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Über dieses Buch

The objective of the book is to find an answer to the rationale behind the human quest for the Mars exploration. As a comprehensive assessment for this query is undertaken, it is realized that the basic question ‘Why Mars?’ seeks various responses from technological, economic and geopolitical to strategic perspectives. The book is essentially targeted to understand India’s desire to reach Mars. In the process, it also undertakes some implicit questioning of Mars programmes of various other states essentially to facilitate the setting up of the context for an assessment.

The book is divided into two parts:

Part I: This covers both science and politics associated with Mars missions in global scenario and discusses the salient features of various Mars Missions undertaken by various countries.

Part II: This provides details in regards to India’s Mars Mission.





Chapter 1. Introduction

Outer space (is also simply called as “space”) has always caught humans’ imagination.

Ajey Lele

Chapter 2. Why Mars?

The process of policy making is expected to be a rational process. Usually, the process involves a clear identification of the problem/issue at hand followed by overall assessment of the problem and recognition of the probable options and finally suggesting specific time-bound solutions. However, when the problems are complex, solutions are hard to come around and that at times even there is no clarity about the desired outputs, then the process of policy planning becomes extremely complicated. In many cases, technological and financial limitations restrict the process of policy planning. The process of policy planning could also be “political” where views, ideas, perceptions, lobbying, interest groups and way of negotiations play a vital role towards reaching a definitive conclusion.

Ajey Lele

Chapter 3. Discerning Mars

Interests in Mars are almost universal. The romance of the decadal old idea of human settlements over Mars has not yet died down. Probably, every space-faring state has dream of reaching Mars. Some of them have announced it openly and found making efforts to achieve this, and perhaps, the others due to technological and financial constraints are following wait and watch approach.

Ajey Lele

India and Mars Agenda

Chapter 4. Indian Multidimensional Space Plan

India made a nascent beginning in the space arena in 1963 and today is been globally reorganised as one of the leading space powers in the world. In 1963, India’s entry into the space field began with the launching of sounding rockets.

Ajey Lele

Chapter 5. Mars Orbiter Mission

In ancient times, the principal Indian languages then referred the planet Mars primarily as Mangala and also with names like Angaraka and Kuja. These names mean auspicious, burning coal (red in colour) and the fair one, respectively. There are various references in different periods of history about Mars but mostly all lead to indicate that the Mars is a god of war.

Ajey Lele

Chapter 6. Asia’s Investments in Mars

Asian mythology could be viewed as an important element of its culture, which allows having glimpse into its thinking in anent era about the solar system. Local wisdom in many Asian countries reflects their interest in astronomy since the historical period.

Ajey Lele

Depicting and Debating

Chapter 7. Mars Missions: Past, Present and Future

Since 1960s various missions to study Mars have been launched. Few recently launched missions are still active and are providing useful, relevant and unknown information about various aspects of Mars.

Ajey Lele

Chapter 8. Cost Contested: Perceptions Versus Reality

The correct utilisation of the tax payer’s money has always been the most passionately debated subject internationally. Particularly, during various deliberates on issues concerning the investment in space technologies, this concern always gets reflected equally for the developed states like the United States and also for the developing states like India.

Ajey Lele

Chapter 9. Wrapping Up

For the mankind, the journey in space has been fascinating for last five decades. Particularly, few states have achieved significant success in the short period of time in this field. The journey that had started with a launch of a small satellite into the low earth orbit (1957 Sputnik launch) subsequently peaked to the man reaching the Moon and now humans have even ambitions of capturing asteroid and changing the track of its motion! Today, states are using space systems to undertake various kinds of activities from undertaking various business transactions to disaster management to fighting wars.

Ajey Lele


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