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Über dieses Buch

In opto-electronics and microwave technology, new research results are translated into technological developments and applications at a breathtaking pace. This congress and trade fair, held bienniallys since 1973, covers a broad spectrum of latest advances in laser technology, opto-electronics, and for the first time, microwave technology. The fundamental physical principles are explained in basic-level seminars, panel lectures provide an overview of major spezialized fields, and the latest results are described in individual lectures. This volume deals with the 12 papers presented at the Microwave Congress.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Microwave Applications General

Frontmatter

Hyperthermia in Cancer Therapy: Technical and Clinical Aspects

Summary
The possibility of significant antitumor activity associated with temperatures over 40° C was first documented by Busch in 1866. Since that time, several investigators have shown that heat alone can cause regression and cure of malignant tumors and that the effect of hyperthermia is related to both duration and level of heat. In recent years a rebirth of interest in hyperthermia was generated by results gained in several medical specialities by combining heat with irradiation and/or chemotherapy. Discussed are techniques for producing hyperthermia with electromagnetic fields. Using these techniques a broad spectrum of malignant tumors can be treated including skin tumors, tumors of the pelvis and thorax, and tumors as small as malignant intraocular neoplasms. Advances in hyperthermic tumor treatment are expected in future generations of ultrasonic and electromagnetic technology, such as improved means for high accuracy of tumor localization and heat delivery. Further work to evaluate thermal toxicity and thermotolerance, as well as sequencing and fractionation of hyperthermic and radiation doses, is indicated to maximize the potential for combined use of these treatment modalities in cancer therapy.
Klaus G. Riedel

Industrial Applications of Microwaves

Abstract
The usual definition of “MICROWAVES” is the frequency range from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, or expressed in wavelength from 1 m to 1’mm. Higher frequencies than 300 GHz are called “submillimeter-waves”, but an industrial application is not expected in the near future.
Horst P. Groll

Microwave Satellite Reception Technology

Abstract
This paper considers primarily the microwave sphere in the broad spectrum of satellite reception technology, which has, over the last few years advanced to become an accepted household concept.
Bernhard Liesenkötter

Low Cost GPS Receiver — A Satellite Navigation Receiver for the Global-Positioning-System

Abstract
By the early 1990’s the Global Positioning System GPS will play a major role in the field of navigation. It will be able to compete with all so far existing radio navigation systems. GPS is a satellite navigation system with a number of unique features, such as world wide coverage, unlimited number of users, 24 hour service, and high accuracy. In its present experimental configuration it has proved a wide verity of application. A user needs no more than a simple antenna and a receiver for 1.5 GHz, a fact that makes GPS attractive for general aviation, as well as for general navigation both on land and at sea. This market can only be opened if GPS receivers cost no more than a high quality car radio. In order to achieve low cost, new ideas have to be introduced to the structuring of receivers.
Michael H. Wolf

Microwave Measuring Technology

Frontmatter

Vector Network Analysis at Millimeter Frequencies

Abstract
A network analyzer is a means to measure the reflection and transmission behavior of a device under test. To be able to do this, it consists of a signal source to stimulate the input of the DUT, a test set for signal routing and separation purposes and a receiver which converts the high frequency signals down to a relatively low IF for further processing. The measured data are normally presented on a CRT.
Bob Dildine, Dieter Augustin

Transistor Modeling Based on Small Signal S- and Y-Parameters

Abstract
An accurate equivalent circuit model of bipolar transistors is developed by using small signal Y-parameters at low frequencies and S-parameters at microwave frequencies. From this model signal and noise properties of the transistor can be calculated. The elements of the model are optimized with a Fletcher-Broyden algorithm which rapidly converges. As an example, the model of the bipolar transistor BFR91 is presented.
Martin Rieger, Werner Hieber

Noval Redundant Calibration Procedure for Computer-Corrected S-Parameter Characterization of Microstrip Components

Abstract
A new coaxial/microstrip transition calibration technique, which has been tested for frequencies up to 26.5 GHz, is presented. Using well-known calibration standards such as the microstrip sliding load, the open and short circuit, and through connection, a redundant measuring technique is proposed that overcomes the disadvantage of uncontrollable error propagation inherent with previous published papers. The high performance of the new approach is demonstrated by the computer-corrected measured data of the scattering coefficients of non-calibration standard components.
G. Kompa, M. Schlechtweg, F. van Raay

Comparison of Different S-Parameter Measurement Systems in the MM-Wave Range

Abstract
The Networkanalyzer (NWA) type 8410 or 8510 of Hewlett Packard represents the standard measurement setup for determining the complex S (scattering)-parameters in the microwave range. These Networkanalyzer types work just up to a maximum frequency of 18 GHz (8510:26.5 GHz).The paper presents and compares different ways of the frequency range extension up to mm-wave frequencies.
There are two different setup “philosophies”: Some concepts use the HP Networkanalyzer for measuring at an intermediate frequency range and need therefore a sort of frequency conversion. On the other side there are stand alone mm-wave measurement systems without frequency conversion, using just scalar measurement. For both possibilities own setup developments in the frequency range from 90–100 GHz are presented. Different setups are compared with regard to accuracy, dynamic range, measurement speed and cost.
B. Neumeyer

Microwave Semiconductors

Frontmatter

Semiconductor Microwave Devices

Abstract
There is an evergrowing interest and demand in microwave systems for communications and radar applications. The consequence is a rapid progress in research and development for powerful transmitter- and low noise amplifier-semiconductor devices, especially in view to push the frontiers to higher and higher frequencies. In this review only semiconductor devices are treated which operate above 1 GHz, with emphasize on new developments for mm-waves. To stay within the scope of this paper, mainly the state of the art of solitary III–V compound semiconductor microwave devices will be presented which presently experience an impetuous development in research and technology.
W. Harth

GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit’s (MMIC’s)

Abstract
The report is devided into three main sections. The first is a model description of MESFET’s and passive elements up to 18 GHz, the second contains key processes of the MMIC technology, and the third gives examples of analog monolithic microwave circuits.
E. Pettenpaul

Planar Millimeter-Wave Circuits on Silicon Substrate

Abstract
Highly insulating silicon with a resistivity higher than 2000 Ω·cm is very promising as the base material for monolithic integrated millimeter-wave circuits. In this case in the frequency range above 40 GHz the dominant loss mechanism of planar line structures is the skin effect in the conductors [1,2] and the conductivity of the silicon substrate does not degrade the circuit performance. We already have made theoretical and experimental investigations of microstrip lines on silicon substrates. Different microstrip resonators of linear and ring geometry were fabricated on 10000 Ω·cm silicon substrates. For microstrip lines with a w/h ratio of 1. where w is the conductor width and h is the substrate height, the attenuation was found to be 0.6 dB/cm at 90 GHz. A 95 GHz microstrip oscillator with a discrete single drift region silicon impatt diode and a planar array antenna with 96 elements on an area of 8 mm × 12 mm have been fabricated on highly insulating silicon substrates [2]. In this paper we present new results on a continuously operating oscillator circuit and theoretical investigations of the disk resonator structure. In this oscillator a double drift region silicon impatt diode is used.
J. Buechler, E. Kasper, P. Russer, K. M. Strohm

Noise Analysis of Oscillators

Abstract
The existing theories about noise in oscillators do not allow the simulation of the noise behaviour of real oscillator circuits. In this paper a numerical method for the determination of the phase fluctuations of oscillator circuits is presented. The oscillator is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations with intrinsic noise sources. The stationary solution of the system without noise sources corresponds to a limit cycle in the phase space of the system. By time discretisation with the help of Poincare maps and linearisation of the system of differential equations in the vicinity of the unperturbed limit cycle, we can derive discrete relations for the amplitude and phase fluctuations of an oscillator. From that the phase noise of an oscillator is determined.
Franz X. Kärtner
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