indoor comfort, energy savings, and CO2 not emitted through the energy solutions adopted.

Marco Sala, Giuseppina Alcamo, Lucia Ceccherini Nelli

Chapter 2. Climate Adapted in NZEB Retrofitting for Residential Buildings

The climate-adapted residential nearly zero-energy building (NZEB) retrofitting project aims to update and upgrade the knowledge and competence of building designers (architects, civil engineers) as well as the specific skills of experienced building workers (site managers, craftsmen, and construction supervisors) who already have a decent background in sustainable energy solutions for the building sector gained by attending national Build Up Skills initiatives or related training. The overall objective is to increase the energy performance of European building stock as envisioned in EU Energy Efficiency Directive 2012/27/EU by supporting specific professional development through a broad roll-out of an integrated training model targeting both designers in the building sector and higher-level building workers, especially of SMEs. The training model will address, among the others, the management of the construction process and the active promotion of market uptake of cost-efficient, climate adapted Smart Retrofitting Solutions in order to reach NZEB standards in existing residential buildings.

Marco Sala, Lucia Ceccherini Nelli

Chapter 3. Sustainable Strategies for Protecting and Managing Cultural Heritages: The Case Study of Gonfienti in the Tuscany Region of Italy

Global warming has caused an unprecedented rise in sea levels as well as increased storm intensity. Both phenomena are responsible for an increase in flooding and erosion of many archaeological sites located on the coast, which constitute a weak interface between the hydrosphere, atmosphere, anthroposphere, and lithosphere. The present research project aims to develop a sustainable model for safeguarding archaeological sites from the adverse effects of climate change and environmental degradation. In addition, by implementing site-specific planning and design based on ecological, bioclimatic, and energy-efficient strategies and techniques, sustainable preservation and enhancement of cultural heritage sites can be achieved to increase sitings and accessibility to sites.The main objectives of the project are as follows:Investigate the impact and damage inflicted on archaeological sites by climate change and the risks and hazards of further deterioration;Analyze local climatic conditions and evaluate and use free energy systems available at archaeological sites while at the same time respecting the cultural character of locations.Improve visitors’ experience by creating a pleasant and comfortable sightseeing environment.Rehabilitate select archaeological sites in a holistic approach by protecting, defining, and upgrading sites through advanced planning and design solutions.The project will establish a comprehensive state of the art of archaeological sites and spaces in the Mediterranean region. It will select three pilot site studies, one in each participating country—Italy, Cyprus, and France—for the ultimate aim of establishing sustainable preservation and cultural enhancement of the archaeological sites to the benefit of society.

Marco Sala, Giuseppina Alcamo, Lucia Ceccherini Nelli

Chapter 4. Buildings’ Energy Flexibility: A Bottom-Up, Multiagent, User-Based Approach to System Integration of Energy Infrastructures to Support the Smart Grid

Using the flexibility within energy generation, distribution infrastructure, renewable energy sources, and the built environment is the ultimate sustainable strategy within the built environment. However, at the moment this flexibility on the building level has yet to be defined. The new IEA Annex 67 is just starting to define this specific flexibility. Our research is aimed at developing, implementing, and evaluating new process control strategies for improving the energy interaction within a building, its environment, and the energy infrastructure by effectively incorporating occupant needs for health (ventilation) and comfort heating/cooling. An integral approach based on general systems theory is used that divides the whole system into different layers from user up to centralized power generation. A bottom-up approach, starting from the user up to the smart grid, offers new possibilities for buildings’ energy flexibility. To make use of the dynamic possibilities offered by the flexibility, new intelligent process control concepts are necessary. Multiagent systems, in combination with building energy management systems, can offer the required additional functionalities. The approach is tested in a case-study building.

Wim Zeiler, Timilehin Labeodan, Kennedy Aduda, Gert Boxem

Chapter 5. Influence Effect of Energy Roof on PV Efficiency: A Case Study

Increasingly there is a need for high-performance (sustainable) buildings. Even in a country with as little solar radiation as the Netherlands, the application of so-called solar energy roofs is becoming more popular. Already some different concepts exist, and one of the latest developments is the use of the roof as combined solar thermal collector and photovoltaic (PV) laminate. This chapter presents the results of research on the energy roof of a school in the Netherlands. The school was designed as an energy-plus school, and the energy roof, in combination with the PV laminate, plays a significant role in this project. The aim of this research was to determine the added value of the combined concept of PV and thermal collector in the total performance of the energy roof. It was expected that cooling of the PV laminate would have a positive effect on the electrical efficiency of this PV as the thermal collector absorbed heat from the overlying PV laminate. The producers of the PV laminate claim it has higher efficiencies. This claim was examined by studying the correlation of efficiency and the thermal gain of the roof in three different situations. The results showed no clear positive effect of the energy roof on the average efficiency of the PV laminate.

Paul Kemme, Wim Zeiler

Chapter 6. Green Buildings and Renewable Energy Application Based on Life Cycle Performance Costing

There is a clear need for more sustainable, more productive solutions within the built environment. However, at the moment, the initial investment costs for applying new renewable energy sources and solutions to green buildings with better indoor air quality are higher than for traditional solutions. Because there is often a fixation on primary investment costs, it is important to use life cycle costing models to show clients which alternative is ultimately the best choice. Unfortunately, currently there are no good and simple tools available to use in the early stage of the design process. A life cycle performance costing decision support tool was developed to assess conceptual design decision making. The tool shows the value of more sustainable, healthier, and more productive solutions over the long term and so stimulates the application of these solutions. Because investment costs are important but profits are even more so for organizations, performance/productivity was added as a key element to the Life cycle value costing approach. An example of a design project is presented to demonstrate the added value of comparing alternative solutions based on the life cycle value costing outcomes of different building service designs for green buildings and the application of renewable energy.

Wim Zeiler, Anna Vanderveen, Wim Maassen, Rik Maaijen

Chapter 7. A Comparative Study Between Photovoltaic Pumping Systems Using a Permanent Magnet DC Motor and an Induction Motor

The solar power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic (PV) applications. This chapter presents a comparative study of a PV pumping system driven by a permanent magnet DC motor and one driven by an AC motor. The studied system consists of a PV array, a DC–DC boost converter, an inverter, a motor–pump set, and a storage tank. In addition, we use a maximum power point tracking algorithm to improve the efficiency of the PV system. The comparison was carried out to define the characteristics and the performance of each system. Each subsystem is modeled to simulate the whole system in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained from the simulation of the system are satisfactory.

S. Abdourraziq, R. El Bachtiri

Chapter 8. Development of a Design of a Drop‐In Hydrogen Fueling Station to Support the Early Market Buildout of Hydrogen Infrastructure: Topic-9

This chapter provides a design of a drop-in hydrogen fueling station. Drop-in stations are expected to be an important factor in the introduction of hydrogen fueling infrastructure. The stations not only allow a streamlined introduction of hydrogen in the vehicle fueling infrastructure but also act as mini pilot plants that can allow for detailed control studies. The effect of the location and availability of utilities, the closeness of stations to residential areas, safety concerns, general attitudes toward hydrogen, and others are some of the issues that arise with such drop-in stations. The proposed design of a drop-in station mainly considers off-the-shelf items and is conceptualized to be implemented at the Missouri University of Science and Technology. The modular design approach, with the off-the-shelf items, allows for a design with the capacity for mass production and an ease in transport and integration.

Abdulhakim Agll, Tarek Hamad, Sushrut G. Bapat, Yousif Hamad, John W. Sheffield

Chapter 9. Sustainability of Higher Educational Buildings: Retrofitting Measures to Enhance Energy Performance—The Case of AASTMT Business Management School Building, Egypt

Buildings compose the highest portion of global CO2 emissions from different sectors (approximately 5.5 Gt CO2-eq.). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Egypt is among those nations that will be heavily affected by the impact of climate change, even though its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions represent only 1 % of the world’s GHG emissions. Electricity consumption in public buildings, including administrative, educational, and healthcare-related buildings, is 9 % – the second largest category after residential buildings at 40 %. Enhancing energy performance in higher education and residential buildings will have a significant impact on the reduction of electrical energy consumption, resource efficiency, and the nation’s energy footprint. Energy consumption in educational buildings depends on activities, time of use, and influx of visitors, students, and academic staff, as well as the academic term, that is, winter or summer. Retrofitting measures are important for reducing energy consumption in higher educational buildings and cooling requirements in a hot climate. The most important measures in the retrofitting process of the building envelope, including its roof, are mainly the glazing type and characteristics and the thermal insulation of walls. This chapter focuses on sustainability measures of the Business Management School building at the Arab Academy of Science, Technology & Maritime Transport campus in Cairo, Egypt. The objective is to set a baseline assessment of the building’s energy use and compare it with energy performance after retrofitting measures and simulations. This includes upgrading the glazing with a shading coefficient from 0.81 to 0.35, a wall thermal insulation of the building’s envelope from 4.8 to 1.15 W/Km2, and a green roof. Results show that applying these retrofitting measures led to a reduction in energy use by 27 % from the baseline average energy use of 14.6 kWh/m2 yearly and was further reduced to 495 kWh when a green roof with a U-value of 0.14 W/m2 K was applied.

Mohsen Aboulnaga, Ayman Wanas, Mohamed Hammad, Mohamed Hussein

Chapter 10. Effectiveness of Thermal Inertia in South Mediterranean Climate: Residential Houses

This research focuses on annual energy demand, indoor comfort during the summer period and indoor temperature in residential family houses. Buildings in a South Mediterranean climate differ only with respect to building technology: one house may be ‘massive’, the other ‘light’. Simulation has been done using the well-known building simulation program ESP-r from the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, UK.The research is organised into three stages. In the first stage of the research, models are compared during the summer period assuming residential houses are naturally ventilated and have no cooling system. An investigation searches for a sufficient ventilation strategy able to avoid overheating during occupancy hours. The results of this stage are related to the internal dry-bulb temperature, resultant temperature, temperatures of inside surfaces, air changes per hour, Predicted Mean Vote values and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied values. In the second part of the research, the annual energy demand is investigated assuming the utilisation of a cooling system in summer and a heating system during winter. In the third part, two similar insulation materials with different density values are compared.

Giuseppina Alcamo

Chapter 11. Thermal Habitability Monitoring in Housing for Low-Income Families in Extreme Warm, Dry Weather

As of 2002, government policies regarding housing promoted mass construction and focused on housing for low-income families. In cities with hot-dry weather extremes, such as Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico, these types of houses cause problems related to the housing’s physical dimensions, architectural design, and lack of adaptation to climate building systems that did not provide adequate thermal comfort conditions. The aim of this chapter is to present a comparative study of thermal performance of a bioclimatic model of affordable housing and a commercial housing model. The study was made through a longitudinal monitoring of the external and internal conditions of the two models. With the database obtained, regression analyses were performed. Based on measured data, predictive models for both homes were created. The results obtained support the construction of homes with better thermal conditions and present the possibility of improving inhabitants’ quality of life.

R. A. Romero-Moreno, G. Bojórquez-Morales, A. Luna, M. Corral, T. Gutiérrez-García

Chapter 12. Multidisciplinary Energy-Efficiency Think Tank for Supporting a Multilevel Governance Model in Energy Policies and Measures: MEETHINK Energy Project: Topic-6

MEETHINK Energy is a European research project headed by the Tuscany Region under the Horizon 2020 call for proposals involving 30 municipalities in 6 European countries (Albania, Greece, Italy, Serbia, Slovenia and Spain). The project will stimulate a multilevel governance model by joining regional and local authorities and involving policymakers, technicians and stakeholders in a bottom-up integrated approach. The core of the project focuses on the definition of a common protocol and on the identification of common criteria and energy-efficiency performance indicators, as well as on a pilot phase during which the multilevel governance model will be tested in collaboration with small and medium-sized city partners. Several potential scenarios will be evaluated, and the multilevel governance model will make it possible to improve the quality and effectiveness of energy policies and measures as well as establish or strengthen connections among different key actors and levels of government. A common information and communications technology (ICT) platform, supported by a peer-to-peer methodology, will be structured with three different access levels (free access, policymakers, technicians) and will include a data-sharing tool, open data repositories, a decision support system and a communication Web site. This platform will support public authorities in monitoring and evaluating the current situation with the aim of identifying its strengths, weaknesses and opportunities in order to determine the most suitable policies and measures. The platform will allow for the involvement of public/private stakeholders and promote a multidisciplinary think tank network across the European Union. With a focus on three thematic priority areas (energy efficiency in buildings and districts, in particular public buildings; renewable energy sources and distributed energy generation; and energy in urban mobility), the aim of the project will be achieved by sharing activities through large-scale networking, peer-to-peer learning and best practices, assessing the training gaps and needs of the participating municipalities in reference to energy-efficiency planning and implementation and developing a detailed capacity building strategy for public authorities at different levels of government.

Antonella Trombadore

Chapter 13. An Integrated Building Energy Management System

Environmental concerns and the need to reduce the dependency on imported fossil fuels have fostered several policy and economic mechanisms to incentivize the deployment of renewable generation plants, namely based on wind and photovoltaics, including microgeneration at the residential level. However, these sources are inherently intermittent, and consequently actions should be taken to mitigate the potential undesirable impacts that a large share of renewable generation may have on supply reliability and power quality. Moreover, the promotion of electric mobility requires the consideration of a new significant load, and electric vehicles would be expected to impose further challenges on power systems, in both grid-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-grid modes. Additionally, storage systems suitable for residential use are being announced. Therefore, a paradigm change is emerging in power systems involving a shift from a supply-follows-demand to a load-follows-supply strategy, making the most of the evolution toward smart grids.Residential demand may play a key role in this transition because of the flexibility that these consumers generally have in the operation of their loads, and this may also positively affect electricity bills, i.e., shifting in time the operation cycle of some loads and modifying the (e.g., temperature) settings of other loads is easily accommodated by residential consumption patterns without compromising the quality of the energy services provided. The adequate control and coordination of residential demand should take into account operational aspects such as the integrated monitoring of electricity consumption at the household level, the evolution of dynamic tariff schemes with energy prices varying in short periods of time possibly with significant differences, and the characteristics of multiple energy resources (manageable loads, microgeneration, storage systems).However, the continuous monitoring of demand and load control is too demanding for residential end users because of the diversity of decisions to be made (e.g., scheduling cycling loads, thermostat settings) and their time availability to implement management actions. Therefore, the deployment of automated energy management systems (EMSs) is essential to optimizing the integrated management of energy resources. These EMSs should be able to design optimal energy decisions to reduce electricity bills without impacting the quality of the energy services provided (e.g., room temperature below/above a prespecified comfort threshold, completion of the washing machine cycle before a given time, electric vehicle battery in a given state of charge by a required deadline). These decisions are strongly influenced by energy costs, end-user preferences and requirements, potential dissatisfaction of end user when the operation cycle of loads is changed, technical constraints, weather forecasts, and the existence of local microgeneration and storage.This chapter presents an evolutionary algorithm to optimize the integrated use of residential energy resources and provides an analysis of simulation results under different scenarios. Two objective functions are considered to assess the merit of solutions: minimizing the electricity bill and minimizing the dissatisfaction felt by the end user resulting from the control actions. Results show that significant savings can be achieved, though they will depend on end users’ willingness to accept a certain degree of automated control, the characteristics of managed loads, the pricing structure, and end-user preferences.

Carlos Henggeler Antunes, Ana Soares, Álvaro Gomes

Chapter 14. The Normal: Minimising Energy Use; The Abnormal: Changing Habits

Homes and shelters with their diversified structures, are designed to cater for a controlled inside environment. Air conditioning, in heating or cooling, and refrigeration are known to use 75 % of the total electrical power generated in the world. Their thermal load is a function of the heat transferred through the boundaries of the building in addition to internal sources. Hence insulation is regarded a priory. Reducing this percentage to 50 % and increasing the energy efficiency of machinery by 5 % results in petroleum reserves lasting for 500 years instead of 190, with additional merits involved. A very simple study of the effects of the geometry and the geographic orientation of the building on the thermal load are investigated. The amount of heat transgressing the boundaries is a direct function of the heat transfer area. Single story model buildings of same material, equal areas, internal heat sources and occupancy is investigated. They are a square, rectangle and a dome (hemisphere). The calculations followed ASHRAE standard procedures. The Finite Element method is used in calculations for the hemispherical dome segmented surface area. The dome building gives the least calculated external thermal load. It is 58–68 % of that calculated for the other models, depending on variation in building materials. Heat ingress at 43.33 °C (110 °F) is double the heat ingress at 32.22 °C (80 °F) for all the models. But the average heat ingress of the other models is 29–67 % higher than that of the dome, depending on type of building materials. At high temperatures it is emphasised to use dome structures. A NASA Spinoff product, NSP, with its insulating properties is used on the surfaces of the models to further investigate reductions in the amount of heat ingress. The NSP is very effective in buildings with poor thermal resistivity and the heat ingress to the building is reduced to 47 %. Its effect is considerable in dome shaped buildings. The dome geometric structure gives the least heat ingress in addition to its benefits of friendly and cozy interior. As dome buildings contribute to the green environment, it is recommended to build more domes in residential compounds, especially when high-rise buildings are restricted. As the normal lies in minimising energy use, the abnormal lies, temporarily, in the attitudes during the process of acceptance and acclimatisation as some of us must change some of their habits. However, architects are very capable to re-introduce the dome and the dome habitat. As decisions in energy and town planning are inseparable from political decisions, it is recommended to encourage more building of domes by calling the year 2015 of Med Green Forum by the Year of the Dome and/or by the Florence Dome Declaration, with the Cathedral’s Dome as a logo.

Anwar El-Hadi, Ingi A. El-Hadi, Mohammed A. I. Alameer

Chapter 15. Semi-Empirical Models for the Estimation of Global Solar Irradiance Measurements in Morocco

This chapter presents semi-empirical models for estimating global horizontal irradiance (GHI) under specific sky conditions. We analysed the models to estimate GHI measurements in four regions of Morocco. The data consist of a 1-year period at four solar irradiance monitoring stations located in the south of the country, Missour (32.86°N, −4.11°E), Erfoud (31.49°N, −4.22°E), Zagora (30.27°N, −5.85°E) and Tantan (28.50°N, −11.32°E). Several empirical clear sky models are considered for a Moroccan case study. These models are validated using GHI measurements from different stations over different time periods.The disagreement between the various measurements of GHI and the semi-empirical models used for the estimation of radiation in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modelling is sometimes significant, especially in the presence of clouds or large concentrations of aerosols. A good agreement is noticed between the measured values and those estimated by some models.

N. Laaroussi, M. Garoum, A. Hajji, M. Tajayouti, A. Feiz

Chapter 16. Assessing PV Module Degradation and the Potential of Using Greenhouse Roofs for Supplemental PV Power Generation in Malta

This chapter presents work carried out on the evaluation of the added photovoltaic (PV) capacity that Malta might need to install to counter-balance the loss of energy production from installed solar PV systems caused by degradation in order to achieve the government’s target of 5 % PV generation by 2020. The potential of using unconventional rooftops is investigated with a focus on greenhouses, which are normally found in rural areas. Such a possibility also has the capability of providing renewable energy to greenhouses, making it greener and self-sufficient. The study started by analysing the actual degradation experienced by a number of PV modules which have been in operation on the island of Malta for between 3 and 33 years. An average degradation of 1.2 % has been found. Visits to greenhouses were also made to categorize their construction materials, area and other technical characteristics to have a better and more hands-on understanding of their ability to take up the added load of PV modules. Two cases were found where new greenhouses were actually in the process of installing PV modules, one in Malta and one in Gozo. The results of this study can help the government to provide incentives for greenhouse owners to invest in PV modules while alleviating the drop in energy production due to the degradation of already installed PV systems to reach the set target.

Kristy Bartolo, Charles Yousif

Chapter 17. Revitalization and Refurbishment of Minor Historical Centers in the Mediterranean

Minor historical centers are like living organisms that operate at a macro scale (historical center and urban fabric) and at a micro scale. It is possible to propose a methodological framework for transformation and upgrading, in a close relationship between history, culture, and technology, through development processes that are not only a series of measures aimed exclusively at increasing the financial value of land and buildings but that also pursue the broader goals of redevelopment and revitalization of the architectural, energy, social, economic, and cultural contexts of the city they refer to. In order for the process to be more than just real estate development, building restoration, or urban upgrading, not only must existing and potential resources be used to gain more leverage, but the shortcomings of the urban fabric and socioeconomic demands must also be met.

Alessandra Battisti

Chapter 18. Building Envelope–Systems Integrated Models: Topic 4

The need to design building envelopes as machines able to offer flexible behaviors due to the variability of the boundary conditions has led to study and develop a methodology for evaluating the correct relationship between casings’ energy performances and production systems connected to technical implants. The result was the definition of an application model, able to indicate the most appropriate mix of renewable energies in synergy with the casing. The objective is to maximize the use of renewable energies in compliance with general and functional needs related to the balance of the system.The study started from the identification and classification of types and families of building envelope, defining materials and operating principles. The simulations used in the assessment models were performed by integrating empirical data with predictive modeling.The matrix produced was implemented starting from the scenario of the typical needs of each building typology and of every function of it, making possible to evaluate in a forecasting way the variation of primary energy use depending on the performances of each solutions of envelopes.At the end of this consideration, the model produced was applied to two pilot projects, that constitute the most meaningful product of this research.

Fabio Conato

Chapter 19. Lessons for Future Cities and Architecture: Ecology, Culture, Sustainability

In the era of globalisation, in which serious environmental problems are threatening cities and their inhabitants, as cultural integrity is constantly under attack and many cities lack socially inclusive and responsive environments, there is an urgent need for a radical shift towards a holistic strategy for sustainable urbanism combining ecological sustainability and sociocultural sustainability. This calls for sensitivity to traditional urbanism and impact of global ideas, practices and technologies on local social and cultural practices, both on the city scale and architectural scale. In line with these considerations, this chapter aims to establish an environmentally sound and human-friendly framework for sustainable urbanism in future cities. In this context, the study first provides a conceptual understanding of sustainable urbanism and a critical review of its philosophical and practical framework; secondly, it provides a critical assessment of contemporary approaches to sustainable urbanism and architecture; thirdly, the chapter analyses the traditional Turkish (Ottoman) city which provides valuable clues for sustainable development and discusses possible research directions that could help promote the concept of sustainability in the urban and architectural environments of future cities.

Derya Oktay

Chapter 20. Thermal Performance of Vacuum Glazing with Tempered Glass Panes

The thermal performance (U-value) of 0.4 × 0.4 m and 1 × 1 m double vacuum glazing (DVG) and triple vacuum glazing (TVG) using annealed and tempered glass panes with pillar separations of 25 and 50 mm respectively was simulated. It was found that (1) for both dimensions of DVG with 0.03 emittance low-emittance (low-e) coatings, the U-values at the centre of the glazing area of the DVG made of annealed and tempered glass panes were 0.57 and 0.30 Wm−2 K−1, a reduction of 47.4 %; (2) for both dimensions of TVG with 0.03 emittance low-e coating, the U-values at the centre of glazing area of the TVG with annealed and tempered glass panes were 0.28 and 0.11 Wm−2 K−1, a reduction of 60.7 %. The reduction in U-values for both DVG and TVG results from the significant reduction in pillar number, leading to the large reduction in heat conduction through the pillar arrays. The reduction in U-values from using tempered glass panes instead of annealed glass panes for TVG is larger than that for DVG; this is because the radiative heat transfer of TVG with three glass panes is much lower than that in DVG with two glass panes; therefore, the heat conduction through the pillar array in TVG plays a larger role compared with that in DVG. The reduction in pillar number in TVG results in a larger reduction in U-value compared to DVG; thus, using tempered glass panes in TVG confers a greater advantage compared to DVG, given that DVG can also achieve a large reduction in U-value when switching from using annealed glass panes to tempered glass panes.

Yueping Fang, Trevor J. Hyde, Farid Arya, Neil Hewitt

Chapter 21. Energy Refurbishment Towards Nearly Zero-Energy Terrace Houses in the Mediterranean Region

The building sector in Europe is responsible for an estimated 40 % of the total energy consumption and 10 % of total CO2 emissions. Given an annual rate of 1 % of addition of new buildings in the existing building stock, the energy efficient renovation of the existing housing stock is imperative in order to reduce building energy consumption. It is for this reason that the European Union (EU) ranked the improvement of the energy performance of the old building stock as a high priority on its research agenda. Following Europe’s 20:20:20 objective, this case study investigates refurbishment scenarios that will make it possible to achieve nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEBs) in Cyprus.The research focuses on the terrace family house typology in Cyprus, as classified in the framework of the Intelligent Energy Europe, EU project EPISCOPE. The aim is to upgrade an old terrace building built before 1980. It into a nZEB with the implementation of national energy performance requirements, as drafted by the Ministry of Energy, Commerce, Industry and Tourism (MECIT). A representative terrace family building was chosen and modeled using the Simplified Building Energy Model iSBEMcy tool. This is the official government software in Cyprus used for issuing Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) for the categorisation of the energy class of buildings and the calculation of CO2 emissions according to European Directives 2002/91/EC and 2010/31/EC.The study investigates whether it is possible for an old terrace family building to meet nZEB standards and identifies the lurking obstacles and challenges through building simulations. To this end, various refurbishment scenarios were developed, aimed at fulfilling the MECIT requirements. The efficiency of each strategy and technique employed towards minimising energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions was evaluated, in terms also of its cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, the results of the research were investigated to assess whether the nZEB requirements, as developed by MECIT, are appropriate for existing terrace family houses in Cyprus and whether alternative strategies may be employed to meet the target of nZEB and to effectively reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

D. K. Serghides, M. Michaelidou, Stella Demetriou, M. C. Katafygiotou

Chapter 22. Geo-Climatic Applicability of Direct Evaporative Cooling in Italy

This chapter focuses on the climatic applicability of passive direct (downdraught) evaporative cooling (PDEC) techniques in the provincial capital cities of Italy. First, a PDEC potentiality map was produced using a previously developed method based on three variables: wet bulb depression, summer comfort air temperature threshold (25 °C) and cooling degree hours (CDHs). Second, an applicability map was produced by comparing the PDEC potentiality map to the local cooling energy demand. Third, a new method is presented including a calculation of the residual local cooling energy demand, i.e. residual CDH, related to air treatment by direct evaporative cooling. These residual CDH values were calculated considering different step-wise increasing outlet temperatures (WBT; WBT + 1 °C; …; WBT + 5 °C) as a function of the covered amount of wet bulb depression. Finally, three cities chosen as being representative of their respective Italian climatic macro-zones were selected in order to assess in greater detail the yearly variation of CDH aimed at supporting specific design strategies for ventilative passive cooling solutions.

Giacomo Chiesa, Fabio Acquiletti, Mario Grosso

Chapter 23. Integrating Deep Offshore Wind with Pumped Hydro Storage in a Central Mediterranean Archipelago’s Electricity Generation System

This investigation starts off with a hypothetical deep sea offshore wind turbine array consisting of twenty 5 MW NREL reference wind turbines for offshore deployment. Measure-correlate-predict techniques are utilised to transpose long-term measured wind data from a reference site located at an elevation of just under 220 m above mean sea level to a short-term 80 m wind-monitoring station close to sea level at a coastal location. The extrapolated long-term 80 m level wind speed and direction time series are then used as climatological inputs to a computational fluid dynamics software program that is used to generate wind resources over the extents of the hypothetical 100 MW offshore wind farm zone. Time series of wind speed, wind direction and power production are generated for the array covering a number of years, with the period being analysed here covering the years 2007–2011. Meanwhile, electrical load data on an hourly basis are also assessed in order to enable a wind power/pumped hydroelectric storage to electrical load interfacing exercise. The implications of combining a pumped hydroelectric storage system into the electrical system are assessed. The studies have shown that if the output from the wind farm is set to meet a fixed load threshold on a monthly basis, the surplus wind power can be used to pump water into the storage system. The stored potential energy can then be converted back to electricity by means of a water turbine in instances when wind power falls short of the set threshold. Such a system will decouple the renewable energy (RE) supply from the load and, with careful balancing of the stored hydraulic energy against the energy required to reach the threshold, supply a steady contribution to the load over a predetermined period of time. Such a steady contribution is highly desirable in an electrical system as a variable input coming from large-scale wind farms could cause grid imbalance, induce fluctuations and possibly compromise stability. The work has shown that the contribution of a wind farm coupled to a pumped hydroelectric system could contribute primarily to the base load whilst also allowing for green energy generation, facilitate the integration of RE technologies and help achieve part of Malta’s RE targets.

Robert N. Farrugia, Tonio Sant, Cedric Caruana

Chapter 24. Energy Choice to Support Carbon Dioxide Reduction in Indonesia

Greenhouse gas emissions have continued to increase, and economic and population growth continue to be the most important drivers of these increased emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) uses two assessment models that indicate biomass should be a top primary energy source in 2095, while climate change will tend to amplify tree mortality worldwide. The burning of biomass in the twenty-first century will greatly exacerbate global warming and its consequences. This chapter describes the depletion of fossil fuels in Indonesia: oil will vanish within 12.8 years, natural gas within 30.8 years, and good quality coal within 59.8 years. The shrinking energy resources are impacting national energy security. If low-rank coal is burnt for coal-fired power plants, this will affect all efforts to fulfill promises to reduce CO2 emissions. Nuclear power is proposed as one of the solutions. Government Regulation 79/2014 on the national energy policy is briefly described. The choice is to take or not take this solution. Another choice is to facilitate technology transfer and engage in international collaboration in nuclear power technology.

Herliyani Suharta, Arnold Soetrisnanto, Unggul Priyanto

Chapter 25. A Study of Space Syntax and Sustainable Design in Chinese Vocational Education Parks: Three Case Studies

Currently, China has 1334 vocational colleges. This accounts for 62.7 % of all colleges and universities in China. A large portion of vocational colleges is represented by vocational education parks. In China, vocational education park refers to a zone that includes multiple vocational educational institutions and their corresponding science parks combined to form a set of teaching, training, research, production, and social services located in one area. Their development is closely tied to city development planning. Because China’s vocational education system developed relatively late, there is little past experience with building vocational education parks. As a result, vocational education parks are introspective and self-enclosed with fragmented layouts, dispersed resources, insufficient facilities, and incomplete systems. This phenomenon is becoming increasingly serious. This article is based on research on public space layout expansion for Chinese vocational education parks using urban intensification strategies. The intent is to look at strategies for integrating educational resources, leveraging economies of agglomeration, and continuing development in a compact space by building shared facilities, improving the campus land-use ratio, curbing energy consumption and environmental pollution, containing campus sprawl, and promoting vocational education parks to develop in a healthy, orderly, and sustainable way. This study applies composition analysis techniques to three vocational education park design cases with public space layouts. The study provides a quantitative analysis of the overall and localized degree of space integration and uses these values to perform linear regression analysis. The intensification layout style stands out as a superior approach that establishes a relationship for the composition of public space in a vocational education park. This relationship’s decisive influence is explored based on an analysis of the education and administration style of vocational schools. A model and optimization proposal is put forward within a certain scope for the degree of space integration with respect to the jointly coupled factors of space composition, education style, and school administration style. With vocational education park public space intensification as a goal and the ability to numerically evaluate data based on degree of integration, vocational education park design evaluation criteria can be established. From now on, the proposed vocational education park public space layout intensification method will provide a scientific and quantitative standard that will ensure a sustainable design strategy for China’s characteristic vocational education parks.

Qiushi Hao, Benchen Fu, Teng Fei

Chapter 26. Micro-Aeolic in Residential Districts: A Case Study in Sant’Arsenio (South-western Italy)

Renewable energies are sources of energy derived from inexhaustible natural resources. In other words, they are regenerated at the same speed at which they are consumed, and they are freely available. In the new millennium, we find multiple typologies of renewable energies, such as the sun and wind. The latter has undergone tremendous development and evolution owing both to economic and financial incentives and the increased concern with environmental protection. Initially, the integration of wind power into daily life was very difficult because the first power plants were very large, which caused great anxiety around the world – the so-called Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY) problem. For this reason the idea of a wind plant evolved into a softer idea which has brought both change in daily life and the respect for morphology, urbanism and city architecture. In Europe, wind energy has increased in use and quality more than in the USA. Germany and Denmark are the largest producers of wind energy, thanks to the quantity of the available rural spaces but also to effective policies, including permanent government subsidies. In Italy, in contrast, the wind energy boom occurred in the late 1990s. However, the country is reaching the standards of other European countries through widespread installations in Puglia, Sicily and Campania. But so far, we have made reference only to megawatt or multi-megawatt plants which are installed outside urban areas or in sufficiently hilly plains. A micro wind plant is different because it can be installed in an urban setting and inside buildings thanks to the advanced technology and reduced dimensions. A case study of micro wind power in the new scenario is the case proposed here of Sant’Arsenio in Campania. It is a small and uninhabited village which would allow the installation of equipment because of the open green spaces. The experimental work described here is aimed at promoting the return of citizens to the village.

Dora Francese, Emanuela Adamo, Shoaib Khanmohammadi

Chapter 27. Effect of Shadows on the Performance of Solar Photovoltaic

This chapter investigates the reduction in photovoltaic (PV) performance due to artificial factors generated by covering each row and column in an array of a solar panel. This covering leads to an overall degradation of the energy produced by that panel. Experiments on the shadow effects of artificial cover, which leads to degraded power generation, were conducted and analyses performed. The obtained results show that the variation in the reduction of PV voltage and power produced from each cell depends on the shadow effect created. Shading causes a decrease in the output of PV, and this chapter’s experiments illustrate the extent of that reduction. The difference between shading of cells in series, in parallel, and a combination of series and parallel with respect to time and temperature are also studied. Another factor examined is the artificial thickness of shadows on the surface that is causing the shading.

Hussein A. Kazem, Miqdam T. Chaichan, Ali H. Alwaeli, Kavish Mani

Chapter 28. Study of Landform-Reconstruction Method Applied to Architectural Forms in Cold Areas

Since the emergence of the practice of transforming architectural structures into landscapes, the relationship between architecture and the environment has gradually changed from one of binary to multivariate opposition. This chapter introduces topography and field theory in cold-region architectural design and discusses the responses of architectural structures to spaces and landscapes that are influenced by the extreme climate in cold regions through relevant case studies by blanking, simulating, and mixing architectural forms with landforms.

Chen Shuo, Mei Hongyuan

Chapter 29. Building-Integrated Renewable Energy Systems, or Rediscovering Forgotten Principles

The current research and development trend in the construction area is to identify innovation: we discuss innovative materials, principles, and methods.However, in many cases the innovation lies in the approach, the point of view, not the system or the principle. Such is the case with building technologies, where building components must accommodate the technology and the technology relies on building principles. This is most visible in the building envelope because the envelope is the skin that separates two different hygrothermal environments. The building envelope – in terms of its components and as a whole – must meet the following requirements: mechanical resistance and stability, fire safety, hygiene, health and the environment, safe use, protection against noise, energy savings, and heat retention.

Ana-Maria Dabija

Chapter 30. The Possible Shift Between Heating and Cooling Demand of Buildings Under Climate Change Conditions: Are Some Mitigation Policies Wrongly Understood?

Global warming affects the built environment by changing the environmental conditions under which buildings operate. This change probably means a shift in thermal demand, from a predominant demand for heating to a higher demand for cooling in many climates. For instance, in cold climates global warming seems to be a self-decreasing phenomenon because of lower energy demand in warmer environments. In warmer climates, like the Mediterranean, and in the hottest climates (both humid and arid), global warming must be regarded as one of the main factors (the others are the change in comfort standards and the heat-island effect) in increasing the energy demand to cool buildings. This chapter analyses the environment of various cities, characterised by mild average temperatures and small thermal oscillations, that can be regarded as Mediterranean climate emplacements. Today these cities have more heating than cooling demand but in the future will probably have higher cooling requirements. Results show that by 2050, in most of the considered emplacements, cooling demand will be higher than heating demand and emissions will rise proportionally. Solutions to this problem must be sought in the flexible operation of buildings, and policies should focus on summer-related issues: good natural ventilation, protection from the sun, and internal gain reduction, rather than insulation, air infiltration reduction and solar access.

Massimo Palme

Chapter 31. Robustness of Residential Houses in Ecuador in the Face of Global Warming: Prototyping and Simulation Studies in the Amazon, Coastal and Andes Macroclimatic Regions

Ecuador is a small country with high-frequency climatic variability. The principal macroclimatic regions are the Amazon rainforest, with a hot and humid climate; the tropical coast, also with a hot and humid climate; and the highlands, with a tropical mountain climate. The government is working on policies regarding the energy efficiency of all kinds of buildings. In 2011, the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing (MIDUVI), in a design competition called ‘Dwellings for Climate Change’, selected three residential house typologies, one for each macroclimatic emplacement in the country. The winner dwellings were designed considering passive architecture concepts; however, some simulation studies conducted by the National Institute of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in 2014 showed that in many cases the new design proposals have poorer performance than the standard dwelling typically seen in Ecuador for all climatic emplacements. To validate the simulation results, new simulations were conducted using current weather data. The output searched was the total discomfort sensation instead of the thermal demand or energy consumption (heuristic). In addition, global warming was taken into account by simulating future situations in the A2 scenario proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Future climate was modelled using the Climate Change World Weather Files Generator developed by the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. Results show that building design in Ecuador is influenced by standards that come from colder countries. This fact leads to generally poor result in terms of natural cooling performance, even in the actual climate. Global warming and urban development, especially in the coastal region, will increase cooling needs, so building design guidelines for Ecuador will have to be reconsidered and focus in particular on heat evacuation problems instead of heating demand reduction.

Massimo Palme, Andrea Lobato

Chapter 32. Performance Analysis and Parametric Studies of a Bi-fluid Type Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) Solar Collector in Simultaneous Mode Under Tropical Climate Conditions

Performance analysis of a photovoltaic/thermal solar collector with a bi-fluid configuration (air and water) was conducted under real sky conditions in the tropical climate of Perlis, Northern Peninsular Malaysia. In addition to the electricity generated, this type of collector has enabled three different modes of fluid operation: air mode, water mode and simultaneous (bi-fluid) mode. The third mode of fluid of operation is the primary focus in this chapter. This chapter highlights the performance of the collector outdoors, in terms of the experimental and two-dimensional theoretical analysis at steady state. For collector testing under real sky conditions, analyses of the collector for varying sets of mass flow rates under environmental conditions of an average wind speed of 3 m/s and average solar radiation of 700 W/m2 were conducted. To obtain suitable data, experiments were conducted for each of the mass flow rates on ten different days of testing. For the simultaneous mode, when air flow rate was fixed at 0.0262 kg/s, at a water mass flow rate that varied from 0.0017 to 0.010 kg/s, the electrical efficiency and total thermal efficiency ranged from 8.13 to 8.60 % and 44.36 to 47.45 % respectively. When the water flow rate was fixed at 0.0066 kg/s, at an air mass flow rate that varied from 0.0092 to 0.0753 kg/s, the efficiencies ranged from 8.10 to 8.56 % and 44.06 to 50.37 % respectively. Theoretical analysis was then conducted and compared with the experimental analysis by comparing the trend of the curves and using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) analysis. The curves were found to be in good agreement, and the computed MAPE for the fluids’ output temperature was less than 2 %. Parametric studies were then conducted to investigate the performance of the collector with the change in air channel depth and performance with the change in collector length. The feasibility of incorporating two different types of working fluid into the same PV/T solar collector was demonstrated based on the thermal and electrical energy output of the collector under real sky conditions. Therefore, this research will serve as a starting point for further research into a bi-fluid type PV/T solar collector, both experimentally and theoretically.

Hasila Jarimi, Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar, Mahmod Othman, Mahadzir Din

Chapter 33. Bi-fluid Photovoltaic/Thermal PV/T Solar Collector with Three Modes of Operation: Experimental Validation of a Theoretical Model

This chapter discusses theoretical and indoor experimental studies of a bi-fluid type photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar collector. Two-dimensional steady-state analysis was developed and computer simulations were performed using MATLAB. Experiments were conducted for steady-state analysis under the solar simulator at Solar Energy Research Lab UiTM, Perlis, Malaysia, and under real sky conditions of Northern Peninsular Malaysia, to validate the model. The solar collector and the test rig facilities were fabricated to be suitable for mathematical validation purposes in both indoor and outdoor testing. For indoor collector testing, at an average wind speed of 1 m/s and average solar radiation of 700 W/m2, the air and water mass flow rate was varied from 0.0074 to 0.09 kg/s and 0.0017 to 0.0265 kg/s respectively. The thermal efficiency increased as the mass flow rate increased. At a mass flow rate of 0.0262 and 0.0066 kg/s for air and water respectively, the thermal efficiency curves tended to plateau, which marked the optimum point of the fluid flow. For the simultaneous mode of fluid operation, testing was conducted with air and water fixed at a flow rate of 0.0262 and 0.0066 kg/s respectively, while the fluids’ mass flow rate was varied according to the range used during the independent mode. The range of the computed efficiencies for the simultaneous mode were higher than for the independent mode. In this study, collector outdoor testing was conducted for each mode of operation on a typical day in January in Perlis, Northern Peninsular Malaysia. Based on the outdoor monitoring analysis for simultaneous mode, the performance of the collector was also higher overall than the independent mode. The test was conducted by monitoring the performance of the collector with the air mass flow rate and water mass flow rate fixed at 0.0262 and 0.0066 kg/s respectively. Theoretical analysis was also performed and then validated against the experimental results by a direct comparison of the plotted curves and using mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) analysis. For the air, water and simultaneous modes, by taking into account both indoor and outdoor collector testing, the theoretical and experimental curves were found to be in good agreement, and the computed MAPE values for the fluids’ output temperature were less than 2 %. Thus, the two-dimensional mathematical model was proven valid. The PV/T collector designed in this study has a variety of applications because it can be operated in three different modes of fluid operation, and the theoretical model is useful in modelling all three modes without further modification.

Hasila Jarimi, Mohd Nazari Abu Bakar, Mahmod Othman, Mahadzir Din

Chapter 34. High Quality of Calibration Accuracy for Smart Building Energy-Efficiency Opportunities

A well-calibrated model is crucial to accurately represent a building’s energy profile. This chapter deals with a building where an underfloor heating system supplied by a geothermal water-to-water heat pump and natural ventilation are the main systems used to maintain comfort conditions. Existing methodologies to establish calibration accuracy are mainly based on whole-building energy consumption comparisons. This research considers whole-building energy consumption with a breakdown of end-use energy consumption. The objective of this work is to develop a two-level calibration methodology which starts with calibration and then continues with the necessary actions for improving building energy efficiency. Finally, the model was simulated to estimate the potential of energy-efficiency improvements. The results of the analysis show that electricity consumption savings and heat released from the heat pump can vary between 20 and 27 % on a monthly basis.

G. Mustafaraj

Chapter 35. Liquid and Gas Biofuels from the Catalytic Re-forming of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil in Supercritical Water: Effects of Operating Conditions on the Process

This work analyses the influence of temperature (310–450 °C), pressure (200–260 bar), catalyst/bio-oil mass ratio (0–0.25 g catalyst/g bio-oil) and reaction time (0–60 min) during the re-forming in sub- and supercritical water of a bio-oil obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pinewood. The original liquid has a 39 wt.% of water and the following elemental composition in dry basis: 54 wt.% C, 3.3 wt.% H, 41.3 wt.% O, 0.8 wt.% N and 0.6 wt.% S. The upgrading experiments were carried out in a batch microbomb reactor employing a co-precipitated Ni–Co/Al–Mg catalyst. Statistical analysis of the re-forming results indicates that the operating conditions and the water regime (sub-/supercritical) have a significant influence on the process. Specifically, the yields to upgraded bio-oil (liquid), gas and solid vary in ranges of 5–90 %, 7–91 % and 3–31 % respectively. The gas phase, having a medium-high lower heating value (2–17 MJ/STP m3), is made up of a mixture of H2 (9–31 vol.%), CO2 (41–84 vol.%), CO (1–22 vol.%) and CH4 (1–45 vol.%). Depending on the operating conditions, the amount of C, H and O (wt.%) in the upgraded bio-oil varies in ranges of 48–74, 4–9 and 13–48 respectively. This represents an increase of up to 42 and 152 % in the proportions of C and H respectively, as well as a decrease of up to 69 % in the proportion of O. The higher heating value (HHV) of the treated bio-oil varies from 20 to 32 MJ/kg, which corresponds to an increase of up to 68 % with respect to the HHV of the original bio-oil.

Javier Remón, Pedro Arcelus-Arrillaga, Jesús Arauzo, Lucía García, Marcos Millan-Agorio

Chapter 36. Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Upgrading to Renewable Liquid Fuels by Catalytic Hydrocracking: Effect of Operating Conditions on the Process

This work analyses the influence of operating conditions during the catalytic hydrocracking of a bio-oil obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pinewood. The original liquid has a 39 wt.% of water and the following elemental composition in dry basis: 54 wt.% C, 3.3 wt.% H, 41.3 wt.% O, 0.8 wt.% N and 0.6 wt.% S.Experiments were carried out in a batch microbomb reactor employing a co-precipitated Ni–Co/Al–Mg catalyst. They were planned according to a full factorial design of experiments with a statistical analysis of the results in order to analyse the effects of temperature (350–450 °C), hydrogen pressure (70–150 bar), catalyst/bio-oil mass ratio (0–0.25 g catalyst/g organics), reaction time (0–60 min) and all interactions between these operating variables on the process. Statistical analysis of the results indicates that the operating conditions have a statistically significant effect on the results. Specifically, the yields to upgraded bio-oil (liquid), gas and solid vary in ranges of 3–97 %, 0–86 % and 3–41 % respectively. Depending on the operating conditions, the amount of C, H and O (wt.%) in the upgraded bio-oil varies in ranges of 50–82, 3.5–8.3 and 9–44 respectively. This represents an increase of up to 52 and 150 % in the proportion of C and H respectively, as well as a decrease of up to 78 % in the proportion of O. The higher heating value of the treated bio-oil varies from 19 to 37 MJ/kg, which is considerably higher than that of the original bio-oil.

Javier Remón, Pedro Arcelus-Arrillaga, Jesús Arauzo, Lucía García, Marcos Millan-Agorio

Chapter 37. Supporting Electromobility in Smart Cities Using Solar Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector could significantly contribute to limiting environmental degradation and decelerate the depletion of existing fossil-fuel reserves. Effective methods for increasing energy efficiency include the adoption of eco-driving – especially in urban areas – the utilization of more efficient vehicles, and the shift to green public transportation. In any case, to develop a sustainable and efficient transportation strategy in selected cases (e.g., smart cities), the use of so-called clean new technology vehicles should be adopted. The Laboratory of Soft Energy Applications and Environmental Protection (SEALAB) of the Piraeus University of Applied Sciences (formerly TEI of Piraeus) has recently undertaken, within the framework of its innovative activities, the development, construction, and operation of the country’s first stand-alone solar electric vehicle charging station (EVCS), CARPORT, monitoring all energy data and thereby supporting and strengthening the country’s efforts in infrastructure development in the field of electromobility. More specifically, this innovative effort, described in this chapter, aims to accelerate the implementation of a European national electrification action plan through the construction of EVCSs based on photovoltaic generators. The proposed solar EVCS is considered to be one of the most environmentally friendly solutions, capable of supporting the decarbonization of the European transport sector.

J. K. Kaldellis, G. Spyropoulos, St. Liaros

Chapter 38. Exploitation of Wave Energy Potential in Aegean Sea: Greece

In recent decades, renewable energy applications have gained significant market share in the global electricity generation sector and in covering the electricity needs of non-interconnected islands. Among the emerging renewable energy technologies, wave energy utilization is indisputably ranked among the energy sources that could resolve the controversial issue of energy demand coverage.Greece, located in the eastern Mediterranean region (with a special focus on the Aegean archipelago), has almost 16,000 km of coastline, so the exploitation of marine technologies could contribute to the power supply of most islands as well as of the mainland. In this study, an extensive evaluation of the expected wave power in the Aegean Sea is carried out, focusing on selected sea sites where wave buoys have been located. The basic wave parameters (e.g., significant wave height) along with the corresponding wave power are analyzed for selected regions.Taking into consideration the vast energy potential available in the sea as well as the fact that coastal areas can benefit greatly from the implementation of such energy solutions, the current study emphasizes both the northern and southern parts of the Aegean archipelago where many grid islands not connected to the mainland are dependent on conventional fuels and, more precisely, oil supplies to meet their urgent electricity needs.Based on the results of this survey, the future prospects of wave energy and the possible implementation of innovative marine technologies could be supported, providing the remote island communities of the Aegean Sea with clean electrical energy at a reasonable cost.

F. Xanthaki, Chr. Giannaraki, E. F. Zafeiraki, J. K. Kaldellis

Chapter 39. Energy Performance of a Renovated Multi-Family Building in Sweden

Increased attention is being directed towards reducing energy use in buildings, and implementing energy-saving measures when renovating buildings has become of central importance. The aim of this chapter is to study the effects on heat demand of a deep renovation of a Swedish post-war, multi-family building. The studied building was renovated in 2014, and the renovation measures included thermal improvement of the climate envelope and installation of a mechanical supply and exhaust air ventilation system with heat recovery. The effect on heat demand is studied through a whole-building energy simulation, using IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. The IDA model is empirically validated with regard to its ability to predict indoor temperature and energy use. The results indicate a technical potential for a 50.3 % reduction of heat demand from implemented renovation measures, but measured data indicate that actual energy use is around 15 % higher than the technical potential. The reasons for this gap could be overestimated heat recovery efficiency or airing.

Lina La Fleur, Bahram Moshfegh, Patrik Rohdin

Chapter 40. Building Thermal Exergy Analysis

The energy and environmental impacts due to energy consumption in the building sector are one of the main topics in the global energy field. A building is an energy system that uses energy sources in order to maintain its functionality and to ensure thermal indoor comfort for its occupants. Exergy analysis is a way to assess the impact of an energy system on the environment. This chapter introduces a model able to describe the interaction between a building and its surroundings from an exergetic point of view. The building is considered as a so-called black box, evaluating the exergy of overall energy and matter fluxes that cross the system boundaries. In this way it is possible to evaluate the exergy balance of the system and particularly the destroyed exergy. The exergy destruction percentage can be understood as a building environmental impact indicator. To illustrate the model and its operating suitability, an existing building was analyzed using the transient simulation software Trnsys. The modeling results show that about 95 % of the exergy used from the building is destroyed and that about 5 % is lost (transferred to the surroundings). This means that this building has very high impact. The model can be applied to assess the effectiveness of different building energy retrofit strategies. Through Trnsys modeling some conventional and advanced retrofit strategies, as well as on-site renewable energy utilization, are analyzed. The chapter presents the main analysis results, showing which of these strategies are able to reduce the building’s exergy demand and, hence, the building’s impact.

Lorenzo Leoncini, Marta Giulia Baldi

Chapter 41. Light and Shadow: Mediterranean Visual Scenes

Introducing sustainable criteria in the building sector is a challenge which can be faced using different strategies. The development and integration of renewable energies on different scales is part of the solution, but first the reduction of energy demand in buildings and cities must be taken into account. One of the potentials of the Mediterranean countries is the high radiation availability during most of the year, which can be used in active and passive design strategies. It is considered that urban and architectural design, along with significant knowledge of outdoor luminosity, can contribute to a reduction in the use of energy for lighting in entrance spaces. In this chapter, a field study conducted using different procedures enables an overall definition of the appearance of Mediterranean cities in terms of light, which offers an approach which could be applied to cities and architectural design. The conclusions drawn in this study can lead to design recommendations which integrate the use of shadow, the potential of material properties, and other ways to improve visual adaptation and reduce visual contrast, especially in the entrance of buildings.

Judit Lopez-Besora, Helena Coch

Chapter 42. Potential of Solar Electricity for Grid-Connected Systems in Algeria

This chapter proposes a photovoltaic (PV) electricity potential for grid-connected systems in Algeria using a solar radiation database and a system model of a PV module and inverter. The solar radiation database is based on the PV Geographic Information System (PVGIS). The database was used to analyze solar energy resources and to determinate the PV potential in Algeria. Climatic parameters (irradiation and temperature) and technological parameters (inverter efficiency) are the most influential parameters for PV production systems. Using the database input data, many calculations were carried out to determine the PV production and identify the influential parameters. Therefore, a map of the PV electricity potential for grid-connected systems in Algeria was developed, and the expected power production for planned PV grid-connected installations was determined.

L. Hassaine, A. Mraoui

Chapter 43. Thermal Energy Recovery System for Upgrading Waste Heat by an Absorption Heat Pump

An innovative absorption heat pump (AHP) system is proposed to increase the temperature from waste heat to a level of 80 °C and to produce hot air over 120 °C for drying or simultaneously generating steam of 100–115 °C. Air is heated up directly by heat exchange in the absorber working in the heating mode of a LiBr/H2O AHP system. Steam is sequentially produced by heat exchange, with the absorption solution still maintaining a high temperature. An examination was carried out continuously to evaluate the performance of a bench-scale of the AHP. In the proposed AHP, the temperature of hot air at the outlet of the absorber was typically above 120 °C and, steam up to 115 °C was simultaneously generated by recovering the heat of the hot water at 80 °C. The coefficient of performance, defined by the ratio of heat generated to the power consumed for pumps of fluid flow, exceeded 20. It was also found that the fine particle slurry of LiBr crystals is formed stably in the solution under a supersaturation condition when zeolite powder is suspended. Then an almost saturated concentration is maintained as a result of the dissolution of the crystal, even if the solution is diluted by absorption of water vapor in the absorber. The theoretical analysis based on a heat and mass transfer model predicted that the output power of the AHP improved by almost 100 % compared with the conventional solution at concentrations lower than saturation solubility. Measurement of the slurry properties and an experiment on the absorption performance of the slurry were carried out, and the effectiveness of the slurry was confirmed. This chapter reviews a series of works done by the present author.

Yoshinori Itaya

Chapter 44. Mathematical Model for System Planning on Campus: A Case Study in Harbin Institute of Technology in China

Addressing the relationship between limited resources and a growing population is a hot issue during the process of urbanization. Effective utilization of rainwater plays a positive role in a low-carbon strategy. The purpose of this study is to present an application of mathematical analytical tools for urban planners in predicting rainwater runoff before constructing. Based on available data and a practical investigation in the study area (Harbin Institute of Technology), this study classifies the area into four parts according to the different runoff coefficients and then evaluates the volume of runoff based on the data of average volume of rainfall and evaporation capacity using mathematical analytical tools. The results show the minimum volume of water reservoirs in a single area. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role played by water resources in low-carbon-precinct buildings in the scientific planning of runoff treatment systems.

Rong Guo, Tong Wu

Chapter 45. Urban Sustainable Development in the Mediterranean Area: The Case of Sestri Ponente, Genoa

In November 2014 a green façade was built in the Sestri Ponente district in Genoa, Italy, on an office building owned by the Istituto Nazionale di Previdenza Sociale (National Institute of Social Insurance). This area, which is characterized by a relatively high population density, faces important environmental issues related to, for example, air pollution, stormwater management, and the urban heat island effect. The Department of Sciences for Architecture at the University of Genoa (Italy) is conducting monitoring activity to evaluate the effectiveness of the green façade with regard to summer cooling, winter heating – in collaboration with Research on the Energy System – air quality improvement, and economic and environmental sustainability. Starting from this first pilot project a question arises: what would be the effect of vegetation at the district scale? This article discusses the potentialities for urban sustainable development of the integration of green infrastructure. Simulations carried out with ENVI-Met software demonstrate the potentialities of different amounts of vegetation for urban heat island mitigation. In addition, the possible stormwater runoff reduction was calculated. Such calculations are based on urban design projects developed for the area to evaluate the possible improvement to environmental quality owing to the integration of green infrastructure.

Katia Perini, Adriano Magliocco

Chapter 46. Development of Energy Devices Based on Photovoltaic Panels with Extra Consumer Properties

The challenge at this time for renewable energy is the low cost of traditional energy resources. Therefore, the economic task of this project is to improve the profitability of devices using renewable energy by giving them additional consumer functions and improving performance in difficult air conditions in the city. Leading countries in the production and use of photovoltaic devices are China, the USA, Japan, and EU member nations. However, the efforts of manufacturers in these countries are focused on the creation of large-scale solar power plants specialized only in the production of electricity. Currently, efforts of well-known companies are under way to make solar cells with a cheaper (10–15 %) average efficiency. Efforts are being made by manufacturers specialized exclusively in the production of electricity to install and operate photovoltaic systems in cities associated with the installation of solar cells on roofs and sun-facing facades of buildings.

L. Mikhailov, S. Mikhailova, G. Ismailova, G. Yar-Muhamedova, S. Sokolov

Chapter 47. Assessment of Airflows in a School Building with Mechanical Ventilation Using Passive Tracer Gas Method

The focus of this study is to assess the airflows in a school building built in 1963 in Gävle, Sweden, which is subject to energy conservation measures (ECMs) in a forthcoming renovation. Today, the school building is mainly ventilated by several mechanical ventilation systems, which are controlled by a constant air volume (CAV) strategy. Schedules and presence sensors impose a high operation mode during the day and a low operation mode at night, on weekends and on holidays. The homogeneous tracer gas emission method with passive sampling is used to measure the average local mean age of air (τ) during different operation modes. Temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration are simultaneously measured. The calculated relative uncertainty for the average local mean age of air in every measured point is approx. ±20 %. The results during low operation mode show an average value of τ of approx. 8.51 h [corresponding to 0.12 air changes per hour (ACH)], where τ in various zones ranges between 2.55 and 16.37 h (indicating 0.06–0.39 ACH), which is related to the unintentional airflow in the school. The results during mixed operation mode show an average value of τ of approx. 4.60 h (0.22 ACH), where τ in various zones ranges between 2.00 and 8.98 h (0.11–0.50 ACH), which is related to both unintentional and intentional airflows in the school. Corridors, basement and attic rooms and entrances have lower τ compared to classrooms, offices and other rooms. High maximums of the CO2 concentration in some rooms indicate an imbalance in the mechanical ventilation systems. During a regular school week of mixed operation, which includes both high and low operation modes, it is found that mainly the low operation modes show up in the results. The dynamics of the highly varying airflows in the building cannot be identified using the passive sampling technique.

Jessika Steen Englund, Jan Akander, Mikael Björling, Bahram Moshfegh

Chapter 48. Energetic and Functional Upgrading of School Buildings

In Italy, currently most schools require improvements to energy performance and indoor air quality. On the other hand, school buildings require structural assessment and strong renovation interventions to maintain their service functionality. Moreover, the use of spaces should be reviewed and redesigned to be more compatible with modern educational models, making the schools unique integrated spaces. Each space should have the same dignity and flexibility, meeting anticipated future needs and expectations and offering a positive environment that should support learning, teaching and recreational activities. The national government has recently launched policies and plans to face up to this situation, imposing some guidelines to incentivise the actions of local municipalities. The challenge as well as the aim of this research is to verify the possibility of combining energy retrofits with functional renovations as a unique approach to taking action, exploring the conditions and measures to create synergy. As a case study, school buildings in a medium-sized city, Castelfranco Veneto, in the north-eastern part of Italy were analyzed with the aim of defining a method of intervention on different functional layouts. In a first phase of the work, all 21 schools present in the area were analyzed. Subsequently, three groups of buildings with homogeneous characteristics in terms of age, construction technologies, and shape factors were identified. Finally, a case study for each group was analyzed in detail and a proposal for improvements to the energy efficiency and functionality was presented. In this chapter, one of the case studies is presented.

Paolo Giordani, Alessandro Righi, Tiziano Dalla Mora, Mauro Frate, Fabio Peron, Piercarlo Romagnoni

Chapter 49. Evaluation of Thermal Performance, Environmental Impact, and Cost Effectiveness of an XLam Component for Retrofitting in Existing Buildings

Renovation and retrofitting of residential buildings is a subject of great concern in Italy: most of the existing building stock is completely inappropriate in terms of structural rigidity in the event of earthquakes and with respect to the objectives of energy efficiency set by European law. This research presents the design of an innovative system of structural reinforcement using cross-laminated timber (CLT) technology based on materials with environmental compatibility: an XLam panel comes attached to a metal structure in the outside or inside layer of the external wall of an existing building; the stratigraphy also includes the insertion of insulation, a net of new systems (hydraulic and thermal), and new window frames. The new component is studied for modularization and standardization to ensure simplicity and speed of installation, low cost of providing, and assembly. The research focuses on aspects related to building physics and sustainability in construction in order to optimize the choice of materials: analyses of performance were conducted and simulations performed on various kinds of insulation materials in order to determine the best possible configuration in terms of thermal performance, environmental impact, and cost effectiveness. The results were verified with the construction of a prototype checked by a thermal test. Finally, with the obtained data the renovation of a case study building with different measures of intervention is verified.

Tiziano Dalla Mora, Alessandro Righi, Fabio Peron, Piercarlo Romagnoni

Chapter 50. Self-Awareness Tool for Renewable Energy Production in Mixed-Use Urban Tissues: Incubators European Project for the Mediterranean Region

Drawing on the Incubators of Public Spaces project, funded by JPI Urban Europe, this chapter considers the methods and tools used to support individuals’, groups’, organisations’ and enterprises’ self-ability to evolve towards grassroots interventions in urban regeneration processes. In particular, the chapter focuses on the assessment of the rational use and sustainable production of energy in mixed-use urban tissues, especially located in the Mediterranean region.Everywhere in Europe and beyond, the on-going increase in the rational use of energy is changing urban spaces and raising citizens' awareness about energy. In the Mediterranean climate region – characterized by warm to hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters – some strategies have already proven effective and replicable. Moreover, if we take as reference a mixed-use urban tissue, containing dwellings, production buildings, services and open spaces, unexploited synergies between different uses open a number of further opportunities (e.g. the plane roof of a neighbourhood supermarket can easily accommodate photovoltaic panels for the supply of electricity to residential buildings).In particular, this chapter addresses the topic of renewable energy production potential of a Mediterranean mixed-use urban tissue with regard to its relationships with the local energy demand, with further issues of environmental sustainability (i.e. embodied energy, daylight, transportation energy), and with the role of citizens’ self-interest actions. Indeed, the Incubators interactive and Web-based platform is designed to provide intuitive feedback about energy balance and cost savings. It provides guidance to tackle path-breaking energy issues on the building, neighbourhood and city scales so as to synergically attain the utmost environmental benefits.

Luca Caneparo, Federica Bonavero, Barbara Melis

Chapter 51. Renewable Energy in South of Morocco and Prospects

Morocco imports more than 98 % of its energy. As a result, it has turned its attention to renewable energy, particularly in the southern part of the country, with the objective of increasing renewables’ share in the country’s energy mix. Southern Morocco has significant solar potential. The annual daily averages of sunshine duration, n¯ $$ \overline{n} $$ , range from 6.7 h (Tan Tan) to 8.7 h (Laâyoune), and those of the global irradiation on horizontal surface, H¯ $$ \overline{H} $$ , vary between 4.87 kWh/m2 (Tan Tan) and 5.54 kWh/m2 (Dakhla). The estimated daily direct normal radiation in Laâyoune is 5.55 kWh/m2, which means about 3175 h of sunshine per year. Seasonal variations in sunshine, σ, and the clearness index, K t , for Laâyoune and Dakhla are more regular compared to that in Tan Tan; σ decreases rapidly in summer. This particularity reflects the greater oceanic influence and consequently the presence of a microclimate around Tan Tan, a finding confirmed by the research of J. Buret-Bahraoui. Morocco enjoys an excellent wind potential, particularly in the south. The wind speed annual averages vary between 5.12 m/s at 9 m for Tan Tan and 7.64 m/s at 10 m for Dakhla. The annual frequencies for the class 0 m/s are small for the three considered sites, less than 4 %. A study of wind speed frequency distributions shows that the observed frequencies are well modeled by the Weibull hybrid function. In 2013, wind energy contributed 4.2 % to national electricity production. In 2014, installed wind power in Morocco reached 757.3 MW, with 60 % located in the south. Tarfaya has a 301.3 MW private wind farm. Wind electricity production is estimated at 1.119 GWh/year, making it the largest wind farm in Morocco and Africa; in contrast, Dakhla is not connected to the national grid. Its electricity is supplied by a diesel power plant (37.5 MW). Wind power can contribute to its electrification by coupling it to the diesel plant. Solar thermal power plants constitute an expensive technology and require considerable amounts of water to clean the reflecting mirrors that get very dirty in the desert region, so wind farms are economically and environmentally viable for electricity production on a large scale in southern Morocco. In addition, compared to solar energy, electricity from wind energy is half as expensive.

Hassan Nfaoui, Ali Sayigh

Chapter 52. Analysis of Energy Performance of a High-Performance Building in a Local Mediterranean Climatic Context

In recent years in the construction industry, a new energy policy has emerged that, referring to the current European Directive 31/2010/UE, aims to reduce energy consumption through the design of nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB). However, because this term can have different meanings, it is important to investigate the characteristics of this concept. Thus, this chapter considers as a case study a building defined as a NZEB – Project Botticelli in Mascalucia (Catania, Italy), located in a Mediterranean context. From this analysis we highlight the main strategies used for the design of high-performance buildings, which are similar to Passivhaus strategies, whose criteria, however, identify very selective limits of reference, especially suitable for some climatic contexts. The goal of this investigation is the analysis of these so-called limit values with respect to the specific context of local Mediterranean climates, paying attention to the orientation of buildings through the parameter of solar radiation. The envelope is the element that characterizes the energy efficiency of a building, so it is taken into consideration in the study of external opaque components for the purpose of evaluating energy performance while the building is in use; in this way, it is possible to identify a connection between the “limit” parameters for the design of a high-performance building and the climatic parameters of the context of reference to obtain more complete information about the energy performance of a component.

Maria Teresa Lucarelli, Caterina Claudia Musarella

Chapter 53. Skylight Optimization Design Based on the Interior Ventilation in the Office Building in Cold Region

The severe climate in cold regions imposes strict requirements with respect to building energy savings and challenges indoor environmental comfort levels. The atrium has an important influence on indoor ventilation performance, which is a function of both wind pressure action and thermal pressure action. Specifically, skylights are a significant element for atrium ventilation and their ability to affect atrium ventilation performance and their optimization design strategies need to be studied. This chapter uses Ansys-Airpak ventilation simulation software to explore the skylight’s influence on natural ventilation with its three variables: plane position, distribution pattern, and skylight height. Through the simulation, the research leads to three conclusions: (1) skylight outlets should be set on the side behind the wind direction, which is useful for air flow because of the wind pressure; (2) outlets should be set around the skylight uniformly to accelerate the air exchange rate; and (3) the skylight height design should be combined with atrium size and outlet location. Overall, skylights have a significant influence on atrium ventilation performance and should be designed carefully to reduce energy consumption and increase the indoor environmental comfort level.

Tiantian Du, Jianfei Chen

Chapter 54. An Environmental Technological Approach to Architectural Programming for School Facilities

This chapter describes synthetically a method integrating functional, technological and environmental aspects of architectural programming for school facilities. This method is based on the analysis of activities and relevant user needs followed by an in-depth assessment of all related functional and environmental aspects usually not considered in current design practices: from the climate response to comfort requirements to the analysis of energy and material flows; from the space–time characteristics of activities to their private/public connotation and interdependency; from the inside/outside interrelationships to the multisensory perception of users. This building programming phase represents a necessary background for the next preliminary architectural composition based on the environmentally sound combination of “virtual” space units through a set of rules aimed at fulfilling the client brief and general sustainability requirements as well as avoiding or, at least, balancing potential conflicts by a tradeoff approach.

Giacomo Chiesa, Mario Grosso

Chapter 55. Green, Smart, Sustainable Building Aspects and Innovations

Buildings of the future should be designed with features that meet the anticipated challenges of technological, environmental, and societal progress. When increasingly sophisticated communications and control systems are integrated into a building’s design, the door is opened to endless innovations; when incorporated into construction procedures, energy consumption is contained and the environment is better protected. Through smart construction, a more comfortable built environment can be created while simultaneously reducing a site’s carbon footprint. Green building melds technology and living practices to modify water efficiency and increase energy efficiency. The use of eco-friendly materials and innovative procedures will result in optimized energy performance, extra commissioning measurements and verification, and continual carbon dioxide monitoring. This is essential as LEED and BREEAM schemes are expected to become future requirements of any construction project, large or small. Self-sustaining buildings will be the best solution for meeting the ever-growing technological demand on energy, as well as many countries’ stated goals of independence from carbon-based energy sources.

Abdul Salam Darwish

Chapter 56. Soilless Urban Temporary Agriculture as a Strategy for Brownfield Site Renewal

The last few years have witnessed the development of a large number of projects, in the fields of planning and architecture, that aim to integrate food production in urban spaces. This practice goes under the name of Urban Agriculture and it is spreading ito many cities because it carries benefits and implications toward urban sustainability (environmental, economic, social and institutional). The paper aims to describe an ongoing research project, Ur.C.A. is an in progress research project, financed by Regione Toscana, and develop by the Interuniversity Centre and the DISPAA Department of the University of Florence, in partnership with two local enterprises: Azienda Agricola Cammelli and Azienda Agricola Artemisia.Ur.C.A. aims to identify the possibilities and the potential of integrating agriculture in urban settlements, especially in brownfield sites and marginal areas, taking advantage of hydroponic technologies. The integration of agricultural activities in urban areas meets the requirements of consciousness toward food, reducing the gap between production and consumptions, and of alternative sustainable km0 alimentary production chains. Furthermore urban agriculture improves shared public spaces and social and recreational activities.Brownfield sites and temporary unused areas can be, through urban agriculture, regenerated in terms of space quality, also providing them of new functions and a new role.The project general objective is to analyze the possibilities of the requalification of the above mentioned urban contexts, through urban agriculture, focusing on legislative and technological feasibility. Ur.C.A. aims to develop an innovative use for brownfield sites that, through the integration of food production, can enhance social innovation, citizens awareness toward environment, health, and diet, social participation, and furthermore can stimulate an urban km0 production and consequentially new small scale local economies and green jobs.Ur.C.A specific objective is to identify an innovative hydroponic growth cell system, suitable for urban contexts in terms of design, technology and sustainability, which would integrate renewable energy resources and rain water collection. The new concepts of growth cell will be especially suitable for urban unused areas: indeed in our towns can be found several spaces that remain temporary, but generally for a long period, unused as “frozen” waiting for new projects to be approved and completed. The Ur.C.A. growth cell, conceived as light, transportable, modular, nearly zero environmentally impacting, and energy efficient, can become a device useful to quickly, but also temporary, requalifying the mentioned areas.

Leonardo Boganini, Chiara Casazza

Chapter 57. Solar Building Systems for the Mediterranean Region: Research Outputs Between Italy and France

This paper comes from previous investigations carried out by the authors, in France and Italy, and from a cross border cooperation projects based on the joint collaboration between the University of Corsica Pascal Paoli and the University of Genoa. The authors focus on the enhancement of passive solar systems and thermal solar systems, with particular attention to their operation/efficiency and their architectural integration. The exchange between Italian and French experiences, especially between regions with similar climate, can enhance solar building strategies, in accordance with the new European energy standards as well as the Mediterranean climate, the traditional construction technologies and users’ needs.

Christian Cristofari, Andrea Giachetta, Chiara Piccardo

Chapter 58. Spectral Variation of Energy-Efficient Room Lighting

This research concentrates on advanced lighting systems with increased energy efficiency and improved color effects in relation to human-centric lighting (HCL). HCL includes the visual aspects of color perception like color temperature of light, color rendering, and, last but not least, the aesthetic image of room illumination. In addition, nonvisual effects on the circadian biorhythm, for example, influencing the melatonin hormone level, must be taken into account. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential to meet the aforementioned demands of energy efficiency and spectral adaptation if innovative solutions (in contrast to retrofit solutions) are applied. Lighting principles and innovative luminaires are developed for typical office rooms, which allow for variable color temperatures (tunable white) and illuminances, high color rendering indices, decorative and harmonic color compositions, and circadian lighting. Various situations of room illumination are visualized. A prototype luminaire is demonstrated, and characteristics of lighting performance and energy efficiency are given.

Helmut F. O. Müller

Chapter 59. The Housing Retrofit Market in Italy: Constraints and Barriers to Development

The construction sector holds great importance for the reduction of energy consumption and for the achievement of goals related to environmental sustainability as stated by European policies. The national energy plan assigns to this sector an important role in curtailing energy consumption. The objectives of the Italian Plan for Energy Efficiency (PAEE) have been surpassed with interventions by owner-occupiers that generate high savings at the same cost, as in the case of the replacement of traditional boilers with condensing boilers and replacement. Many window replacements have been made, with relatively low energy savings but with a quite high amelioration of building maintenance levels. These interventions have been pushed mainly by a favourable policy of tax relief. More difficult is the further achievement of savings through interventions that are more complex and expensive, to be carried out on aged building stock and with a high rate of owner-occupiers. Innovation related to eco-construction is driven by legislation with strict criteria in terms of energy performance. The sector has thus connected a traditional approach to innovation. At the same time the industry has seen the emergence of actors that link supply and demand [designers of system components and building materials, energy service companies (ESCO)]. This chapter examines case studies focusing on the critical issues that have hindered the success of the building retrofit market. The role of construction companies, especially craftsmen, and designers is highlighted and identified as being central in the development of building retrofitting in Italy in terms of both their technical expertise and their closeness to customers.

Riccardo Pollo

Chapter 60. Passive Cooling in Mediterranean Area for a Bioclimatic and Zero Energy Architecture

Natural and hybrid ventilation systems in Mediterranean climate have huge potential in terms of energy savings and indoor comfort improvement. The main obstacles to more widespread use of such systems lie probably in the difficulties and uncertainties inherent in the design of the systems and in the predictability of actual performance. This chapter describes a methodology for overcoming these problems and presents two case studies that illustrate the process and give an example of the possible results. The design process is articulated through the use of analysis and simulation tools in a progressively more detailed manner. Thus, the general strategies are adapted to the climate and the main building features; site and general building designs depend on the microclimate-specific characteristics; detailed design and system calibration are defined on the basis of internal computational fluid dynamics and subhourly energy simulations. The case studies, two public housing buildings in central Italy, are designed on a high-energy standard, with passive solar systems, natural and hybrid ventilation strategies, high-efficiency heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, and integrated photovoltaic modules. The design process and the estimated performance are illustrated with special regard to ventilation and cooling systems. The buildings are expected to have very low energy consumption and a high quality standard for indoor comfort, showing good potential for these strategies in the Mediterranean climate.

Fabrizio Tucci

Chapter 61. First-Year Performance of a PV Plant in Jordan Compared to PV Plants in the Region

This chapter presents the first-year (2014) performance analysis of a 276 kWp grid-connected roof-type solar photovoltaic (PV) plant located at the campus of Al-Ahliyya Amman University (AAU) in Jordan using monitored data. The plant is installed on the 3000 m2 roof of the arena building on the university’s campus. The array consists of 1176 modules with 2 orientations, 10° and 15°. The PV array is configured in such a way that the system includes 14 panels in parallel with 14 inverters. The plant is equipped with a monitoring system that is connected to the Internet and provides data on a daily basis. The study shows that the actual and estimated specific energy productions are 1639 and 1726 kWh/kWp/year, respectively. The annual capacity factor and performance ratio are found to be 18.7 and 87.5 %, respectively. The actual energy production is found to be 452,406 kWh/year, whereas the estimated annual energy production is found to be 476,467 kWh, as calculated using the PVsyst v6.32 software. The measured and estimated yields are in close agreement with each other, with a relative error of around 5 %. It is found that the actual yield is at its maximum in July and minimum in January. The analyzed plant is compared to PV plants worldwide, particularly in detail to a PV plant in Syria. The comparison shows that the overall performance of the AAU plant is excellent.

Ali Hamzeh, Sadiq Hamid, Abbas Sandouk, Zakaria Al-Omari, Ghada Aldahim

Chapter 62. Gauging the Effectiveness of a Resource Management Awareness Campaign on a Central Mediterranean Island

The ‘Reduce and Save’ campaign aimed to promote environmental sustainability awareness on the island of Gozo. Gozo forms part of the central Mediterranean Maltese Archipelago and has been earmarked to become an eco-island through the implementation of a local sustainable development strategy by 2020. The campaign falls under the umbrella of a wider-ranging initiative known as the eco-Gozo project, under the auspices of the Ministry for Gozo. The Reduce and Save campaign consisted of the identification and training of personnel capable of conducting a number of home visits in an attempt to reach as many Gozitan households as possible. The home visits made by these personnel consisted of 30-min information sessions on energy, waste and water management aspects, the distribution of informational printed matter and the filling in of a questionnaire to enable data compilation on specific topics. This chapter assesses the results generated by the questionnaire in conjunction with other information sources. Analyses of questionnaire responses revealed that a favourable disposition towards renewable energy (RE) technologies and energy-saving and water-conservation measures already existed amongst Gozitan households. Data on RE installations and energy-saving ventures for the islands are compiled by national entities such as the National Statistics Office and the Malta Resources Authority. These and other sources are assessed in order to gauge the effects, if any, of the Reduce and Save campaign. Any impacts on the behavioural patterns of Gozitans following the campaign are assessed by comparing specific indicators for the island with similar information for the main island of Malta. While the results help to consolidate the information compiled, they also enable the refinement of the training and dissemination methodologies utilised as a means of tailoring a similar, albeit larger-scale, campaign for the main island of Malta. Similar exercises aiming to increase awareness on environmental sustainability can also be replicated for other islands or communities.

Paul Refalo, Robert N. Farrugia, Luciano Mulè Stagno, Charles Yousif, Tonio Sant, Nora Jakkel, Anthony Zammit, Joseph Portelli

Chapter 63. The ‘Reduce and Save’ Project: An Island-Wide Resource Management Awareness Initiative

The Republic of Malta is an archipelago composed of three inhabited islands – Malta, Gozo and Comino. The main island of Malta has one of the highest population densities in the world, at 1566 inhabitants/km2, and is the largest island, with an area of 246 km2. Gozo has about 31,000 inhabitants and an area of 67 km2, while Comino is much smaller and has fewer than 10 inhabitants and a hotel. In 2008, the government of Malta, through the Ministry for Gozo, embarked on a programme with the aim of transforming Gozo into an eco-island. This initiative was called the eco-Gozo Project – a Local Sustainable Development Strategy for an Island and Its Community. As part of this undertaking, the ministry commissioned the Institute for Sustainable Energy at the University of Malta to conduct an educational campaign named ‘Reduce and Save’. The aim of this campaign was to design and deliver information sessions on water and energy conservation, renewable energy and waste management in every household in Gozo. The main objectives of this initiative were to increase awareness and disseminate eco-friendly information with the aim of improving the quality of life and levels of sustainability on the island. The methodology consisted of training courses, examination of the trainers, the island-wide house-call programme, the approach used during the visits themselves and the results compiled through a specific questionnaire. These actions all served to couple an educational campaign focusing on sustainability and environment-related issues with a data-gathering exercise in an island community. The results showed a favourable opinion on renewable energy and energy-saving and water-conservation measures and gave a snapshot of the renewable energy installations (such as solar water heaters and photovoltaic systems), energy-saving measures (such as roof insulation and double glazing) and water-saving measures (such as recycling of grey water and the use of rainwater catchment in dwellings’ existing water cisterns) at the time of the home visits. In the context of the development of a local, community-based sustainable development strategy, this initiative was instrumental in empowering and engaging the population at a time when this wide-ranging community project was being launched.

Paul Refalo, Luciano Mulè Stagno, Robert N. Farrugia, Charles Yousif, Tonio Sant, Nora Jakkel, Anthony Zammit, Joseph Portelli

Chapter 64. Heat and Light Intensity Influence on (I–V) Characterization of Cu2S Film/p-Si Heterojunction

Cuprous sulphide was deposited on p-type silicon substrate by thermal evaporation techniques, to form a Cu2S film/p-Si heterojunction, and deposited on glass to measure the thermoelectric power. The thickness of the Cu2S film is d = 113 nm, the structure of the Cu2S thin film was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Surface morphology and grain size were obtained by transmission electron microscopy. The thermoelectric power of the Cu2S thin film was obtained and the Seeback effect was positive, which refers to a p-type semiconductor. Current–voltage (I–V) characteristics in the dark at temperatures ranging from 393 to 373 K were investigated. I–V characteristics in illuminance at light intensities from 1400 to 22,000 lx were investigated by changing the distance between the light source and the sample.

M. Saadeldin, M. M. El-Nahass, K. Sawaby

Chapter 65. Using Renewable Energy to Process Seaweed

The main focus of this study is on the development of Seriwe hamlet. The hamlet is located in southeastern East Lombok Regency, where 370 households earn their livelihoods by cultivating seaweed. After harvesting, the seaweed is usually dried using direct sunshine, where the seaweed is spread out on mats and frequently mixed with sand and other foreign materials. This may take 2 to 3 days or even weeks if the weather is bad. The dried seaweed is then sold to traders at a fixed price without further processing owing to a lack of processing facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a way to change this traditional method of drying using an improved hybrid solar–wind dryer that is clean and hygienic. Cash flow analysis of the hybrid solar–wind dryer demonstrates the benefits of using it when it is leased. After drying, seaweed is processed in a newly built processing building, where ten units of processing facilities are provided. The processing of seaweed uses clean water supplied from a desalination facility powered by solar photovoltaics and wind energy. The processed seaweed is expected to enjoy robust demand. This study also presents a socioeconomic analysis of Seriwe hamlet that includes the impact of the project on the welfare of the Seriwe community.

A. Kamaruddin, Aep Saepul Uyun, Herman Noer Rahman, Eri Suherman, Salnida Y. Lumbessi

Chapter 66. New Environmentally Friendly Chlorine-Free Solar-Grade Silicon Production Technologies

One of the major lines of solar energy development is the creation of environmentally friendly, wasteless, and cheap solar-grade silicon production technologies. Currently the main silicon production technologies are based on a reduction of silicon hydrogen chloride compounds: trichlorosilane, tetrachlorosilane, and monosilane. These technologies use environmentally dangerous and nonfireproof compounds in quantity. Such production levels can be profitable only in large volumes (more than 1000 tons per year). This chapter examines the research results of methods of silicon purification by extraction from a solid phase and plasma-chemical purification of metallurgical-grade silicon from impurities to the solar-grade level.

Sergey Karabanov, Victor Yasevich, Dmitriy Suvorov, Evgeniy Slivkin, Andrey Karabanov

Chapter 67. Some Physical Properties of Pure and Fluorine-Doped Tin Oxide Films Used as Transparent Conducting Oxide

For architectural use, coated window glass can be categorized into two classes: low-emissivity (E) window glass and solar control window films. Low-E glass serves a thermal insulation function. The application of low-E glass to buildings will significantly reduce energy consumption, mainly during cold seasons. Solar control films are designed to absorb or reflect incident solar radiation in order to diminish solar heat gains through glass. The application of selective coatings, i.e., low-E coating in glazings, allows for a more efficient management of heating and cooling loads of a building. Low-E coatings include many transparent conductors (TCs). TCs have a wide variety of uses. One of the applications of TCs is their use as low-emissivity windows in buildings. Another example is where the front surfaces of solar cells are covered with transparent electrodes. TCs’ ability to reflect thermal infrared heat is exploited to produce energy-conserving windows. Therefore, TCs can contribute to energy savings and can be considered important eco-materials for a sustainable energy future. This chapter includes an investigation of some of the physical properties of pure and fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films, which are TCs. Thin films were prepared on borosilicate glass slides by the spray pyrolysis technique. The optical energy gap was calculated for pure SnO2 films. The structure of specimens was studied by the X-ray diffraction technique. The mechanical durability of doped tin oxide thin films is related to hardness. Vickers hardness and microhardness techniques were used to investigate the hardness of tin oxide thin films. We conclude that tin oxide thin films are harder than glass substrates.

Kamil M. Yousif, Sayran A. Abdulgafar

Chapter 68. Socioeconomic, Environmental, and Social Impacts of a Concentrated Solar Power Energy Project in Northern Chile

Concentrated solar power deployment could play an important role in the sustainable development strategy of Chile, the country with the highest solar potential in the world. In this regard, besides electricity generation costs, it is also important to assess the socioeconomic, environmental, and social implications of energy investment projects. To shed some light on this issue, this chapter contributes to the existing body of knowledge by conducting a sustainability assessment of the installation, operation, and maintenance of a 110 MW concentrated solar power tower plant in Chile. Using an input–output methodology based on plant cost data, this chapter estimates the direct and indirect socioeconomic and environmental effects of the project in terms of economic activity, job creation, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions. Additionally, using the Social Hotspots Database, a preliminary social risk analysis in those economic sectors most stimulated by the project in terms of employment is performed. Assuming domestic provision of all goods and services, results show that the associated total socioeconomic impacts over the lifetime of the plant would amount to US $3124 million, a multiplier effect of 2.2, and a ratio of indirect per direct job creation of 1.21. Additionally, results also show that direct and indirect economic activities required by the project would generate 64.36 g CO2/kWh. Finally, a social assessment indicates the existence of a high unemployment risk in those sectors most stimulated; therefore the project could decrease these unemployment risks.

Irene Rodríguez, Natalia Caldés, Alberto Garrido, Cristina De La Rúa, Yolanda Lechón

Chapter 69. Learning Sustainability from Arab Gulf Vernacular Architecture

This chapter describes an approach that helps to understand the complex relationship between environmental and sociocultural factors and how to learn/derive sustainable design guidelines from vernacular architecture. The method identifies at the outset that vernacular architecture is a result of both cultural and environmental influences. It describes a set of factors that belong to two different categories, sociocultural and environmental, and that have had impact on generating the vernacular architecture of the Arab Gulf. Then it focuses on analyzing selected architectural elements based on the influencing factors. It presents a matrix that illustrates the function of each element and the complex relationship between each element and the factors that affect it. To understand these complex relationships, another matrix was devised to analyze the interactions between these elements under the relevant factors. The outcomes can be used to develop rules of thumb for sustainable design.

Khaled A. Al-Sallal

Chapter 70. Transparent Conducting Oxides for Solar Cell Applications

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are wide bandgap semiconductors (Eg ≥3.1 eV) whose properties strongly depend on stoichiometric deviations, such as oxygen deficiency, and on the nature and quantity of impurities trapped in the host lattice. Examples of TCOs include tin oxide (SnO2), indium tin oxide (In2O3), and zinc oxide (ZnO). The best-known application of TCOs in solar cells is their use as fore contacts. High-efficiency CdTe solar cells are generally grown in a superstrate configuration, where the CdTe/CdS stacks are deposited on TCO-coated glass substrates. Another development is an application of a TCO as a back electrical contact on CdTe, leading to bifacial CdTe solar cells, which can be illuminated from one or both sides.In this chapter, a review of the properties of TCOs of potential use in solar cells was performed, with a focus on tin oxide and zinc oxide thin films. This focus is due to the fact that these two compounds in thin film forms are technologically important materials in photovoltaic cells. The electrical, optical, structural, compositional, and morphological properties of both of these compounds are discussed.

Shadia J. Ikhmayies

Chapter 71. Solar-Driven Cold Storage Units to Reduce Food Waste

This chapter presents the current situation of food wastage around the globe by comparing developed and developing countries. The research further focuses on India, presenting the state of food wastage and briefly discussing cold storage facilities and problems faced by the cold chain sector. Sustainable off-grid solar cooling technology measures that can be used for cold storage are briefly described. Finally, the chapter discusses how solar cooling technology could be distributed across India to reduce food wastage and, consequently, how that would benefit society and the environment.

Sraisth

Chapter 72. An Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for the Romanian Climate

Human thermal comfort (HTC) embraces two major approaches, Fanger or classical theory and an adaptive one. Adaptive HTC equations make up parts of the worldwide recognized thermal comfort standards. The balance between thermal comfort and energy saving is held by the adaptive approach of thermal comfort. The use of adaptive HTC equations in the evaluation of existing buildings and in the design of new buildings has led to an important decrease in energy consumption and a minimization of building maintenance costs.The adaptive HTC equations found in international comfort standards are determined from specific databases. New adaptive HTC equations are being developed worldwide for specific climatic regions. The aim of this chapter is to find a HTC equation for Romania’s climate (Köppen climate type D – temperate continental climate) that is similar to the EN 15251 adaptive HTC equation. To this end, a field survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in several naturally ventilated buildings (buildings at two prominent universities in Bucharest – a passive office building and a residential house) in Romania. Comfort parameters were measured, and comfort questionnaires were distributed to occupants.

Ioana Udrea, Cristiana Croitoru, Ilinca Nastase, Ruxandra Crutescu, Viorel Badescu

Chapter 73. A Whole-Building, Integrated Approach for Designing a High-Performance, Net-Zero-Energy and Net-Zero-Water Building

The Center for Sustainable Landscapes (CSL) at Phipps Conservatory and Botanical Gardens is a 2,262 m2 educational, research, and administrative services facility set on an 11,736 m2 site. Performing 70% more efficiently than a typical building and achieving an energy use intensity of 18 (2.98 kWh/m2/year), it operates at net-positive energy and captures and treats all of its sanitary and storm water. It is the world’s first building to attain Living Building Challenge, LEED Platinum, Four Stars Sustainable SITES, and WELL Platinum certifications.The CSL is the result of a whole-building, integrated, outside-in, passive-first design process guided by ecological planning principles. Two years of bimonthly design charrettes brought together team members involved in every phase of the project to capitalize on collective wisdom, shorten feedback loops, augment system synergies, minimize compromises and costs, and exceed net-zero-energy and net-zero-water performance.Operations are enhanced by collaborating with the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University on original research in the CSL related to building performance. Both Universities receive real-time data from thousands of control points from the building automation and water reuse systems. Engaging staff with feedback from this research allows Phipps to continually improve the CSL’s performance.

Richard V. Piacentini

Chapter 74. Dynamic Simulation for Increasing the Efficiency of Solar Cooling Systems in Northern Latitudes

Latvia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea at 57°00′N latitude. In Latvia, cooling is required about 1500 k.h degree hour (at an indoor temperature of 21 °C). This chapter presents the optimization of a solar cooling system in Latvia using the model of a solar cooling system which was created by a dynamic simulation program. The model is similar to the existing real solar cooling system installed at the Institute of Physical Energetics. The precision of the model was tested by comparing it with real equipment. Simulations were carried out using metrological data from different European countries. Simulation results, the dependency of the heat carrier average temperature and the ratio of energy from a pump to the system were collected and analysed. Different element locations of the solar cooling system were compared in two models. The annual cool production of the solar cooling system was defined.

Peteris Shipkovs, Janis Shipkovs, Andrejs Snegirjovs, Galina Kashkarova, Kristina Lebedeva, Lana Migla

Chapter 75. Investigation of Urban Microclimate Parameters of City Square in Harbin

This chapter aims to address the characteristics of urban microclimates that affect building energy performance and the implementation of renewable energy technologies. An experimental campaign was designed to investigate microclimate parameters, including air and surface temperature, direct and diffuse solar irradiation levels on both horizontal and vertical surfaces, and wind speed and direction in a city square in Harbin, China. The outcomes of this research reveal that the climatic parameters are significantly influenced by the attributes of urban textures, which highlight the need to both provide microclimatic information and use it in building design stages. This research provides valuable microclimatic information for a city square in Harbin. The outcomes of this research demonstrate a need to conduct a feasibility study for the implementation of renewable energy technologies and a thermal/energy performance assessment of buildings using microclimatic information rather than meteorological weather data, which are mostly collected from nonurban environments.

Hong Jin, Peng Cui, Meng Huang

Retraction Note to: Chapter 6 Green Buildings and Renewable Energy Application Based on Life Cycle Performance Costing

The authors have retracted this chapter Green Buildings and Renewable Energy Application Based on Life Cycle Performance Costing because Anna Vanderveen, Wim Maassen and Rik Maaijen did not agree to be included as authors and were not aware of the submission and publication of this chapter. All authors agree with this retraction.

Wim Zeiler, Anna Vanderveen, Wim Maassen, Rik Maaijen

Correction to: Investigation of Urban Microclimate Parameters of City Square in Harbin

Some peers read our paper and contacted us to point out a few questionable problems. After considering these problems carefully, we re-examined this paper and found data to be incomplete, leading to debatable conclusions.

Hong Jin, Peng Cui, Meng Huang
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