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Über dieses Buch

This book provides a detailed review of millimeter-wave power amplifiers, discussing design issues and performance limitations commonly encountered in light of the latest research. Power amplifiers, which are able to provide high levels of output power and linearity while being easily integrated with surrounding circuitry, are a crucial component in wireless microwave systems. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to mm-wave wireless systems and power amplifiers. In turn, the second focuses on design principles and EDA concepts, while the third discusses future trends in power amplifier research. The book provides essential information on mm-wave power amplifier theory, as well as the implementation options and technologies involved in their effective design, equipping researchers, circuit designers and practicing engineers to design, model, analyze, test and implement high-performance, spectrally clean and energy-efficient mm-wave systems.





Chapter 1. Power Amplifiers for Millimeter-Wave Systems

Power amplifiers (PA)s typically appear at the end of the radio transmitter, and their main objective is to increase the power level of the radiated signal Rogers and Plett (Radio Frequency integrated circuit design, 2nd edn. Artech House. Inc, Hoboken, NJ, [1]).
Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha

Chapter 2. Systems Aspects of Millimeter-Wave Power Amplifiers

The primary motivation for operating wireless systems at higher frequencies lies in the fact that an increase in frequency is generally associated with an increase in bandwidth in communication systems, as well as an improvement in resolution in imaging and ranging systems. Alongside these factors, a reduction in the physical size of components and antennas also accompanies all wireless systems that operate at higher frequencies. As one would expect (and as several decades of research have made abundantly clear), there are fundamentally challenging aspects of millimeter-wave systems that complicate the design process and hinder the widespread implementation of such systems.
Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha

Chapter 3. Technologies for Millimeter-Wave Power Amplifiers

In the last few decades, semiconductor technology has steadily grown in maturity, with silicon transistors able to reach increasingly higher unity-gain frequency (\( f_{ \hbox{max} } \)) values. This has proven to be true for technologies based on both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS. Higher \( f_{ \hbox{max} } \) values in turn lead to transistors that are suitable for highly complex integrated circuits operating in millimeter-wave bands. The large performance gains observed in signal processing and other digital circuits based on silicon technologies serve as an excellent motivator for the continued advancement of such technologies, particularly CMOS.
Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha

Design Principles and State of the Art Review


Chapter 4. Linear-Mode Millimeter-Wave Power Amplifiers

The design of linear-mode power amplifiers (PAs) generally involves similar matching principles than small-signal amplifiers, with the exception that a power-matched output that does not seem to be conjugately matched is implemented. In a sense, the design process becomes quite similar to one that would be used to design low noise amplifiers (LNAs). In the design of an LNA, the input reflection coefficient will be vastly different from the conjugate of the actual input impedance, in order to produce the best possible noise characteristics.
Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha

Chapter 5. Millimeter-Wave Switching Mode Power Amplifiers

Switching mode circuits have been used in DC-to-DC converters and power supplies for many years, and do offer some interesting possibilities for high-frequency amplification. At the lower end of what is normally considered high-frequency operation (that is, somewhere in the tens of MHz range), high power circuits have been able to incorporate numerous techniques from switching power converters. At frequencies extending further into the GHz range, however, it becomes almost impossible to realistically model power transistors as simple switching elements. This is primarily due to the fact that the device is incapable of sweeping through its linear region at a high enough speed to imitate switching behavior, provided the frequency is high enough. This problem of slow (so to speak) switching speed cannot truly be overcome at frequencies in the high GHz range, but such limitations can often be solved with some sort of workaround. Perhaps the best known switching mode for higher frequency amplifiers is the Class E mode, which will be discussed in the context of its high-frequency characteristics. Furthermore, following the trend established thus far in this book, design issues and challenges of switching mode power amplifiers will be separately discussed for both CMOS and SiGe technologies.
Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha

Chapter 6. Millimeter-Wave Stacked-Transistor Amplifiers

One of the primary disadvantages of FET devices is their limited voltage handling capability, but the significant improvement in frequency limitations of RF and millimeter-wave CMOS technologies coupled with the need for integrated system-on-chip solutions have resulted in many designs turning to CMOS for power amplifier solutions.
Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha

Chapter 7. Performance Enhancement Techniques for Millimeter-Wave Power Amplifiers

In extending the RF and microwave design principles for PAs into the millimeter-wave regime, a number of complications are bound to surface. While fundamentally similar in terms of the principles that govern PA operation, key differences in implementation and process technology often require additional techniques introduced into the design in order to meet the required performance criteria.
Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha

Chapter 8. Architecture Considerations for Millimeter-Wave Power Amplifiers

Tackling the challenges of emerging mm-wave wireless standards inevitably requires designers to reconsider techniques and implementations that were developed for RF and microwave systems. The trend towards adaptive PA systems has resulted in numerous techniques that allow systems to monitor their own performance at a given time and adjust certain parameters to maintain optimal performance.
Jaco du Preez, Saurabh Sinha
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