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Über dieses Buch

This book highlights recent findings of membrane - based dye removal methods along with the application of photocatalytic, nanofiltration and ultrafiltration membrane including membrane – based fibers, metal-organic frameworks, polyethersulfone, ceramic, etc. Among water and wastewater pollutants, dyes have been normally observed and detected in various aquatic solutions, including rivers and lakes. Aesthetic pollution, toxicity, persistent, and carcinogenicity are some of the adverse effects of dyes entering the ecosystem. Although dyes have brought a colourful world, their presence in the environment are responsible for adverse effects on the planet. Diverse physical, chemical and biological methods are available to treat dye contaminated water. This book presents membrane separation technology that has been developed in the past decade to treat different wastewaters, and owning to its effective performance, has garnered the attention of academia and industry alike.



An Introduction to Membrane-Based Systems for Dye Removal

Despite significant contributions to the country’s economy and human necessities, the textile industry consumes large quantities of dyes with the discharge of excessive deleterious dye effluents. The wastewater contaminated with dyes if not treated afore discharge poses serious intimidations to the environment and human health. The presence of dyes in untreated wastewater has grown into an emergent apprehension for scientists. Therefore, there is a calamitous prerequisite to discharge wastewater after treatment using different environmentally benign physical, chemical, and biological technologies. The chapter emphasizes the treatment of wastewater dye effluents with membrane-based technologies such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse, and forward osmosis. Recent trends in the aforesaid techniques with the benefits and drawbacks have also been reconnoitered in detail. The critical analyses regarding the comparative efficiency of the membrane-based approaches for dye removal from wastewater have been explored systematically. The chapter will widen the industrial applications of membrane-based technology with cost-effectiveness, and performance in the future.
Sana Saif, Tania Saif, Muhammad Arshad Raza, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Mudassir Iqbal, Nabeel Ur Rehman, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain

Technical Aspects of Nanofiltration for Dyes Wastewater Treatment

Currently, there are many membrane separation technologies that have been attracted growing interest in dyes removal from water streams and wastewater. In this chapter, we focus on nanofiltration (NF). In comparison with the available membrane techniques, NF is deemed to be the most promising technique due to its higher dye rejection, lower energy consumption, and higher antifouling properties. However, the challenge for feasible NF membranes with enhanced permeate flux, selectivity, and higher antifouling properties is remaining in the commonly used polymeric NF membranes. Therefore, numerous methods have been recently adopted by incorporating specific fillers into the polymeric membranes to fill in these gaps. We investigate the recent types of NF modified membranes based on their merits and limitations. Furthermore, the models of spiral wound NF for dyes removal are presented to explain the underlying mechanisms. Hence, this chapter may help the decision-makers to select the suitable membrane technology for the dye treatment removal using NF-based membranes.
Alaa El Din Mahmoud, Manal Fawzy, Mona M. Amin Abdel-Fatah

Application of Ultrafiltration Membrane Technology for Removal of Dyes from Wastewater

Water pollution is normally amplified by wastewater effluent points such as mining activities, textile industries, municipal discharge. Amongst them, textile industries are one of the biggest contributors of various types of dyes in wastewater. Different types of membranes have been used in the treatment of dyes in wastewater such as ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and microfiltration (MF). UF membrane technology has been used as a separation technique for wastewater and purification purpose. This chapter reviews the fundamentals and applications of UF membrane filtration technology for the dye removal in wastewater and their future perspective in UF application.
Denga Ramutshatsha-Makhwedzha, Philiswa Nosizo Nomngongo

Progression and Application of Photocatalytic Membrane Reactor for Dye Removal: An Overview

Globally, textile industries are one of the rapidly growing industrial sectors that are not only contributing significantly towards the economy but are also generating an extensive variety of dyes as pollutants that vitiates the natural ecosystem. The increasing toxicity and recalcitrant nature of the industrial dye effluents are emerging concerns that require immediate attention. Treatment of dye-enriched water bodies and industrial effluents with advanced, economical, sustainable and efficacious technology is the need of the hour. The heterogeneous photocatalysis, an advanced oxidation process (AOP), is a novel and sustainable process that ensures photocatalytic degradation of dyes by generating reactive and oxidizing free radicals under ultraviolet (UV) and visible irradiation. Besides, integrating the membrane separation process with heterogeneous photocatalysis results in a holistic approach—photocatalytic membrane reactor (PMR). The PMR is reported to aid in (i) achieving higher pollution removal efficiency with complete detoxification and (ii) abating the membrane fouling. Coupling the fact of necessity to treat dye-contaminated water and the effective application of PMR, this chapter aims to elucidate the properties and classification of dyes, photocatalytic reaction mechanism and membrane fabrication methods. Also, the chapter conveys comprehensive information and fundamental understanding of different configurations and applications of Photocatalytic Membrane Reactor (PMR) with major emphasis on recent advancements.
Ayushman Bhattacharya, Selvaraj Ambika

Fibrous Membranes for Water Purification: Focusing on Dye Removal

Synthetic dyes from textile and other manufacturing industries in the wastewater are harmful due to their toxic, mutagenic, and cancer-causing nature, thus compelling for agile development of necessary processes to purify wastewater efficiently. Being a significant step of industrial wastewater purification, the removal of synthetic dyes is always challenging due to complex and stable aromatic molecular structures, hence the prime focus of current research. The techniques such as biodegradation, photocatalytic degradation, Fenton reagent, adsorption, and absorption are either less effective or costly with operational problems. Recent research reveals that fibrous membranes offer high-throughput performance to remove dyes from contaminated water. The chapter will cover the recent advancements in developing novel strategies for active, economical, and facile removal of synthetic dyes from wastewater using fibrous membranes. Different types of dyes and innovative methods for synthesis and modification of fibrous membranes are also discussed in detail. The chapter's core focus is to investigate the underlying mechanisms of dye removal using fibrous membranes for wastewater treatment.
Muhammad Mudassir Iqbal, Gulzar Muhammad, Muhammad Arshad Raza, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam, Muhammad Ajaz Hussain, Zahid Shafiq

Preparation and Application of Chitosan-Based Membrane: Focusing on Dye Removal

Water pollution is caused by the direct discharge of harmful dyes into the environment and is a major global problem. Dyes if present in the water can be toxic to the aquatic organisms and humans. Dyes are recalcitrant in nature, and they can resist attack by heat, light, and microorganisms. Hence, most of the reactive dyes are non-biodegradable and their removal from the aqueous solution is very difficult, and therefore, a necessary measure must be applied in order to tackle the existence of the water pollution problem. Adsorption is a well-known technology that is adopted in the academia and industries for removal of dyes from solution. The adsorption of dyes on adsorbents is a simple and economical procedure that is widely used for large and small-scale removal of dyes. In the current chapter, we reviewed the extraction of chitin from the shells of marine animals, the preparation of chitosan by deacetylation reaction, structure and properties of the chitosan biopolymer. Chitosan films could be prepared by casting technology via dissolution of chitosan in a suitable solvent followed by simple evaporation technique. The chapter highlights that chitosan films have superior physicochemical characteristics than raw chitosan biopolymer; the mechanical strength of reported chitosan films might be as high as 28 MPa. Among the different chitosan films, this chapter has comprehensively presented the discussion on preparation, characterization, and dye removal application of various classes of chitosan composite membranes. The tensile strength of chitosan composite film could reach 35 MPa approximately, thus suggesting the composite films based on chitosan could be considered as good adsorbents for dye removals from water. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) of the reviewed composite film could reach 655 mg g−1, but comparatively lower than Qmax of chitosan-magnetic cyclodextrin composite by a mammoth difference of 2125 mg g−1. Both of the chitosan-based composites are recyclable through multiple adsorption–desorption cycles. Despite the good adsorption and regeneration and reuse capabilities of chitosan-based composite films, and in order to enhance their dye removal capacities, the present chapter has strongly recommended further works to explore more of magnetic chitosan-based composite membranes with superior adsorptive behaviors for consideration of future practical dye removal application from wastewater. Finally, the characterizations of such adsorbent systems should be comprehensively investigated before and after dye removal to understand the details on mechanism of the removal of dyes from water.
Abubakar Hamisu Mijinyawa, Geeta Durga, Anuradha Mishra

Lignin-Based Membrane for Dye Removal

Urbanization, industrial activities, and the rapid increase in major pollutants have led to serious environmental concerns. Dye wastewaters are poor degradable and toxic compounds with serious damage for the life. The demand for a clean environment for pollutants such as dyes has increased. Biodegradation of dyes is important to decrease the amount of dyes as a result of industrial processes. Adsorption is one of the main processes, and fruitful results have been achieved in terms of cost, availability, and efficacy. It is a solution to old traditional methods such as chemistry or biology. Due to the adsorption properties, many polymers have been studied, but lignin has become a potential material for dye removal. Lignin is a multifunctional polymer with great properties such as usable, non-toxic, antibacterial, dye-absorbing, anti-cancer, etc. Therefore, lignin-based materials have arisen for different applications. Besides, lignin-degrading enzymes have been shown potential results in the treatment of dye removal. The dye removal depends on a cooperative process of the main enzymes followed by several accessory enzymes and the reducing substrates or mediators in the catalytic cycle.
Moises Bustamante-Torres, Belén Arcentales-Vera, Sofía Abad-Sojos, Odalys Torres-Constante, Frida Ruiz-Rubio, Emilio Bucio

Metal–Organic Frameworks Membranes

Recently, membrane technology is a promising strategy to remove organic dyes from industrial (textile, paint, leather, and dyeing) wastewater. Dyes are important organic pollutants that have been increasing continuously in wastewater and recognized for their hazardous effects on the ecosystem. Wastewater before discharge into main streams must be treated carefully to minimize the harmful effects of dyes on aquatic life and humans. Development in technology and science has directed to advance techniques for dye removal from industrial effluents. Current studies have reviewed the potential dye removal application of metal–organic frameworks boosted membranes (MOFs boosted membranes). MOF-based membranes have been applied extensively in nanofiltration (NF), Forward Osmosis (FO), ultrafiltration (UF), and reverse osmosis (RO) techniques. This chapter discusses various methods for dye removal, MOF adsorbents, and MOF-based membranes. MOF-based membranes design strategies and key features of MOF-based membranes are also described briefly. In addition, MOF boosted membranes solution, challenges and future prospects are summarized.
Faiza Ilyas, Umme Ammara, Munazza Shahid, Manzar Sohail, Muhammad Sher, Muhammad Altaf, Raja Shahid Ashraf

Polyethersulfone and Its Derivatives as Membrane Materials for Dye Removal from Water

Water contamination by industrial dye effluents is a critical issue faced on a global level over the past few decades and the problem only seems to rise day by day. Dye-polluted water on its consumption, adversely affects human lives and aquatic lives thus creating an imbalance in the ecosystem. Diverse methods are available to treat dye-contaminated water and membrane technology is established as an emerging one among them. Membrane separation has garnered more attention owing to the salient features such as ease of implementation, low cost, and reduction of waste generation. Polyethersulfone (PES) membranes are extensively used for this purpose as they possess high thermal and mechanical stability over other polymeric membrane materials. The key objective of this book chapter is to consolidate the recent advances made in the usage of PES-based membranes for the removal of dye contaminants. Native PES membranes are highly prone to undergo fouling. The hydrophobic nature associated with PES also reduces the separation efficiency. To overcome these drawbacks and also to render higher dye separation efficiency, several organic and inorganic modifications have been carried out to get custom-modified PES membranes. The modifications and the resultant improvements made in PES membranes have been elaborately reviewed in this book chapter.
Swarnalatha Venkatanarasimhan, Durgadevi Nagarajan, Thilagavathy Palanisamy

Cross-Linked Polymer-Based Adsorbents and Membranes for Dye Removal

Contamination of water is a problem that severely affects the equilibrium of ecosystems and human health. Through the years, various techniques have been implemented for the elimination of colorants from the water discarded by the textile industry; nevertheless, some of the wastes obtained are hard to treat and toxic. Polymers can be used as an adsorbent membrane, a coagulant, or a flocculant, and the inclusion of them has been a promising strategy used for the versatility, effectivity, and low toxicity of some polymers. Organic polymers have demonstrated good ability for the elimination of colorants by the adsorption mechanism, and they have been useful for the preparation of membranes for nanofiltration. Synthetic and natural polymers mixed with other materials have improved the performance of membranes without altering the permeation and flux. The cross-linking has allowed the formation of polymeric networks with pores, which aid to the dye retention assisted by the functional groups in the polymer chains; additionally, this cross-linking is useful for the incorporation of other compounds such as nanomaterials of magnetic nanoparticles to improve the cleaning of wastewater. The control of the charge density in the polymer, the physical properties of the dispersed medium, the chemical structure of the dye, and cross-linked polymers for adsorption and coagulation are some of the aspects to review in this chapter.
Marlene A. Velazco-Medel, Luis A. Camacho-Cruz, José C. Lugo-González, Emilio Bucio

Ceramic Nanocomposite Membranes for Dye Removal

Due to their complex aromatic molecular structure, dyes persist in the aquatic environment and pose severe environmental and human health risks. To reduce the risks, it is important to treat dye-contaminated wastewater before it is discharged into waterways. A number of treatment methods have been used for dye removal from wastewater. Most of these processes produce large quantities of toxic sludge and are expensive. In this regard, membrane separation processes represent an alternative process for the treatment of dye-contaminated wastewater. Because of their low energy demand and low environmental footprint, membrane separation has been widely used in wastewater treatment. Membrane processes such as microfiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration are efficient in wastewater treatment. Although polymeric membranes are more widely used, ceramic membranes can extend the scope of application to address challenges such as chemical and mechanical stabilities, fouling and lifespan. Specifically, ceramic membranes possess good chemical stability, exceptional mechanical properties, thermal stability and a long lifespan. The major disadvantage of membrane separation technologies is fouling, which results in variations in selectivity and a decrease in permeate flux. Consequently, the efficiency of the separation process declines. To mitigate membrane fouling, several mechanical and/or chemical cleaning strategies are frequently used. These cleaning procedures are, however, likely to damage the membrane structure, particularly in polymeric membranes. For this and other reasons, the interest on the application of inorganic and, specifically, ceramic membranes has increased. This chapter summarizes: (1) the synthesis and fabrication of ceramic membranes, (2) their structure and properties and (3) their subsequent application in dye removal.
Nhamo Chaukura, Alfred Riet, Dumiso Mithi, Munyaradzi Manjoro
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