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This book examines the processes for social integration and social cohesion among young people, drawing on data collected from the International Self-Report Delinquency (ISRD) study, which covered 35 studies.This report examines case studies from 5 selected countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States) to provide an in-depth comparative study.
Social integration processes are defined by sociologists as the mechanisms through which a society is held together, and populations are transformed into collectivities and communities. They are understood by criminologists to be an important factor in crime prevention, and factors such as peer groups and families are strong determinants of criminal behavior.

In a time when society, and particularly young people, can seem increasingly fragmented (due to new technologies, rapidly increasing migration, economic inequality, and increased individuation), the researchers in this volume seek to understand whether and how these phenomena affect young people, and how they may have an impact on the development of criminal and antisocial behavior.

This work will provide a framework for researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly with an interest in juveniles, developmental criminology, and crime prevention, as well as related fields such as sociology, social work, and demography.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: How Relations to Institutions Shape Youth Integration—Ethno-Religious Minorities, National Contexts and Social Cohesion

This chapter aims to set out the conceptual framework implicit in the chapters but also provides an introduction to the eight following chapters of the book. Social cohesion depends on a range of societal mechanisms that make individuals feel attached to one another, supportive of public organisations and bonded to a larger imagined community. The book investigates how socialisation of children plays an important role in shaping their norms and value and their social identity and thus generating a sense of attachment to, or detachment from, society. It also tests whether integration is also dependent on how institutions work and therefore on processes or policies that are adopted regarding schooling and policing. Given the importance of migration as a demographic factor and as a political reality and of the ethnic cleavages that in general can be consequent on migration, this book sets out empirical findings comparing migrant and nonmigrant teenagers, focussing on their experience of, and attitudes towards, their integration into society and institutions in France, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and the USA. Chapters consider orientations to religion, morality, crime and the impact of institutions (schools and police in particular).
Sebastian Roché, Mike Hough

Morality, Bonding and Families as Sources of Social Cohesion

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Shame and Wrong: Is There a Common Morality Among Young People in France, the UK, the Netherlands, Germany, and the USA?

The chapter analyzes morality as a dependent variable measured by survey responses of some 10,000 children in 7th, 8th, and 9th grade participating in the ISRD3 project in the UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the USA. The chapter empirically describes differences and commonalities in the values and norms of native-born pupils and their migrant counterparts, and it tests the hypothesis that the effect of migration status, parents, school, religion, and friends on morality will be similar in France, Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, and the USA. Psychometric analysis of the measures of morality (Pro-Social Values Index and Shame Index) supports cross-national measurement equivalence of the measures. We find broadly similar patterns of morality across these five countries, with some country-level variations in degree of moral consensus across children. Multivariate analysis shows higher levels of morality among girls, lower grades, and those who care about opinion of parents, and teachers, among all five youth samples. Religious affiliation is only of minor importance: Muslim pupils in the Netherlands and the UK score slightly lower on morality scales, but in the US, French, and German samples, this is not the case. The effects of being native-born and first- or second-generation immigrant on morality are weak and inconsistent, suggesting the need for country-specific analysis.
Ineke Haen Marshall, Chris E. Marshall

Chapter 3. ‘Less Social Bonding, More Problems?’: An International Perspective on the Behaviour of (Migrant) Youth

Many young people with a migrant background feel less attachment to their social environment and institutions. Their marginalized position is often seen as an explanation for their over-representation in problem behaviours such as crime, drug use or school dropouts. Migrant families live more often in disadvantaged areas because of their high levels of unemployment and economic deprivation, and these areas suffer from high crime levels. Residential turnover further weakens social bonds and social control in these areas. This chapter uses the third sweep of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study to examine whether there is a difference in the bonding of young migrants with their family, school, teacher, friend and neighbourhood compared with people who have been born within the country. It assesses whether differences in bonding explain the over-representation of migrant youth in problem behaviour as delinquency, substance use and truancy.
Majone Steketee, Claire Aussems

Chapter 4. Parental Violence, Deprivation and Migrant Background

This chapter uses the third sweep of the International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD3) to explore the prevalence and predictors of parental violence against children. Using the 27 countries in the 2017 dataset of ISRD3, it shows very wide variations across country. Clear correlations also emerged across country between the prevalence of parental physical punishment and that of more serious physical abuse. The hypothesized relationships between parental use of violence and poverty and deprivation (measured by the Human Development Index) were not initially found. However, migrant status was clearly a significant predictor, and when this was taken into account in analysis, a correlation between parental violence and HDI scores becomes visible. The chapter used data from a subproject of ISRD3, Understanding and Preventing Youth Crime (UPYC), to test different hypotheses for the higher rates of parental violence. Support was found both for the importation hypothesis and the deprivation hypothesis. It was expected that the predictive effect of migrant status would disappear when deprivation variables were included in the analysis. However, controlling for deprivation attenuated the relationship between migrant status and use of parental violence but did not make it disappear completely—offering some support for both competing hypotheses.
Dirk Enzmann, Ilka Kammigan

Institutions and Social Cohesion: The Role of Policing Styles and Schools

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Religion and Attitudes Towards State Organizations: The Case of Schools. A Comparison Across Five Countries

We explore the links between religion/religiosity and school attitudes among junior high school students in five countries (France, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK and the USA). Socialization of children is undertaken, in part, through schools that equip them with skills, instill values and impose rules and sanctions (compulsory attendance, behavioural standards). Attachment or detachment vis-à-vis school may be critical in the socialization of children and their integration into broader society. Using multilevel models and controlling for socio-economic indicators, we find small effects of religious denomination (Muslim pupils being less attached) and religiosity (more religious children being more attached), as well as that of minority concentration (attending schools with minority concentration leads to lower attachment). This is an important finding, indicating that while such effects can be statistically significant, the main causes do not lie in variables related to religion or religiosity. Even in countries such as France and the UK where ethnicity, a variable interlinked with denomination, is a predictor of more distrust and tensions with the police, such a mechanism does not appear to be strong regarding schools. Survey data are from the UPYC dataset and the ISDR3 questionnaire.
Sebastian Roché, Sandrine Astor

Chapter 6. Direct and Indirect Influences of School System on Youth Delinquent Offending Among Migrant and Native-Born Students in Eight Countries

Stratified school systems select children into different educational tracks according to ability, in some countries as early as age 10. Tracks substantially determine future education and career opportunities. Comprehensive school system have no such selection before age 15. Children with a migrant background are often overrepresented in lower tracks, and possible negative consequences may affect them more than native-born children. We use data from the third wave of the International Self-Report Delinquency study (ISRD3) to examine direct and indirect influences of school system on self-reported life-time offending of native and migrant students in eight countries, four countries with comprehensive and four with stratified school systems. We find that migrant students are indeed overrepresented in lower tracks and report higher levels of offending across all tracks than native students. No such differences exist for comprehensive systems. Our analysis also shows a stronger (direct) relationship between lower-track enrolment and offending for migrant than for native students, while (indirect) protective influences in the school system are reduced and risk influences are magnified for migrant students.
Renske S. van der Gaag, Majone Steketee

Chapter 7. Trust in the Police and Police Legitimacy Through the Eyes of Teenagers

Earlier sweeps of the International Self Report Delinquency Survey (ISRD) made no attempt to cover teenagers’ attitudes towards criminal justice institutions. ISRD3 goes a little way to filling this gap by including a short suite of questions on trust in the police and perceptions of police legitimacy, that sets out to see if well-established insights into adults’ attitudes, built on procedural justice theory, also hold true for teenagers. Results are presented in this chapter. To anticipate our conclusions, the results very largely reflect those that have emerged internationally for adult samples: that trust in procedural justice is a precondition for legitimacy, reducing preparedness to break the law, and that the quality of teenagers’ experience of the police is a clear determinant of their trust in the police.
Diego Farren, Mike Hough, Kath Murray, Susan McVie

Chapter 8. Perception of Police Unfairness Amongst Stigmatized Groups: The Impact of Ethnicity, Islamic Affiliation and Neighbourhood

This chapter deals with perceived police unfairness amongst young members of minority groups in four Western European countries (France, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands). It focuses on the way perceived police unfairness is associated with ethnicity, as well as two other sources of minority group belonging: Islamic affiliation and neighbourhood. Key findings are as follows. Living in the most disrupted neighbourhoods is the strongest predictor of beliefs about police unfairness, though minority ethnic origin also has an independent predictive effect, controlling for other factors. With controls in place, Muslim identity is not a significant predictor (even when taking into account attachment to Islam). Police contact after having committed an offence and attitudes towards discrimination show a significant mediating effect, but these variables do not fully account for the effect of neighbourhood or ethnicity. As for national differences, pupils from France, the UK and the Netherlands are significantly more likely to see the police as unfair than those from Germany.
Guillaume Roux

Chapter 9. Teenagers’ Perceptions of Legitimacy and Preparedness to Break the Law: The Impact of Migrant and Ethnic Minority Status

Much comparative research has charted the difficult relationships that often develop between the police and people with migrant backgrounds, especially those from minority ethnic groups. However there is very little research into the ways in which these issues play out with young teenagers. This chapter first examines the relationships between migrant status and variables relevant to procedural justice theory (mainly perceptions of procedural fairness and of legitimacy) and self-reported crime, amongst the countries that form the UPYC sub-project of the International Self-Report Delinquency Study: France, Germany, the Netherlands, the UK (disaggregated here into English and Scottish sub-samples) and the US. In four out of the six countries and in the analyses combining all six countries, migration has an effect consistent with most previous studies, namely migrants confer less trust and legitimacy on the police. The second part of the paper examines factors that appear to mediate these effects. Living in conditions of disadvantage and in disorganised neighbourhoods explains almost completely the correlation that we observe between migrant status and perceptions of legitimacy. In the third and final part of the paper we look deeper into the effect of migration on trust, legitimacy and self-reported offending by also incorporating ethnic minority status into the analysis. It is shown that minority status is the main driver of the effects apparently associated with migrant status. These results are interpreted in terms of the histories of integration—or of failed integration—of migrants from visible ethnic minorities into the host population. Implications for public policy and social science are discussed.
Diego Farren, Mike Hough

Backmatter

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