Skip to main content
Erschienen in:

11.10.2023

Migration and economic activity at origin: the role of female household headship in rural Bangladesh

verfasst von: Marup Hossain, Conner Mullally, Gulcan Onel

Erschienen in: Empirical Economics | Ausgabe 4/2024

Einloggen

Aktivieren Sie unsere intelligente Suche, um passende Fachinhalte oder Patente zu finden.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

In a male-dominated international migration system, women are more likely to head households after the exit of migrants. We decompose the impact of sending an international migrant into an effect attributable to a change in the gender of the household head and other mechanisms. We find that the effect attributable to a shift from a male-to-a female household head due to migration is negative for economic activities and expenditure indicators. Our results suggest that some households are forced to weigh the benefits of sending an international migrant against the costs of switching to a female household head.

Sie haben noch keine Lizenz? Dann Informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 340 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Versicherung + Risiko




Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Anhänge
Nur mit Berechtigung zugänglich
Fußnoten
1
See Ahmed et al. (2013) for detailed information on the survey and data collection process.
 
2
In the mediation analysis literature, AIE is also refereed as the average causal mediation effect (see Imai et al. (2010)).
 
3
Union is the lowest administrative unit of Bangladesh. Several unions form a sub-district, and several sub-districts form a district. There are about 4562 Unions under 492 sub-districts under 64 districts in Bangladesh.
 
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Acosta P (2011) School attendance, child labour, and remittances from international migration in El Salvador. J Dev Stud 47(6):913–936CrossRef Acosta P (2011) School attendance, child labour, and remittances from international migration in El Salvador. J Dev Stud 47(6):913–936CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat ADB (2016). Employment and the labour market in Bangladesh: overview of trends and challenges. ISBN 978-92-9257-558-8 ADB (2016). Employment and the labour market in Bangladesh: overview of trends and challenges. ISBN 978-92-9257-558-8
Zurück zum Zitat Ahmed AU, Ahmad K, Chou V, Hernandez R, Menon P, Naeem F, Naher F, Quabili W, Sraboni E, Yu B, et al (2013) The status of food security in the feed the future zone and other regions of Bangladesh: results from the 2011–2012 Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey Ahmed AU, Ahmad K, Chou V, Hernandez R, Menon P, Naeem F, Naher F, Quabili W, Sraboni E, Yu B, et al (2013) The status of food security in the feed the future zone and other regions of Bangladesh: results from the 2011–2012 Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey
Zurück zum Zitat Alcaraz C, Chiquiar D, Salcedo A (2012) Remittances, schooling, and child labour in Mexico. J Dev Econ 97(1):156–165CrossRef Alcaraz C, Chiquiar D, Salcedo A (2012) Remittances, schooling, and child labour in Mexico. J Dev Econ 97(1):156–165CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Allendorf K (2017) Like her own: Ideals and experiences of the mother-in-law/daughter in-law relationship. J Fam Issues 38(15):2102–2127CrossRef Allendorf K (2017) Like her own: Ideals and experiences of the mother-in-law/daughter in-law relationship. J Fam Issues 38(15):2102–2127CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Altonji JG, Elder TE, Taber CR (2005) An evaluation of instrumental variable strategies for estimating the effects of catholic schooling. J Hum Resour 40(4):791–821CrossRef Altonji JG, Elder TE, Taber CR (2005) An evaluation of instrumental variable strategies for estimating the effects of catholic schooling. J Hum Resour 40(4):791–821CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Angrist J, Lavy V, Schlosser A (2010) Multiple experiments for the causal link between the quantity and quality of children. J Labour Econ 28(4):773–824CrossRef Angrist J, Lavy V, Schlosser A (2010) Multiple experiments for the causal link between the quantity and quality of children. J Labour Econ 28(4):773–824CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Anukriti S, Herrera-Almanza C, Pathak P, et al (2019) Curse of the mummyji: the influence of mothers-in-law on women’s social networks, mobility, and reproductive health in India. Technical report Anukriti S, Herrera-Almanza C, Pathak P, et al (2019) Curse of the mummyji: the influence of mothers-in-law on women’s social networks, mobility, and reproductive health in India. Technical report
Zurück zum Zitat Banerjee AV, Hanna R, Kreindler GE, Olken BA (2017) Debunking the stereotype of the lazy welfare recipient: evidence from cash transfer programs. World Bank Res Obs 32(2):155–184CrossRef Banerjee AV, Hanna R, Kreindler GE, Olken BA (2017) Debunking the stereotype of the lazy welfare recipient: evidence from cash transfer programs. World Bank Res Obs 32(2):155–184CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bangladesh Bank (2017) Quarterly report on remittance inflows: July-September 2017. Research Department, External Economic Division Bangladesh Bank (2017) Quarterly report on remittance inflows: July-September 2017. Research Department, External Economic Division
Zurück zum Zitat Barkat A, Ahsan M (2014) Gender and migration from Bangladesh. ILO, Geneva Barkat A, Ahsan M (2014) Gender and migration from Bangladesh. ILO, Geneva
Zurück zum Zitat BBS (2011) Report on labour force survey 2010. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics BBS (2011) Report on labour force survey 2010. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Zurück zum Zitat BBS (2013) Report on survey on the use of remittance (SUR). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics BBS (2013) Report on survey on the use of remittance (SUR). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Zurück zum Zitat BBS (2016) Report of the survey on investment from remittance (SUR). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics BBS (2016) Report of the survey on investment from remittance (SUR). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Zurück zum Zitat Binzel C, Assaad R (2011) Egyptian men working abroad: labour supply responses by the women left behind. Labour Econ 18:S98–S114CrossRef Binzel C, Assaad R (2011) Egyptian men working abroad: labour supply responses by the women left behind. Labour Econ 18:S98–S114CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bohme MH (2015) Does migration raise agricultural investment? An empirical analysis for rural Mexico. Agric Econ 46(2):211–225CrossRef Bohme MH (2015) Does migration raise agricultural investment? An empirical analysis for rural Mexico. Agric Econ 46(2):211–225CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bridges S, Lawson D, Begum S (2011) Labour market outcomes in Bangladesh: the role of poverty and gender norms. Eur J Dev Res 23(3):459–487CrossRef Bridges S, Lawson D, Begum S (2011) Labour market outcomes in Bangladesh: the role of poverty and gender norms. Eur J Dev Res 23(3):459–487CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Brito C, Pearl J (2002) Generalized instrumental variables. In: Proceedings of the eighteenth conference on uncertainty in artificial intelligence Brito C, Pearl J (2002) Generalized instrumental variables. In: Proceedings of the eighteenth conference on uncertainty in artificial intelligence
Zurück zum Zitat Bryan G, Chowdhury S, Mobarak AM (2014) Underinvestment in a profitable technology: the case of seasonal migration in Bangladesh. Econometrica 82(5):1671–1748CrossRef Bryan G, Chowdhury S, Mobarak AM (2014) Underinvestment in a profitable technology: the case of seasonal migration in Bangladesh. Econometrica 82(5):1671–1748CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Castelhano M, Lawell C, Sumner DA, Taylor JE (2016) The effects of migration and remittances on productive investment in rural Mexico Castelhano M, Lawell C, Sumner DA, Taylor JE (2016) The effects of migration and remittances on productive investment in rural Mexico
Zurück zum Zitat Chakma K, Ruba U (2021) Role of Bangladeshi women in diverse agricultural production: a review. Eur J Agric Food Sci 3(3):1–5 Chakma K, Ruba U (2021) Role of Bangladeshi women in diverse agricultural production: a review. Eur J Agric Food Sci 3(3):1–5
Zurück zum Zitat Conley TG, Hansen CB, Rossi PE (2012) Plausibly exogenous. Rev Econ Stat 94(1):260–272CrossRef Conley TG, Hansen CB, Rossi PE (2012) Plausibly exogenous. Rev Econ Stat 94(1):260–272CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Cuecuecha A (2009) The effect of remittances and migration on human capital: evidence from Mexico Cuecuecha A (2009) The effect of remittances and migration on human capital: evidence from Mexico
Zurück zum Zitat Das N, de Janvry A, Mahmood S, Sadoulet E (2019) Migration as a risky enterprise: a diagnostic for Bangladesh. Int Migr Rev 53(3):900–929CrossRef Das N, de Janvry A, Mahmood S, Sadoulet E (2019) Migration as a risky enterprise: a diagnostic for Bangladesh. Int Migr Rev 53(3):900–929CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat de Brauw A (2019) Migration out of rural areas and implications for rural livelihoods. Annu Rev Resour Econ 11:461–481CrossRef de Brauw A (2019) Migration out of rural areas and implications for rural livelihoods. Annu Rev Resour Econ 11:461–481CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat de Brauw A, Kramer B, Murphy M (2021) Migration, labour and women’s empowerment: evidence from an agricultural value chain in Bangladesh. World Dev 142:105445PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef de Brauw A, Kramer B, Murphy M (2021) Migration, labour and women’s empowerment: evidence from an agricultural value chain in Bangladesh. World Dev 142:105445PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat De Brauw A, Rozelle S (2008) Migration and household investment in rural China. China Econ Rev 19(2):320–335CrossRef De Brauw A, Rozelle S (2008) Migration and household investment in rural China. China Econ Rev 19(2):320–335CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Durand J, Kandel W, Parrado EA, Massey DS (1996) International migration and development in Mexican communities. Demography 33(2):249–264PubMedCrossRef Durand J, Kandel W, Parrado EA, Massey DS (1996) International migration and development in Mexican communities. Demography 33(2):249–264PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Dustmann C, Kirchkamp O (2002) The optimal migration duration and activity choice after re-migration. J Dev Econ 67(2):351–372CrossRef Dustmann C, Kirchkamp O (2002) The optimal migration duration and activity choice after re-migration. J Dev Econ 67(2):351–372CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Elbadawy A, Roushdy R, et al (2009) Impact of international migration and remittances on child schooling and child work: the case of Egypt. Paper for the world Elbadawy A, Roushdy R, et al (2009) Impact of international migration and remittances on child schooling and child work: the case of Egypt. Paper for the world
Zurück zum Zitat FAO (2011) Gender differences in assets. ESA working paper no. 11–12. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) FAO (2011) Gender differences in assets. ESA working paper no. 11–12. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Zurück zum Zitat Gobel K (2013) Remittances, expenditure patterns, and gender: parametric and semiparametric evidence from Ecuador. IZA J Migr 2(1):1MathSciNetCrossRef Gobel K (2013) Remittances, expenditure patterns, and gender: parametric and semiparametric evidence from Ecuador. IZA J Migr 2(1):1MathSciNetCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gram L, Skordis-Worrall J, Mannell J, Manandhar DS, Saville N, Morrison J (2018) Revisiting the patriarchal bargain: the intergenerational power dynamics of household money management in rural Nepal. World Dev 112:193–204PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Gram L, Skordis-Worrall J, Mannell J, Manandhar DS, Saville N, Morrison J (2018) Revisiting the patriarchal bargain: the intergenerational power dynamics of household money management in rural Nepal. World Dev 112:193–204PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Imai K, Keele L, Yamamoto T (2010) Identification, inference and sensitivity analysis for causal mediation effects. Stat Sci 25:51–71MathSciNetCrossRef Imai K, Keele L, Yamamoto T (2010) Identification, inference and sensitivity analysis for causal mediation effects. Stat Sci 25:51–71MathSciNetCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Jayachandran S (2020) Social norms as a barrier to women’s employment in developing countries. Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research Jayachandran S (2020) Social norms as a barrier to women’s employment in developing countries. Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research
Zurück zum Zitat Joshi S (2004) Female household-headship in rural Bangladesh: incidence, determinants and impact on children’s schooling Joshi S (2004) Female household-headship in rural Bangladesh: incidence, determinants and impact on children’s schooling
Zurück zum Zitat Kabeer N (2012) Women’s economic empowerment and inclusive growth: labour markets and enterprise development. Int Dev Res Cent 44(10):1–70 Kabeer N (2012) Women’s economic empowerment and inclusive growth: labour markets and enterprise development. Int Dev Res Cent 44(10):1–70
Zurück zum Zitat Kevane M, Wydick B (2001) Social norms and the time allocation of women’s labour in Burkina Faso. Rev Dev Econ 5(1):119–129CrossRef Kevane M, Wydick B (2001) Social norms and the time allocation of women’s labour in Burkina Faso. Rev Dev Econ 5(1):119–129CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Khalil U, Mookerjee S (2019) Patrilocal residence and women’s social status: evidence from South Asia. Econ Dev Cult Change 67(2):401–438CrossRef Khalil U, Mookerjee S (2019) Patrilocal residence and women’s social status: evidence from South Asia. Econ Dev Cult Change 67(2):401–438CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Khan M, Ali MY, Quayyum M, Nazrul M, Hossain M (2009) Year round homestead vegetable production: a means of reducing poverty and nutritional deficiency for small farm. Bangladesh J Agric Res 34(1):169–174CrossRef Khan M, Ali MY, Quayyum M, Nazrul M, Hossain M (2009) Year round homestead vegetable production: a means of reducing poverty and nutritional deficiency for small farm. Bangladesh J Agric Res 34(1):169–174CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Van Kippersluis H, Rietveld CA (2018) Beyond plausibly exogenous. Econ J 21(3):316–331.MathSciNet Van Kippersluis H, Rietveld CA (2018) Beyond plausibly exogenous. Econ J 21(3):316–331.MathSciNet
Zurück zum Zitat Klasen S, Lechtenfeld T, Povel F (2011) What about the women? Female headship, poverty and vulnerability in Thailand and Vietnam. Technical report, Courant Research Centre: poverty, equity and growth-discussion papers Klasen S, Lechtenfeld T, Povel F (2011) What about the women? Female headship, poverty and vulnerability in Thailand and Vietnam. Technical report, Courant Research Centre: poverty, equity and growth-discussion papers
Zurück zum Zitat Mamun KA, Nath HK (2010) Workers’ migration and remittances in Bangladesh. J Bus Strateg 27(1):29 Mamun KA, Nath HK (2010) Workers’ migration and remittances in Bangladesh. J Bus Strateg 27(1):29
Zurück zum Zitat Mansuri G (2006) Migration, school attainment, and child labour: evidence from rural Pakistan Mansuri G (2006) Migration, school attainment, and child labour: evidence from rural Pakistan
Zurück zum Zitat McKenzie D, Stillman S, Gibson J (2010) How important is selection? Experimental vs. non-experimental measures of the income gains from migration. J Eur Econ Assoc 8(4):913–945CrossRef McKenzie D, Stillman S, Gibson J (2010) How important is selection? Experimental vs. non-experimental measures of the income gains from migration. J Eur Econ Assoc 8(4):913–945CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mendola M (2008) Migration and technological change in rural households: complements or substitutes? J Dev Econ 85(1):150–175CrossRef Mendola M (2008) Migration and technological change in rural households: complements or substitutes? J Dev Econ 85(1):150–175CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mendola M, Carletto C (2012) Migration and gender differences in the home labour market: evidence from Albania. Labour Econ 19(6):870–880CrossRef Mendola M, Carletto C (2012) Migration and gender differences in the home labour market: evidence from Albania. Labour Econ 19(6):870–880CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mishra K, Kondratjeva O, Shively GE (2022) Do remittances reshape household expenditures? Evidence from Nepal. World Dev 157:105926CrossRef Mishra K, Kondratjeva O, Shively GE (2022) Do remittances reshape household expenditures? Evidence from Nepal. World Dev 157:105926CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mobarak AM, Sharif I, Shrestha M (2021) Returns to international migration: evidence from a Bangladesh-Malaysia Visa Lottery Mobarak AM, Sharif I, Shrestha M (2021) Returns to international migration: evidence from a Bangladesh-Malaysia Visa Lottery
Zurück zum Zitat Mondal MH (2010) Crop agriculture of Bangladesh: challenges and opportunities. Bangladesh J Agric Res 35(2):235–245CrossRef Mondal MH (2010) Crop agriculture of Bangladesh: challenges and opportunities. Bangladesh J Agric Res 35(2):235–245CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mu R, Van de Walle D (2009) Left behind to farm? Women’s labour re-allocation in rural China. The World BankCrossRef Mu R, Van de Walle D (2009) Left behind to farm? Women’s labour re-allocation in rural China. The World BankCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Oster E (2017) Unobservable selection and coefficient stability: theory and evidence. J Bus Econ Stat 37:1–18MathSciNet Oster E (2017) Unobservable selection and coefficient stability: theory and evidence. J Bus Econ Stat 37:1–18MathSciNet
Zurück zum Zitat Oster E (2019) Unobservable selection and coefficient stability: theory and evidence. J Bus Econ Stat 37(2):187–204MathSciNetCrossRef Oster E (2019) Unobservable selection and coefficient stability: theory and evidence. J Bus Econ Stat 37(2):187–204MathSciNetCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Quisumbing AR, Haddad L, Peña C (2001) Are women overrepresented among the poor? An analysis of poverty in 10 developing countries. J Dev Econ 66(1):225–269CrossRef Quisumbing AR, Haddad L, Peña C (2001) Are women overrepresented among the poor? An analysis of poverty in 10 developing countries. J Dev Econ 66(1):225–269CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Rahman RI, Islam R et al (2013) Female labour force participation in Bangladesh: trends, drivers and barriers. International Labour Organization, DWT for South Asia and Country Office for India Rahman RI, Islam R et al (2013) Female labour force participation in Bangladesh: trends, drivers and barriers. International Labour Organization, DWT for South Asia and Country Office for India
Zurück zum Zitat Rahman KW (2019) Remitting religiosity: evidence of international migrants changing norms in their home country Rahman KW (2019) Remitting religiosity: evidence of international migrants changing norms in their home country
Zurück zum Zitat Ratha DK, De S, Dervisevic E, Plaza S, Schuettler K, Shaw W, Wyss H, Yi S, Yousefi SR (2015) Migration and remittances: recent developments and outlook Ratha DK, De S, Dervisevic E, Plaza S, Schuettler K, Shaw W, Wyss H, Yi S, Yousefi SR (2015) Migration and remittances: recent developments and outlook
Zurück zum Zitat Ratha D, Eigen-Zucchi C, Plaza S (2016) Migration and remittances Factbook 2016. World Bank Publications Ratha D, Eigen-Zucchi C, Plaza S (2016) Migration and remittances Factbook 2016. World Bank Publications
Zurück zum Zitat Ratha DK, De S, Kim EJ, Plaza S, Seshan GK, Yameogo ND (2020) Phase II: COVID-19 crisis through a migration lens. World Bank, Washington, DC Ratha DK, De S, Kim EJ, Plaza S, Seshan GK, Yameogo ND (2020) Phase II: COVID-19 crisis through a migration lens. World Bank, Washington, DC
Zurück zum Zitat Robitaille M-C, Chatterjee I (2017) Mothers-in-law and son preference in India. Econ Pol Wkly 52(6):13–21 Robitaille M-C, Chatterjee I (2017) Mothers-in-law and son preference in India. Econ Pol Wkly 52(6):13–21
Zurück zum Zitat Schultz TP (1990) Testing the neoclassical model of family labour supply and fertility. J Hum Resour 25:599–634CrossRef Schultz TP (1990) Testing the neoclassical model of family labour supply and fertility. J Hum Resour 25:599–634CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Siddiqui T, Abrar CR, et al (2003) Migrant worker remittances and micro-finance in Bangladesh. Prepared for social finance programme, working paper (38) Siddiqui T, Abrar CR, et al (2003) Migrant worker remittances and micro-finance in Bangladesh. Prepared for social finance programme, working paper (38)
Zurück zum Zitat Taylor JE, Arango J, Hugo G, Kouaouci A, Massey DS, Pellegrino A (1996) International migration and community development. Popul Index 62:397–418CrossRef Taylor JE, Arango J, Hugo G, Kouaouci A, Massey DS, Pellegrino A (1996) International migration and community development. Popul Index 62:397–418CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Udry C (1996) Gender, agricultural production, and the theory of the household. J Polit Econ 104(5):1010–1046CrossRef Udry C (1996) Gender, agricultural production, and the theory of the household. J Polit Econ 104(5):1010–1046CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Unnayan O (2014) State of unemployment and poverty. Bangladesh Econ Update 5(5):15 Unnayan O (2014) State of unemployment and poverty. Bangladesh Econ Update 5(5):15
Zurück zum Zitat Wood A, Mayer J (2004) Promoting the rural non-farm sector in Bangladesh. Report 29719-BD Wood A, Mayer J (2004) Promoting the rural non-farm sector in Bangladesh. Report 29719-BD
Zurück zum Zitat Woodruff C, Zenteno R (2007) Migration networks and microenterprises in Mexico. J Dev Econ 82(2):509–528CrossRef Woodruff C, Zenteno R (2007) Migration networks and microenterprises in Mexico. J Dev Econ 82(2):509–528CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat World Bank (2016) World Bank open data, 2016. World Bank, Washington, DC World Bank (2016) World Bank open data, 2016. World Bank, Washington, DC
Zurück zum Zitat Wouterse F, Taylor JE (2008) Migration and income diversification: evidence from Burkina Faso. World Dev 36(4):625–640CrossRef Wouterse F, Taylor JE (2008) Migration and income diversification: evidence from Burkina Faso. World Dev 36(4):625–640CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Yang D (2008) International migration, remittances and household investment: Evidence from Philippine migrants’ exchange rate shocks. Econ J 118(528):591–630CrossRef Yang D (2008) International migration, remittances and household investment: Evidence from Philippine migrants’ exchange rate shocks. Econ J 118(528):591–630CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Migration and economic activity at origin: the role of female household headship in rural Bangladesh
verfasst von
Marup Hossain
Conner Mullally
Gulcan Onel
Publikationsdatum
11.10.2023
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
Empirical Economics / Ausgabe 4/2024
Print ISSN: 0377-7332
Elektronische ISSN: 1435-8921
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-023-02500-z

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 4/2024

Empirical Economics 4/2024 Zur Ausgabe

Premium Partner