Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Seafloor hydrothermal sulfides, which are expected to be a future resource for metals, could be a potential source for metal contamination in the seawater around mining sites. In this chapter, we illustrate the potential for metal leaching of both non-oxidized (non-exposed to atmosphere; before and during exploitation) and oxidized (exposed to atmosphere; after lifting and recovery) hydrothermal sulfides to seawater under different temperatures and redox conditions. One of the crucial findings was that metal dissolution behaviors differed significantly according to the specific areas and/or the initial oxidation states of the sulfide surfaces. Once the non-oxidized sulfide chips were ground to particulates and mixed with seawater, Zn and Pb were preferentially released even though these metals were included as minor components of the sulfides. For Zn, the dissolution rate increased under the oxic and higher temperature (20 °C) conditions when compared to the anoxic and lower temperature (5 °C) conditions, but the absolute rate was relatively moderate. These findings suggest that instantaneous metal release from sulfides into seawater will not occur before or during the crushing and lifting processes of seafloor mining. In contrast to the non-oxidized sulfides, the oxidized sulfides rapidly released large amounts of various metals and metalloids (e.g., Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, As, Sb, and Pb) into seawater. The different metal dissolution behaviors between the non-oxidized and oxidized hydrothermal sulfides suggest the importance of the implementation of appropriate environmental measures to prevent leakage of the lifted sulfides to the marine surface.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Angel, B. M., Apte, S., Batley, C. E., & Raven, M. D. (2016). Lead solubility in seawater: An experimental study. Environmental Chemistry, 13, 489–495. CrossRef
Bilenker, L. D., Romano, G. Y., & McKibben, M. A. (2016). Kinetics of sulfide mineral oxidation in seawater: Implications for acid generation during in situ mining of seafloor hydrothermal vent deposits. Applied Geochemistry, 75, 20–31. CrossRef
Caroppo, C., Stabili, L., Aresta, M., Corinaldesi, C., & Danovaro, S. (2006). Impact of heavy metals and PCBs on marine picoplankton. Environmental Toxicology, 21, 541–551. CrossRef
Chopard, A., Plante, B., Benzaazoua, M., Bouzahzah, H., & Marion, P. (2017). Geochemical investigation of the galvanic effects during oxidation of pyrite and base-metals sulfides. Chemosphere, 166, 281–291. CrossRef
Collins, P. C., Croot, P., Carlsson, J., Colaço, A., Grehan, A., Hyeong, K., Kennedy, R., Mohn, C., Smith, S., Yamamoto, H., & Rowden, A. (2013). A primer for the environmental impact assessment of mining at seafloor massive sulfide deposits. Marine Policy, 42, 198–209. CrossRef
Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Pring, A., Skinner, W., Shimizu, M., Danyushevsky, L., Saini-Eidukat, B., & Melcher, F. (2009). Trace and minor elements in sphalerite: A LA-ICPMS study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 4761–4791. CrossRef
Cruz, R., Luna-Sánchez, R. M., Lapidus, G. T., González, I., & Monroy, M. (2005). An experimental strategy to determine galvanic interactions affecting the reactivity of sulfide mineral concentrates. Hydrometallurgy, 78, 198–208. CrossRef
Eggleton, J., & Thomas, K. V. (2004). A review of factors affecting the release and bioavailability of contaminants during sediment disturbance events. Environment International, 30, 973–980. CrossRef
Fallon, E. K., Petersen, S., Brooker, R. A., & Scott, T. B. (2017). Oxidative dissolution of hydrothermal mixed-sulphide ore: An assessment of current knowledge in relation to seafloor massive sulphide mining. Ore Geology Reviews, 86, 309–337. CrossRef
Feely, R. A., Lewison, M., Massoth, G. J., Robertbaldo, G., Lavelle, J. W., Byrne, R. H., Vondamm, K. L., & Curl, H. C. (1987). Composition and dissolution of black smoker particulates from active vents on the Juan-De-Fuca Ridge. J Geophys Res-Solid, 92, 11347–11363. CrossRef
Fuchida, S., Yokoyama, A., Fukuchi, R., Ishibashi, J.-i., Kawagucci, S., Kawachi, M., & Koshikawa, H. (2017). Leaching of metals and metalloids from hydrothermal ore particulates and their effects on marine phytoplankton. ACS Omega, 2, 3175–3182. CrossRef
Fuchida, S., Ishibashi, J., Shimada, K., Nozaki, T., Kumagai, H., Kawachi, M., Matsushita, Y., & Koshikawa, H. (2018). Onboard experiment investigating metal leaching of fresh hydrothermal sulfide cores into seawater. Geochemical Transactions. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12932-018-0060-9., in press.
Goldhaber, M. B. (1983). Experimental study of metastable sulfur oxyanion formation during pyrite oxidation at pH 6-9 and 30 degrees C. American Journal of Science, 283, 193–217. CrossRef
Hageman, P. L., Seal, R. R., Diehl, S. F., Piatak, N. M., & Lowers, H. A. (2015). Evaluation of selected static methods used to estimate element mobility, acid-generating and acid-neutralizing potentials associated with geologically diverse mining wastes. Applied Geochemistry, 57, 125–139. CrossRef
Heidel, C., Tichomirowa, M., & Junghans, M. (2013). Oxygen and sulfur isotope investigations of the oxidation of sulfide mixtures containing pyrite, galena, and sphalerite. Chemical Geology, 342, 29–43. CrossRef
Kwong, Y. T. J., Swerhone, G. W., & Lawrence, J. R. (2003). Galvanic sulphide oxidation as a metal-leaching mechanism and its environmental implications. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 3, 337–343.
Liu, X., & Millero, F. J. (1999). The solubility of iron in sodium chloride solutions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 63, 3487–3497. CrossRef
Liu, Q., Li, H., & Zhou, L. (2008). Galvanic interactions between metal sulfide minerals in a flowing system: Implications for mines environmental restoration. Applied Geochemistry, 23, 2316–2323. CrossRef
Michael, A., McKibben, M. A., & Barnes, H. L. (1986). Oxidation of pyrite in low temperature acidic solutions: Rate laws and surface textures. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50, 1509–1520. CrossRef
Parry, D. L. (2008). Solwara 1 project elutriate report phase 1 and 2.
Satoh, A., Vudikaria, L. Q., Kurano, N., & Miyachi, S. (2005). Evaluation of the sensitivity of marine microalgal strains to the heavy metals, Cu, As, Sb, Pb and Cd. Environment International, 31, 713–722. CrossRef
Simpson, S. L., & Spadaro, D. A. (2016). Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of metal sulfide minerals to benthic marine invertebrates: Implications for deep sea exploration, mining and tailings disposal. Environmental Science & Technology, 50, 4061–4070. CrossRef
Simpson, S. L., Angel, B., Hamilton, I., Spadaro, D. A., & Binet, M. (2007). Water and sediment characterization and toxicity assessment for the Solwara 1 Project, CSIRO Land and Water Science Report. Coffey Natural Systems Pty Ltd.
Steger, H. F., & Desjardins, L. E. (1980). Oxidation of sulfide minerals. v. galena, sphalerite and chalcocite. Canadian Mineralogict, 18, 365–372.
Tsang, J. J., & Parry, D. L. (2004). Metal mobilization from complex sulfide ore concentrate: Effect of light and pH. Australian Journal of Chemistry, 57, 971–978. CrossRef
Von Damm, K. L. (1995). Controls on the chemistry and temporal variability of seafloor hydrothermal fluids. Geophysical Monograph, 91, 222–247.
- Metal Mobility from Hydrothermal Sulfides into Seawater During Deep Seafloor Mining Operations