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11.04.2018 | Review

Mine land rehabilitation in Brazil: Goals and techniques in the context of legal requirements

verfasst von: Markus Gastauer, Pedro Walfir Martins Souza Filho, Silvio Junio Ramos, Cecílio Frois Caldeira, Joyce Reis Silva, José Oswaldo Siqueira, Antonio Eduardo Furtini Neto

Erschienen in: Ambio

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Abstract

Environmental legislation in many countries demands the rehabilitation of degraded areas to minimize environmental impacts. Brazilian laws require the restitution of self-sustaining ecosystems to historical conditions but ignore the emergence of novel ecosystems due to large-scale changes, such as species invasions, extinctions, and land-use or climate changes, although these novel ecosystems might fulfill ecosystem services in similar ways as historic ecosystems. Thorough discussions of rehabilitation goals, target ecosystems, applied methods, and approaches to achieving mine land rehabilitation, as well as dialogues about the advantages and risks of chemical inputs or non-native, non-invasive species that include all political, economic, social, and academic stakeholders are necessary to achieve biological feasibility, sociocultural acceptance, economic viability, and institutional tractability during environmental rehabilitation. Scientific knowledge of natural and rehabilitating ecosystems is indispensable for advancing these discussions and achieving more sustainable mining. Both mining companies and public institutions are responsible for obtaining this knowledge.
Fußnoten
1
The Australian Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act from 1999, for example, lacks references to the entire restoration process, and the Australian Environmental Restoration and Rehabilitation Trust Act of 1990 lacks definitions of important terms, such as restoration and rehabilitation. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act of 1999 applies inconsistent language using undefined terms, such as ‘remediate,’ ‘rehabilitate,’ and ‘repair’ (Richardson 2016). In the USA, the Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act (SMCRA) of 1977 obliges mining companies to establish diverse, self-regulating vegetative cover similar to pre-mining communities unless the application of non-native species is necessary to achieve the intended post-mining land use. In India, the Mineral Conservation and Development Rules of 1988 demand that mining companies revegetate degraded areas immediately, requiring the reutilization of topsoil, but specifications of which floral elements should be used are lacking.
 
2
Presidential Decree no 8972 from January 23th, 2017, establishes the legal norm to install the National Politics for the Rehabilitation of Native Vegetation (Proveg from Política Nacional de Recuperação Nativa), which aims to rehabilitate 12 000 000 ha of degraded or altered areas, mainly pastures, until 2030. The Decree implements the National Plan for Rehabilitation of Native Vegetation (Planaveg from Plano Nacional de Recuperação da Vegetação Nativa) and places the National Committee for the Rehabilitation of Native Vegetation (Conaveg from Comissão Nacional para Recuperação da Vegetação Nativa) subordinate to the ministries of environment, agriculture, science, and finances. An overlap of competencies with institutions mentioned in the main text might generate additional conflicts and uncertainties that are not considered in this article.
 
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Metadaten
Titel
Mine land rehabilitation in Brazil: Goals and techniques in the context of legal requirements
verfasst von
Markus Gastauer
Pedro Walfir Martins Souza Filho
Silvio Junio Ramos
Cecílio Frois Caldeira
Joyce Reis Silva
José Oswaldo Siqueira
Antonio Eduardo Furtini Neto
Publikationsdatum
11.04.2018
Verlag
Springer Netherlands
Erschienen in
Ambio
Print ISSN: 0044-7447
Elektronische ISSN: 1654-7209
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-018-1053-8