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01.03.2015 | Article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials 1/2015

Mix Design and Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concretes: Applicability of Eurocode 2

International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials > Ausgabe 1/2015
George Wardeh, Elhem Ghorbel, Hector Gomart


This work is devoted to the study of fresh and hardened properties of concrete containing recycled gravel. Four formulations were studied, the concrete of reference and three concretes containing recycled gravel with 30, 65 and 100 % replacement ratios. All materials were formulated on the basis of S4 class of flowability and a target C35 class of compressive strength according to the standard EN 206-1. The paper first presents the mix design method which was based on the optimization of cementitious paste and granular skeleton, then discusses experimental results. The results show that the elastic modulus and the tensile strength decrease while the peak strain in compression increases. Correlation with the water porosity is also established. The validity of analytical expressions proposed by Eurocode 2 is also discussed. The obtained results, together with results from the literature, show that these relationships do not predict adequately the mechanical properties as well as the stress–strain curve of tested materials. New expressions were established to predict the elastic modulus and the peak strain from the compressive strength of natural concrete. It was found that the proposed relationship Efc is applicable for any type of concrete while the effect of substitution has to be introduced into the stress–strain (εc1fc) relationship for recycled aggregate concrete. For the full stress–strain curve, the model of Carreira and Chu seems more adequate.
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