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Über dieses Buch

Following the long tradition of the Schuler Company, the Metal For­ ming Handbook presents the scientific fundamentals of metal forming technology in a way which is both compact and easily understood. Thus, this book makes the theory and practice of this field accessible to teaching and practical implementation. The first Schuler "Metal Forming Handbook" was published in 1930. The last edition of 1966, already revised four times, was translated into a number of languages, and met with resounding approval around the globe. Over the last 30 years, the field of forming technology has been rad­ ically changed by a number of innovations. New forming techniques and extended product design possibilities have been developed and introduced. This Metal Forming Handbook has been fundamentally revised to take account of these technological changes. It is both a text­ book and a reference work whose initial chapters are concerned to pro­ vide a survey of the fundamental processes of forming technology and press design. The book then goes on to provide an in-depth study of the major fields of sheet metal forming, cutting, hydroforming and solid forming. A large number of relevant calculations offers state of the art solutions in the field of metal forming technology. In presenting tech­ nical explanations, particular emphasis was placed on easily under­ standable graphic visualization. All illustrations and diagrams were compiled using a standardized system of functionally oriented color codes with a view to aiding the reader's understanding.



1. Introduction

Technology has exerted a far greater influence on the development of our past than most history books give credit for. As late as the 19th century, craftmanship and technology were practically synonymous. It is only with the advent of mechanisation — through the use of machines — that the term technology took on a new meaning of its own.

2. Basic principles of metal forming

As described in DIN 8580, manufacturing processes are classified into six main groups: primary shaping, material forming, dividing, joining, modifying material property and coating (Fig. 2.1.1).

3. Fundamentals of press design

The function of a press is to transfer one or more forces and movements to a tool or die with the purpose of forming or blanking a workpiece. Press design calls for special knowledge of the production process to be used. Depending on the intended application, the press is designed either to execute a specific process or for mainly universal use.

4. Sheet metal forming and blanking

In metalforming, the geometry of the workpiece is established entirely or partially by the geometry of the die. In contrast to machining processes, significantly greater forces are necessary in forming. Due to the complexity of the parts, forming is often not carried out in a single operation. Depending on the geometry of the part, production is carried out in several operational steps via one or several production processes such as forming or blanking. One operation can also include several processes simultaneously (cf. Sect. 2.1.4).

5. Hydroforming

One of the aims of the sheet-metal processing industry is the minimization of costs and the optimization of its products concerning weight, strength characteristics and rigidity. In search for alternative production processes, hydroforming — the manufacture of hollow bodies with complex geometries by means of fluid pressure — has been shown to offer an interesting technical and economic potential to sheet metal manufacturers. The achievement of beneficial component characteristics using this process is only possible where component and process configuration are selected by considering the overall system design.

6. Solid forming (Forging)

The terms sheet metal forming and solid forming are based on practical industrial application, and subdivide the field of forming technology into two distinct areas. This distinction is made in addition to the definitions established by DIN 8582 “Forming” (cf. Fig. 2.1.3). Solid forming entails the three-dimensional forming of “compact” slugs (for example sheared billets), while the sheet metal forming method generally processes “flat” sheet metal blanks to create three-dimensional hollow structures with an approximately constant sheet metal thickness. The forces exerted during solid forming are substantially higher than those necessary for sheet metal forming. As a result, it is necessary to use relatively rigid compact-design machines and dies. Solid forming involves not only the processes of extrusion, indentation and drawing which are dealt with in most detail here, but also for example rolling, open die forging (cf. Fig. 2.1.4) or closed die forging (cf. Fig. 2.1.5).


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