Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Animal experiments have been considered necessary procedures for safety verification and effectiveness validation in developing the products that directly affect the human body, such as medicines or cosmetics (Baumans, 2010; Hajar, 2011). For ending animal testing, social media can be a useful and effective tool for those opposed to animal testing and has been shown to produce measurable results (Wilkinson, 2014). The current research regarding sustainability and animal testing hasn’t sufficiently taken advantage of the large-scale data set available online. By applying data-mining-based social network analysis, this study used the French cosmetics company NARS as an example to examine how public awareness and reaction to animal experiments is spread on social media. To quantify and identify the online discussion of Instagram and Twitter users across time, we analyzed two networks of hashtags connected through user posts. To generate the nodes, we first crawled all posts containing #animaltesting within four months for Instagram, one week for Twitter. In both networks, nodes are hashtags created by users when they publish posts on certain events. The findings will be useful for cosmetics companies, lawmakers, and animal advocacy organizations in understanding the network and information flow on social media and, in turn, know what information should be posted on social media to engage social media users and build positive brand reputation.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Ashton, R., De Wever, B., Fuchs, H. W., Gaca, M., Hill, E., Krul, C., … & Roggen, E. L. (2014). State of the art on alternative methods to animal testing from an industrial point of view: ready for regulation. Altex, 31(3), 357–363. CrossRef
Aslam, S. (2017). Twitter by the Numbers: Stats, Demographics & Fun Facts. Omnicore. Retrieved August 12, 2017 from https://www.omnicoreagency.com/twitter-statistics/.
Basketter, D. A., Clewell, H., Kimber, I., Rossi, A., Blaauboer, B. J., Burrier, R., et al. (2012). A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing-t4 report. ALTEX-Alternatives to Animal Experimentation, 29(1), 3–91.
Baumans, V. (2005). Science-based assessment of animal welfare: Laboratory animals. Revue Scientifique Et Technique-Office International Des Epizooties, 24(2), 503–514. CrossRef
Bayne, K., Ramachandra, G. S., Rivera, E. A., & Wang, J. (2015). The evolution of animal welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 54(2), 181–191.
Borgatti, S.P., & Lopez-Kidwell, V. (2015). Network Theory. In J. Scott & P. Carrington (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Social Network Analysis (pp. 40–54). London, UK: SAGE Publications Ltd.
Bouhifd, M., Bories, G., Casado, J., Coecke, S., Norlén, H., Parissis, N., … & Whelan, M. P. (2012). Automation of an in vitro cytotoxicity assay used to estimate starting doses in acute oral systemic toxicity tests. Food and chemical toxicology, 50(6), 2084–2096. CrossRef
Brandes, U. (2001). A faster algorithm for betweenness centrality. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 25(2), 163–177. CrossRef
Brundtland, G. H. (1987). Report of the world commission on environment and development: Our common future. United Nations.
Brundtland Commission. (1987). Our Common Future. World Commission on Environment and Development. London, UK: Oxford University Press.
Bruner, T. (2014). New study shows growing opposition to animal tests. Eurekalert—The Global Source for Science News. Retrieved February 16, 2014 from https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2014-02/pfte-nss021314.php.
Bruns, A. (2012). How long is a tweet? Mapping dynamic conversation networks on Twitter using Gawk and Gephi. Information, Communication & Society, 15(9), 1323–1351. CrossRef
Caschera, M. C., Ferri, F., & Grifoni, P. (2008). SIM: A dynamic multidimensional visualization method for social networks. PsychNology Journal, 6(3), 291–320.
Chitrakorn, L. (2016). Is the global cosmetics market moving towards a cruelty-free future? Business of Fashion. Retrieved January 13, 2016 from https://www.businessoffashion.com/articles/intelligence/is-the-global-cosmetics-market-moving-towards-a-cruelty-free-future.
Cronin, B. (Ed.). (2016). Handbook of research methods and applications in heterodox economics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Cruelty Free International. (2017). EU ban on cosmetics testing. Retrieved from https://www.crueltyfreeinternational.org/what-we-do/corporate-partnerships/eu-ban-cosmetics-testing.
D’Andrea, A., Ferri, F., & Grifoni, P. (2010). An overview of methods for virtual social networks analysis. In Computational social network analysis (pp. 3–25). London, UK: Springer.
Dawkins, M. (2012). Animal suffering: The science of animal welfare. Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Science & Business Media.
Doke, S. K., & Dhawale, S. C. (2015). Alternatives to animal testing: A review. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 23(3), 223–229. CrossRef
D’Souza, C., Taghian, M., Lamb, P., & Peretiatkos, R. (2006). Green products and corporate strategy: An empirical investigation. Society and business review, 1(2), 144–157. CrossRef
European Chemicals Agency. (2017). Understanding REACH. Retrieved from https://echa.europa.eu/regulations/reach/understanding-reach.
European Commission. (2013). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on the animal testing and marketing ban and on the state of play in relation to alternative methods in the field of cosmetics. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/sectors/cosmetics/files/pdf/animal_testing/com_at_2013_en.pdf.
European Commission. (2017). Ban on Animal Testing. Retrieved from https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/cosmetics/animal-testing_en.
European Union. (2006). Renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy. Retrieved from http://register.consilium.europa.eu/doc/srv?l=EN&f=ST%2010117%202006%20INIT.
Feldman, R., & Sanger, J. (2007). The text mining handbook: Advanced approaches in analyzing unstructured data. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Freeman, L. C. (1977). A set of measures of centrality based on betweenness. Sociometry, 40(1), 35–41. CrossRef
Freeman, L. C. (2000). Visualizing social networks. Journal of social structure, 1(1), 4.
Gifford, R., & Nilsson, A. (2014). Personal and social factors that influence pro-environmental concern and behaviour: A review. International Journal of Psychology, 49(3), 141–157.
Goodman, J. R., Borch, C. A., & Cherry, E. (2012). Mounting opposition to vivisection. Contexts, 11(2), 68–69. CrossRef
Goswami, S., & Ha-Brookshire, J. (2015). From compliance to a growth strategy: Exploring historical transformation of corporate sustainability. Journal of Global Responsibility, 6(2), 246–261. CrossRef
Graef, A. (2017). Canada could be next to ban animal testing for cosmetics. Care2. Retrieved October 11, 2017 from http://www.care2.com/causes/canada-could-be-next-to-ban-animal-testing-for-cosmetics.html.
Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380. CrossRef
Grimm, D. (2014). Is Social Media Sourcing Americans on Animal Research? Retrieved February 16, 2014 from http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2014/02/scienceshot-social-media-souring-americans-animal-research.
Hajar, R. (2011). Animal testing and medicine. Heart Views: The Official Journal of the Gulf Heart Association, 12(1), 42. CrossRef
Hou, Y., & Lampe, C. (2015, April). Social media effectiveness for public engagement: Example of small nonprofits. In Proceedings of the 33rd annual ACM conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 3107–3116). New York: ACM.
Human Society International. (2017). China’s cosmetics animal testing FAQ. Retrieved August 30, 2017, from http://www.hsi.org/assets/pdfs/bcf_china_cosmetics.pdf.
Kaplan, S. (2017). Dear science: Why do we love our pets. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 6, 2017 from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2017/02/06/dear-science-why-do-we-love-our-pets/?utm_term=.8bb74c826ed7.
Kawasaki, G., & Fitzpatrick, P. (2014). The art of social media: Power tips for power users. London, UK: Penguin.
Keeling, L. J. (2005). Healthy and happy: Animal welfare as an integral part of sustainable agriculture. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 34(4), 316–319. CrossRef
Kitsak, M., Gallos, L. K., Havlin, S., Liljeros, F., Muchnik, L., Stanley, H. E., et al. (2010). Identification of influential spreaders in complex networks. Nature Physics, 6(11), 888–893. CrossRef
Kwak, H., Lee, C., Park, H., & Moon, S. (2010, April). What is twitter, a social network or a news media? In Proceedings of the 19th international conference on worldwide web (pp. 591–600). New York: ACM.
Liu, W., Sidhu, A., Beacom, A. M., & Valente, T. W. (2017). Social network theory. In The international encyclopedia of media effects. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Long, R. (2016). Why are cosmetics industries using animals to test their products? Odyssey. Retrieved August 30, 2016 from: https://www.theodysseyonline.com/why-are-cosmetics-industries-using-animals-to-test-their-products.
Łopaciuk, A., & Łoboda, M. (2013). Global beauty industry trends in the 21st century. In Management, knowledge and learning international conference. Zadar, Croatia.
Lovejoy, K., & Saxton, G. D. (2012). Information, community, and action: How nonprofit organizations use social media. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 17(3), 337–353. CrossRef
Lu, J., Bayne, K., & Wang, J. (2013). Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China. ATLA, 41, 351–357.
Luckerson, V. (2016). Here’s proof that instagram was one of the smartest acquisitions ever. Time. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from http://time.com/4299297/instagram-facebook-revenue/.
McCarthy, A. (2016). Millennials dominate us beauty market. eMarketer. Retrieved December 14, 2016 from https://www.emarketer.com/Article/Millennials-Dominate-US-Beauty-Market/1014857.
Morell, Vi. (2014). Causes of the furred and feathered rule the internet. Retrieved March 14, 2014 from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/03/140314-social-media-animal-rights-groups-animal-testing-animal-cognition-world/.
Nars. (2017). @narsissist on Instagram. Retrieved July 28, 2017 from https://www.instagram.com/p/BV2Qf8MjIi3/?hl=en.
Nonprofit Technology Network. (2011). Nonprofit social network benchmark report. Retrieved from http://www.NonprofitSocialNetworkSurvey.com.
Ormandy, E. H., & Schuppli, C. A. (2014). Public attitudes toward animal research: A review. Animals, 4(3), 391–408. CrossRef
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (2012). Chinese scientists learn non-animal testing, Thanks to PETA. Retrieved November 7, 2012 from https://www.peta.org/blog/chinese-scientists-learn-non-animal-testing-thanks-peta/.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (2014). New study shows grwoing opposition to animal tests. Retrieved February 16, 2014 from https://www.peta.org/media/news-releases/new-study-shows-growing-opposition-animal-tests/.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (2016). Update: China to approve first non-animal cosmetics test. Retrieved November 2, 2016 from https://www.peta.org/blog/china-approve-first-non-animal-cosmetics-test/.
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. (2017). Home. Retrieved from https://www.peta.org/.
Ramli, N. S. (2016). Green marketing: A new prospect in the cosmetics industry. In A. J. Vasile & D. Nicolò (Eds.), Sustainable entrepreneurship and investments in the green economy (pp. 200–230). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Russell, W., & Burch, R. (1959). The principles of humane experimental technique. London UK: Methuen.
Salemme, N. (2017). From Nars to Covergirl: The shocking truth behind your favourite makeup brands. Retrieved September 7, 2017 from http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/beauty/face-body/from-nars-to-covergirl-the-shocking-truth-behind-your-favourite-makeup-brands/news-story/fc7b5d8076d1c8daea20b00737b2517d.
Saltzman, S. (2017). NARS takes to Instagram to address the issue of animal testing in China. Fashionista. Retrieved June 27, 2017 from https://fashionista.com/2017/06/nars-available-china-animal-testing-cosmetics.
Scholtz, B., Burger, C., & Zita, M. (2016). A social media environmental awareness campaign to promote sustainable practices in educational environments. In Advances and new trends in environmental and energy informatics (pp. 355–369). New York City, NY: Springer International Publishing. CrossRef
Scott, J., & Carrington, P. J. (2011). The SAGE handbook of social network analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE publications.
Sheble, L., Brennan, K., & Wildemuth, B. (2016). Social network analysis. In B. Wildemuth (Ed.), Applications of social research methods to questions in information and library science (2nd ed., pp. 339–350). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Sheldon, P., & Bryant, K. (2016). Instagram: Motives for its use and relationship to narcissism and contextual age. Computers in Human Behavior, 58, 89–97. CrossRef
Shirky, C. (2011). The political power of social media: Technology, the public sphere, and political change. Foreign affairs, 90(1), 28–41.
Son, C. G. (2016). Dynamic of low-income households using social network analysis. Journal of Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs, 9, 251–260.
Srivastava, J., Ahmad, M. A., Pathak, N., & Hsu, D. K. W. (2008). Data mining based social network analysis from online behavior. In Tutorial at the 8th SIAM international conference on data mining (SDM’08).
Statista. (2017). Leading beauty brands ranked by number of instagram followers as of August 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2017, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/536991/leading-beauty-brands-instagram-followers/.
Statista. (2017). Number of monthly active instagram users from January 2013 to September 2017. Retrieved November 4, 2017, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/253577/number-of-monthly-active-instagram-users/.
Stelzner, M. A. (2013). Social media marketing industry report: How marketers are using social media to grow their businesses. SocialMediaExaminer.com.
The Humane Society of the United States. (2017). Cosmetic testing on animals. Retrieved from http://www.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/animals_laboratories/cosmetic_product_testing/ARI-timeline-flier.pdf.
Thelwall, M., Buckley, K., & Paltoglou, G. (2011). Sentiment in Twitter events. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 62(2), 406–418.
United States Congress. (2017). H.R.2790—Humane Cosmetics Act. Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/115th-congress/house-bill/2790.
United States Department of Agriculture. (2017). Animal Welfare Act. Retrieved August 30, 2017, from https://www.nal.usda.gov/awic/animal-welfare-act.
Wasserman, S., & Faust, K. (1994). Social network analysis: Methods and applications (Vol. 8). Cambridge: Cambridge university press.
Wellman, B. (2001). Computer networks as social networks. Science, 293(5537), 2031–2034. CrossRef
Wikipedia. (2017, April 10). United Express Flight 3411 incident. Retrieved from Wilkinson, J. (2014, February 19). Is social media impacting animal testing? Reset. Retrieved from https://en.reset.org/blog/social-media-impacting-animal-testing-02192014.
Wright, D. K., & Hinson, M. D. (2011). A three-year longitudinal analysis of social and emerging media use in public relations practice. Public Relations Journal, 5(3), 1–32.
Yan, S. (2017). In China, big cosmetics firms are selling products tested on animals. Retrieved April 19, 2017 from https://www.cnbc.com/2017/04/19/in-china-big-cosmetics-firms-are-selling-products-tested-on-animals.html.
Zuber, M. (2014). A survey of data mining techniques for social network analysis. International Journal of Research in Computer Engineering & Electronics, 3(6), 1–8.
- Mining Social Media Data to Discover Topics of Sustainability: The Case of Luxury Cosmetics Brands and Animal Testing
- Springer Singapore
- Chapter 6
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta