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This book focuses on ‘research on research methodologies’ – an area rarely addressed in social entrepreneurship. Methodological debates are integral to the quest for knowledge and to advancing theories and practices in any field, and, as a multi-disciplinary and emerging field, social entrepreneurship cannot avoid such debates. Providing a fresh perspective on social entrepreneurship research, the book includes contributions from diverse disciplinary settings, e.g. sociology, psychology, social work, anthropology, public policy, economics and management, and discusses the ‘methodological challenges’ of practice as well as social entrepreneurship research. Rather than favouring any particular method or methodological approach, it acknowledges the diversity of methodological approaches needed to reveal the nuances of social entrepreneurship and promote new knowledge and practices in this promising field.



Chapter 1. Introduction: Methodological Issues in Social Entrepreneurship Knowledge and Practice

In the last decades, new wave of economic development has become the world order and hence the scholarly attention. The gaps or distortions due to ‘this order’ were also noticed and reported to become a major provocation for searching newer ways for inclusive growth. At the same time, global issues related to climate change and sustainable development were also added to the academic debate. This was felt necessary due to the severity of poverty, hunger and basic health and sanitation-related issues the world over. This search for newer ways of the development was obvious, wherein ‘social entrepreneurship’ provided a new hope.
Satyajit Majumdar, Edakkandi Meethal Reji

Research Dimensions in Social Entrepreneurship


Chapter 2. Qualitative Research in Social Entrepreneurship: A Critique

Social entrepreneurship is multi-disciplinary area of scholarly enquiry. Being a new area of research, this is yet to emerge fully. Scholars have been studying cases in search of concepts to explain social entrepreneurship. Attempts have also been made to theorise the phenomenon and to develop theories thereof. Hence, it is obvious that research on social entrepreneurship in the last decades has been mostly qualitative and case study based and the scholars have been mostly focusing on developing concepts to explain functions and processes while reporting the impact. Case studies have also been used to explain similarities and differences between social and commercial entrepreneurship. Qualitative research provides strength to unfold the concepts and allows enormous possibilities to open up new dimensions. In this chapter, critique on case study method of qualitative research provided us the way to present different phenomenon to theorise which eventually would provide sound basis to construct theory on social entrepreneurship.
Satyajit Majumdar, Usha Ganesh

Chapter 3. Methodological Issues and Challenges of Grounded Theory in Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation Studies

Grounded theory (GT) is developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss as a qualitative research approach and methodology. Although it has been widely used in qualitative research, there are methodological contentions with regard to the use of this approach. This chapter discusses some of the methodological issues and challenges of using grounded theory approach in social entrepreneurship research. It is argued that while using this approach, the qualitative nature of the design need to be preserved, the objectivity from the subjective experience needs to be validated and also maintain equilibrium in resolving the differences and challenges in methodological issues.
C. P. Prince

Chapter 4. Use of Semiotics in an Emic Research: Opportunities and Implications

The purpose of this chapter is to depict the use of semiotics for an emic research on the impact of cultural diversity on knowledge sharing in multicultural teams (MCTs). Empirical data through in-depth interviews was obtained from 59 Indian team members of an Indian product software company that operated globally. Semiotics was used as an interpretive tool to gather an emic perspective on this data. Three major semantic codes were drawn through the process of analysis. Each of these codes focused on the major research questions of the study. These codes bear important implications for the literature describing the impact of cultural diversity on team performance in MCTs with specific reference to India. The chapter validates the use of semiotics as an appropriate method for data analysis, thereby bearing important implications to the realm of qualitative research methods. It purports that words and expressions used by employees are important sign categories capable of providing emic insights into pertinent issues of cultural diversity that can impact on knowledge sharing in MCTs.
Sumita Mishra, Rajen K. Gupta

Chapter 5. Investigating Failed Social Entrepreneurship: A ‘Process Research’ Perspective

This chapter suggests the use of process approach in studying of failed social enterprises. Process approach is examined by first looking at the epistemological underpinning of process and variance model followed by theoretical interpretation of organizational failure. It examines the current work on failure in social enterprise and highlights the suitability of process approach in studying the failure. The chapter argues that process research can be helpful in developing a complete understanding of social entrepreneurship phenomenon. Failures need to be looked as a stage in organizational change and not as an outcome. The existing theory on failure considers it to be an outcome and focuses on understanding the reasons and consequences of failure. With application of an event-driven model, failure can be conceptualized as an entity in flux and mechanism of failure can be studied through identifying events. The mechanism can throw more lights on how the temporality of factors can impact failure. Looking at failure through a process lens may able to address the stigma associated with it. There are few academic works existing on failure in social entrepreneurship and most of them take a variance model to understand failure. This chapter makes an attempt to explore the unchartered domain of failure through an event-driven model and discuss the possibility of using process research in studying failure.
Sushanta Kumar Sarma

Chapter 6. A Sociological Study of Work, Mobility and Enterprise Among the Bengali Goldsmiths of India: A Multi-sited Ethnography

Liberalisation, economic restructuring and institutional reforms have led to the emergence of new forms of work and work cultures along with an emergent workforce. Developing countries like India during the 1990s introduced new economic reforms that opened up the economy to the forces of free market where the flow of goods, capital and labour were subjected to minimal governmental control. However, this led to an increased market competition, which in turn, influenced the labour relations and the traditional work/professions began to face changes. The case of goldsmiths migrating from Medinipur illustrates the process of transformation of labour. The intra-generational occupational mobility of the artisans tells us interesting stories of inter-relationship between work, mobility and enterprise. Drawing on a multi-sited ethnography of the informal gold jewellery manufacturing sector, the study highlights how the rapid social and economic changes have initiated the emergence of a new workforce. The mobility of the goldsmiths and their craftsmanship captures their entrepreneurial activity. Surveying the ‘artisanal guild’ across three states in India, we found that along with increasing demand for machine-made jewellery and entry of corporates, the state regulations on gold trade also posed several challenges for the artisan community. The paper focuses on the importance of multi-sited ethnography to understand how the changing market along with continuous regulations brought transformation in the traditional occupation and influenced the mobility of the artisans.
Sruti Kanungo, Anindita Chakrabarti

Research on Social Entrepreneur and Enterprises


Chapter 7. Motivational Model of Social Entrepreneurship: Exploring the Shaping of Engagement of Social Entrepreneur

Value creation and capture connect the economy and society. Examining the relationship between them, this paper identified three types of social entrepreneurs. Further, I identified exemplar belonging to each type and analysed their motivational aspects. Here, Stimulus → Organism → Response (SOR) framework was used to develop a motivational model of social entrepreneurship. The findings elaborated that family and society are the two main sources of motivation. Both of them contribute differently and synergistically and facilitate the integration of ‘social’ and ‘entrepreneurial’ part of social entrepreneurship at the level of the organism and hence challenging the much-discussed integration of these two at the outcome level. Initially, negative emotion brought them in the process, but positive emotions kept them engaged. This transition of negative emotion to positive emotion created a self-perpetuating cycle of action–emotion sequence. Continued stimuli from society and family strengthen the process which resulted in expansion of ways of value creation.
Balram Bhushan

Chapter 8. The Effect of Emotional Intelligence, Empathy and Perceived Social Pressure on Predicting Social Entrepreneurial Intention: A Field Research

The objective of this study was to identify the role of emotional intelligence, empathy, and perceived social pressure on social entrepreneurial intentions among the students of premier technical universities in India using Shapero’s theory of entrepreneurial event as the research framework. The structural model adequately fit the data. The test showed the good fit of the model. The derived statistics of model fit are: CMIN/DF = 1.79, IFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.94, CFI = 0.95 and RMSEA = 0.033. All the three antecedents showed a statistically significant relationship with the mediators. Findings of this research study also suggest that students with emotional intelligence are more inclined towards social entrepreneurial activities. The finding of this research study will facilitate policymakers and educators for promoting social entrepreneurial activities at the university level. Based on these results, educators may review support system that will prove helpful for students. This is one of its kinds of research conducted in the Indian context. Findings of this research will be helpful in predicting how the intention process of Indian students is affected by emotional intelligence, empathy and perceived social pressure.
Preeti Tiwari, Anil K. Bhat, Jyoti

Chapter 9. Social Entrepreneur Alliance: Collaborating to Co-create Shared Value

The purpose of this chapter is to address the limitations in the IOR and Social Alliance literature with regard to the discussion on Social Entrepreneur Alliance, especially in the context of the BoP in emerging countries. An integration of Collaborative Value Creation (CVC) framework and Shared Value (SV) perspective in the literature led to the formulation of a set of propositions. A case study of a Social Entrepreneur Alliance was used to instantiate the propositions to improve the comprehension. A set of exploratory Propositions pivoted around the Social Entrepreneur Alliance link the salient constructs culled from the literature. These illuminate how and why a Social Entrepreneur Alliance could harness the power of collaborative creation of shared value to gain speed, scale and sustainability while delivering on its primary purpose and promise of social impact, especially in the face of daunting challenges that characterize the BoP context of emerging countries. The case study does not validate the propositions, but only serves to instantiate the same by providing a real-world contextual narrative. The integrated perspective and the attendant propositions could provide useful insights for a Social Entrepreneur and its social impact investors—in choosing their partners, in identifying the potential sources of value, in specifying the types of value created and in exploring and evaluating the current as well as the future opportunities for collaborative engagement. Corporates would also benefit from a deeper understanding of the dimensions of collaborative creation of shared value which could guide their CSR investment decision making.
N. Barnabas, M. V. Ravikumar, Ramesh Narasimhan

Chapter 10. Social Entrepreneurship and Quality of Life of Beneficiaries

This chapter begins with two types of methodological issues. The first is the one which appears general in social entrepreneurship research, and the second is the one which appeared in the research analysis, as the effects of social entrepreneurship on the beneficiaries in India, a sociological perspective. The first type of methodological issues is existent in the social entrepreneurship literature and is widely accepted. The main focus of this chapter is on the second type, which is explained through the various stages of this research went through to understand and analyse the real changes in the life of beneficiaries. Knowing that social entrepreneurship research has multiple facets, hybridity, complexity, and ambiguity, the conventional strategies of conducting research are questionable. The capabilities approach is used as a qualitative method that overcomes such hurdles and provides an optimal base to this analysis.
Neeti Singh

Perspectives from Practice Methodologies


Chapter 11. Entrepreneurship: Nation as a Context

Entrepreneurship contributes not only to economic growth, but also to overall development of the country. Entrepreneurship is highly contextual. It is important to understand how ‘context’ influences entrepreneurship, because country-specific intervention is needed to promote entrepreneurship in different countries. Thus, the present study considers ‘Nation’ as a context at the primary level and then analyses country-specific micro-level contextual factors to understand its impact on entrepreneurship. Recognizing the commonality of culture in ‘South Asian Nations’ and ‘Central Asian Nations’, and also uniqueness in historical backgrounds, five countries—Bangladesh, India, Kazakhstan, Nepal and Russia—have been chosen purposely for the study. We used ‘Narrative Perspective’ for this Phenomenological study to build up narratives on important concepts. Theory building approach suggested by Carlile and Christensen (The cycles of theory building in management research, 2005) and Christensen (The ongoing process of building a theory of disruption. J Prod Innov Manage 23:39–55, 2006) has also inspired the study. Based on the findings, several propositions have been developed, which open up the agenda for future research.
Archana Singh, Satyajit Majumdar

Chapter 12. Social Innovations and Access to Technology and Extension Services for SmallHolder Farmers: Insights from Three Cases

It is a paradox that despite having a huge market and favourable price for most of the agricultural products, the farmers live in poverty. This chapter investigates the role of social innovations in technology and extension services for small and marginal farmers in India. Drawing insights from three cases this chapter demonstrates that small and marginal farming can be profitable and productive if the farmers are provided with access to quality extension services and market linkage. Grass roots innovations are vital for providing these cost-effective services.
Edakkandi Meethal Reji, Samapti Guha

Chapter 13. Practicing Ethnography in a Social Enterprise: Developing an Internal Critique

It is suggested that social entrepreneurship has the ability to combine social interests with the business practices to bring positive changes in the society. SRREOSHI, a women-led organisation was set up in the year 2005. In this paper, we engage with the idea of whether tools of ethnography can be used as tools to develop an internal critique where everydayness of freedom is recognised as a process of empowerment. The idea of value creation is central to a social enterprise. In SRREOSHI’s work, the focus of research is on generating knowledge aimed towards finding solutions to specific developmental problems. The idea of research is on identifying the problems, identifying the target population and comparing situations to assess the implementation. The research happens within the broader rubric of women’s empowerment. Ethnography as a research method which attempts to discover cultures and experiences of people involved in a programme can offer important tools of research that a social enterprise can use. However, we suggest that social value creation through a social enterprise involves attempts to collectivise and more attention needs to be paid in nurturing the collective. We feel that tools of ethnography can offer us important avenues of a stronger collective aimed at creating values for sustainable women’s empowerment.
Kishore Bhirdikar, Samapti Guha
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