How do higher mental processes, learning, intentions, thoughts, emotions, arise from the functioning of the brain? That is the question which, with Jean-Paul Vanbremeersch, we have attempted to approach in the model MENS (for
Memory Evolutive Neural Systems
), proposing a unified frame for the functioning of the neural, mental and cognitive systems. It is an application to neuro-cognitive systems of our Memory Evolutive Systems, a model for self-organized multi-scale dynamic systems, based on a ’dynamic’ theory of categories (a summary on MES is given by Ehresmann & Simeonov, 2011, in this volume). Here I just indicate the main ideas; for more details, cf. Ehresmann & Vanbremeersch (2007, 2009).