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Über dieses Buch

This book explores effective environmental impact mitigation for petroleum-based lubricants to reduce their negative persistence during usage and upon end-of-life disposal. The book reviews the basic tribology of lubricants as well as initiatives that may enhance the environmental and economic effectiveness of lubricating oils from the composition design perspective across industries. Considering the blending, application, and disposal of petroleum lubricants in a holistic manner, the book presents and extends current best practices that minimize or eliminate adverse environmental impact throughout the product’s life cycle. The book reviews methods including: raw material substitution, minimizing oil losses during and after manufacturing, raw material and energy consumption reduction, and environmentally friendly applications of oil disposal as ways forward for cleaner and more effective production.

This book provides readers with strategies for incorporating cleaner production practices into their operations – a benefit to both environmental legal compliance and business competitiveness – all the while preserving the environment for sustainable development. The book is therefore of interest to both manufacturers and consumers in the lubricants industry.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The crude processing is put into perspective as the source of mineral base to make lubricants. The base oil and additives after physical mixing constitute the lubricating oils. Two main categories of lubes are automotive, marine, aviation and industrial. Uncontrolled disposal of lubricant has adverse effect on the soils, aquatic life and renders water unfit for drinking. Current life cycle emphasizes used oil disposal as the critical phase of the lube to be paid greater attention to reduce environmental impact.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 2. Lubricant Additive Impacts on Human Health and the Environment

Abstract
It is estimated that, at present, approximately 50 % of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via total loss applications, volatility, spills or accidents. More than 95 % of these materials are mineral oil based. In view of their high eco-toxicity and low biodegradability, mineral oil-based lubricants make up a considerable threat to the environment. While, most lubricants and hydraulic fluids based on plant oils are rapidly and completely biodegradable and are of low eco-toxicity; moreover, lubricants based on plant oils display excellent tribological properties and generally have very high viscosity indices and flashpoints. However, in order to compete with mineral-oil-based products, some of their inherent disadvantages must be corrected, such as their sensitivity to hydrolysis and oxidative attack, and their behavior at low temperatures. The chapter also makes effort to characterize the potential human health and environmental hazards of widely used classes of lubricating oil additives and poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) base fluids, and the related toxicity levels.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 3. The Environment and Lubricant Related Emissions

Abstract
This chapter looks at the impact of lubricants on the environment including diesel exhaust emissions. Investigations have shown a clear effect of lubricant oil on emissions, which depends on lube oil characteristics, especially sulfur content, metal content, volatility and density. Engine lubricants help to improve vehicle efficiency but contribute engine exhaust emissions. More attention will have to be paid to off-road vehicles, especially tractors, if the production of healthy food and the maintenance of a cleaner environment are not to be compromised. Therefore, one the biggest challenges facing the automotive industry is to improve fuel economy, both to conserve natural resources and to limit pollutants and CO2 emissions. Better fuel efficiency and consequently lower emissions will require new materials, new lubricants and low-emission fuel.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 4. Green Lubricant Design and Practice Concept

Abstract
Lubricants have an environmental is impact in many ways, but they have a particularly important contribution to make in relation to energy conservation, minimization of waste and development of durable products. Truly green lubricants are those that optimize energy efficiency and minimize wear in the machinery which they lubricate and which have maximized service lifetimes in order to reduce the amount of lubricant required. Increasing importance of these criteria in lubricant selection and design is expected to lead to more widespread use of high performance synthetic base fluids and effective additives. Biodegradability of lubricants from biomass technology may be an area to pursue in terms of research according to this chapter.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 5. Synthetic Lubricants and the Environment

Abstract
The benefits of synthetic lubricant base stocks are derived not only from the basic molecular structures but from the absence of harmful molecular species often unavoidably present in conventional mineral oils in small, but significant, concentrations. There are very many compounds in crude oil, and while many, or most, of the harmful ones are removed or upgraded by refining, depending on the methods used, a significant number will inevitably remain in lubricating oil stocks, whether solvent- or hydro treated. Thus, conventional oils comprise a wide variety of molecular species, many of which are not well characterized. Synthesized hydrocarbons are now used for a wide range of industrial and automotive applications and are, by far, the segment with the greatest growth rate in the synthetic lubricant field.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 6. Eco-friendly Base Oils

Abstract
The impacts of current lubricating oils on the environment have been the reason for an increasing move towards the use of environmentally safe lubricants. However, the development of a common biodegradable base stock that could replace conventional ones remains a big challenge. Even synthetic lubricants, whether synthetic hydrocarbons, or organic esters have problems associated with their use, despite the fact that they protect better, last longer and outperform their conventional mineral-based counterparts in certain applications. Future lubricant specifications in view of the demand for improved performance to meet stringent environmental regulations are the main drivers for new technological developments.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 7. Development of Biodegradable Lubricants

Abstract
A significant amount of lubricating oils can enter the environment, producing contamination of both soil and water. Pressure has been put on lubricant producers and consumers to spur them to seek a solution involving less environmentally harmful lubricants to mitigate the effect of disposing lubricants without control, polluting soil and water. Issues related to green pressures and conservation have brought about renewed interest in the use of bio-based materials. Emphasis on the development of renewable, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly industrial fluids, such as lubricants, has resulted in the widespread use of natural oils and fats for non-edible purposes. This chapter reviews the available literature and recently published data related to bio-based raw materials and the chemical modifications of raw materials. Additionally, it analyzes the impacts and benefits of the use of bio-based raw materials as functional fluids or bio-lubricants.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 8. Lubricant Life Cycle Assessment

Abstract
A general life cycle assessment (LCA) study of base oils used in the manufacture of lubricating fluid is given in this chapter. The scenarios of mineral oil, a synthetic ester, and a vegetable (rapeseed triglyceride oil) are investigated. The review of LCA leads to drawing conclusions concerning the application of LCA models as evaluation tools for the development of environmentally adapted lubricants in line with IS0 14000-type industrial standard.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 9. Environment and the Economics of Long Drain Intervals

Abstract
Recent technological developments have revolutionized the lubricant industry by spurring a widespread quality improvement in both base oils and additives, giving superior finished lubricants. The upgrading of base oils is being brought about by more demanding requirements from original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), by government regulations, and through consumer awareness, environmental concerns, decreasing supply of high-quality lubricant-bearing crudes, and expanding markets worldwide. Present-day lubricant demand is for maximum oxidation stability, superior low-temperature performance, low volatility, and improved additive response, which are difficult to achieve through conventional processing. All this in a nutshell seek to satisfy environmental requirements and extended drain economics. Hence a serious consideration is being muted to introduce a regulation to enforce bio-degradable lubricants which are vegetable based. Condition monitoring and proactive maintenance are critical tools for achieving significant improvement in tribological performance of mechanical components and extended lubricant life.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 10. Recycling of Used Oil

Abstract
Used oil recycling technology has undergone significant changes over the past decade. With the newly developed re-refining technologies it is possible to produce higher quality base oil compared with the traditional and old acid clay methods. Among other methods used are: solvent extraction (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, interline process, combined vacuum distillation and solvent extraction (Vaxon process), hydro–processing, combined thin film evaporation and hydro-finishing (CEP process), combined thermal de-asphalting and hydro finishing (Revivoil process). The majority of applied technologies are appropriate for re-refining of synthetic lubricating oils, which currently are replacing the conventional mineral lube oils due to their enhanced performance characteristics.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 11. Environment and the Economics of Long Drain Interval

Abstract
The majority of lubricants used in the world today result in environmental pollution through total-loss applications, spillage, evaporation and mishandling. As a way to reduce this environmental damage, new lubricants that are rapidly biodegradable and ecologically non-toxic are being developed. This chapter dwells on the need to highlight the use of environmentally friendly lubricants and their constituents, with particular emphasis on their environmental benefits, applications, the limits to their use, their technical performance characteristics and related cost aspects. Vegetable and ester based lubricants are compared with conventional mineral-oil based materials.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 12. Environmentally Adapted Lubricants

Abstract
The present-day requirements for biodegradable and eco-friendly lubricants imply that lubricants have properties that can minimize, if not eliminate, negative environmental impact, such as contamination of soil and water, caused by lost lubrication, leakage and accidents. The dominant, factors that have a direct impact on the environment and which characterize the lubricant and its chemical composition, are toxicity, bio-accumulation and biodegradability. Bio-degradability is perhaps the most important factor which determines the fate of lubricant in the environment. Life cycle analysis (LCA) also helps in assessing the total environmental impact of lubricants. This chapter reviews the essential requirements of environmentally adapted lubricants, with regards to chemical composition, eco-toxicity, biodegradability, bio-accumulation, and eco-labeling schemes, and life cycle analysis.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 13. Proper Lubricants Handling

Abstract
Proper storage and handling of lubricants ensures the high quality which is essential in extending the life of machinery through use of a clean and healthy fluid. Many things can happen to the lubricant between bulk delivery and dispensing to the machinery application. This chapter reviews the general recommended practices for lubricants relating to storage, handling and contamination control, thus protecting the environment in the process.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 14. Lubricating Grease Handling and Waste Management

Abstract
Lubricating grease just like any other lubricants, its waste require careful disposal as it contain pollutants. In response to economic considerations and environmental protection, there is a growing trend of regeneration and reuse of waste lubricants. Accordingly, this work provides an overview on various ways of handling, disposal, treatment of waste grease and its associated environmental impacts. In addition to the fact that petroleum and crude oil are not inexhaustible resources, waste products from these resources present a hazard to human health and the environment. Thus proper management of waste grease is necessary to prevent the adverse environmental impacts, in this regard efficient recycling of waste lubricating greases could help reduce environmental pollution. A review is also made to get an insight into existing literature and what ideas are available for future development through general recommendations regarding the use of renewable resource-based ingredients as a replacement for traditional synthetic materials in conventional greases.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 15. Beyond Lubricating Oil and Grease Systems

Abstract
This section describes different forms of lubrication, including solid lubricants and how they function. Evidence is provided that anti-seize pastes and anti-friction coatings, fortified with different types and levels of solid lubricants, can provide effective lubrication other than oils and greases in certain applications and support oils and greases in other applications. These pastes and anti-friction coatings (AFCs) can reduce wear, optimize friction and perform under extreme environmental conditions. Also a review on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations is referred to as having a potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Chapter 16. Conclusion

Abstract
The chapter summarizes the key areas covered by the authors in this book, with contemporary issues being the topical use synthetic lubricants to replace mineral oils. The feasibility of eco-friendly bio lubricants for total loss applications in the view of thermal stability challenges, as well as the use of nano solid lubricants to replace fluids and grease for severe space operations. Reduction of emissions resulting from sulfur in additives is one way to save the environment among other efforts such as recycling of used oil and proper oil handling to minimize spills and leakages into the environment.
Ignatio Madanhire, Charles Mbohwa

Backmatter

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