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Mobile Commerce

weitere Buchkapitel

Kapitel 2. Allgemeine Grundlagen des B2B-Marketings und -Vertriebs

Das zweite Kapitel des Buchs befasst sich mit Grundlagen des Marketing- und Vertriebsmanagements. Zunächst wird die Evolution der beiden Funktionsbereiche vorgestellt, um die historische Entwicklung von Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts bis in die Gegenwart wissenschaftlich und praxisorientiert einordnen zu können. Darauf aufbauend werden die Aufgaben des Marketings und Vertriebs als Managementprozess aufgezeigt und der Rahmen für die M&V-Schnittstelle gesetzt. Mit konkreten Beispielen werden die Aufgaben des Marketing- und Vertriebsprozesses beleuchtet, um bereits an dieser Stelle die hohe Relevanz für die Zusammenarbeit der beiden Funktionseinheiten zu unterstreichen. Trends und Herausforderungen, wie neue Technologien, Digitalisierung, Globalisierung sowie sich verändernde Marktplätze oder Kundenbedürfnisse wirken sich heute wie auch morgen auf das Marketing und den Vertrieb aus. Das Kapitel zeigt auf, welche Ansätze es für das Marketing und den Vertrieb gibt, um sich diesen Trends und Herausforderungen zu stellen. Zuletzt befasst sich dieses Kapitel mit einem zentralen Thema des Marketings und Vertriebs: dem Management von Kundenbeziehungen. Gerade im Kundenbeziehungsmanagement (CRM) und der Customer Journey ist die „integrierte Zusammenarbeit von Marketing und Vertrieb“ unverzichtbar und von herausragender Bedeutung. Aus diesem Grund werden die beiden Themenbereiche wissenschaftlich und praxisorientiert vorgestellt.

Wolf-Dieter Hiemeyer, Dominik Stumpp

Kapitel 4. Aufmerksamkeit und Interesse wecken durch Marketing- und Kommunikationsmaßnahmen

In Ihrer Marketing-, PR- oder Content-Strategie haben Sie Ziele festgelegt – und Maßnahmen, um diese zu erreichen. In diesem Kapitel geht es um Einzelbausteine Ihres Aktivitätenplans. Für eine maximale Wirkung sollten diese möglichst gut aufeinander abgestimmt sein.

Dr. Birgit Lutzer, Angelika Howind

Chapter 12. E-commerce

The enhanced role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in everyday human life and the urge of e-commerce applications have given birth to various cyber threats and attacks on them. Sensitive data from 65 organizations all over the world was compromised. This year Verizon 2017 Data Breach Investigations Report includes analysis on 42,068 incidents and 1935 breaches from 84 countries (Verizon 2017). In today’s era of Digital world, the use of Internet is very common so as the use of it for online shopping (E-shopping). Nowadays, maximum customers are using online shopping due to its advantages over traditional physical shopping such as low-cost, real-time, interactive, and personalized, cross domain, etc. Due to the use of online shopping, human life has become easier with the good virtual experience. The percentage of customers using the E-shopping is increasing rapidly because it is fast, efficient and which is of economic advantage too. The consumer’s interest in the adaptation of E-commerce affected by three factors which are consumer attitude towards online transaction systems, Security and the last is trust in the reliability of online product suppliers. Debit or Credit card fraud and personal information security are major concerns for customers and merchants.

Ramjee Prasad, Vandana Rohokale

Kapitel 9. Sporthandel zwischen stationärem Handel, E-Commerce und „Own-Retail“

Der deutsche Sporthandelsmarkt ist, obwohl er den offiziellen Zahlen nach definitionsgemäß ein gesättigter Markt mit wenig Wachstumspotenzial ist, ein sich aktuell mehr denn je verändernder und spannender Markt. Zum einen verändert sich die Handelslandschaft im letzten Jahrzehnt so schnell wie noch nie durch die Einflüsse der Digitalisierung im Allgemeinen und im Speziellen durch das immer relevanter werdende Online-Shopping. Zum anderen strömen immer noch neue Handelsformate und Investoren in den aufgrund seines Volumens wichtigen und attraktiven deutschen Sporthandelsmarkt. Hinzu kommen neue Strategien der Sportmarken, die immer aktiver selbst in das Endverbrauchergeschäft einsteigen, was dem klassischen Sporthandel eine ganz neue Dynamik gibt.

Marc Scheiner

Einzelbeiträge

Media management is a young academic field that has yet to establish a universally accepted set of theoretical foundations (Küng 2007, Mierzejewska & Hollifield 2006). Albeit its strong growth in academic teaching and scholarly output, it remains a confused field. The field is neither clearly defined nor cohesively organized. It remains rather a loose agglomeration of work by researchers from various scientific fields.

Paul Clemens Murschetz

Overview of E-commerce Technologies, Data Analysis Capabilities and Marketing Knowledge

The E-commerce trends are showing a growing rate in the last decade for both B to B and B to C trade. The e-commerce technologies enable firms to collect a huge amount of data regarding the profile of consumers, the habits of consumption, the frequency and amounts of purchases, the payment details, the level of satisfaction and also the intention to repurchase the product or equivalent products in the future. The e-commerce technologies are then helping managers to collect relevant data and orient strategic and tactical marketing decisions. The problem that faces small and medium enterprises nowadays is the lack of customer information analysis capabilities that treat the large, heterogeneous and volatile aspects of the data collected with the e-commerce tools. This paper proposes a survey of the main e-commerce technologies and tools that collect consumer data and the potential contribution of each type of data in generating relevant customer knowledge that orient the marketing decisions. This research highlights all the stages of the process from the e-commerce technologies that collect data, then the analytical phase for the extraction of knowledge and finally the marketing decision orientation.

Safa Kaabi, Rim Jallouli

Chapter 6. Context-Aware Computing: Telecom Perspective

A pervasive computing system has been used in several domains. This chapter elaborates on its use in the telecom industry. The mobile user needs various information like traffic updates and weather conditions. From the perception of mobile users, this chapter begins with the layered architecture of context-aware system. The interaction of the telecom industry with the media context has been increased in the last few years. This chapter discusses several context-aware services offered by the telecom industry. The services include content, location, session and identity. The chapter continues to discuss telecom SOA architecture. The chapter finally concludes with a discussion on a context-aware business model which includes perception from the user, network and third party.

Parikshit N. Mahalle, Prashant S. Dhotre

Chapter 18. Why Every CEO Needs to Be Future Smart: From AI to Sustainability

We are living in a world where fundamental changes in technology and lifestyle are emerging in an unprecedented speed. These changes are shaping an entirely new era that will transform markets, society and the economy. Thus, to be prepared to thrive within this radically changed environment, companies need to be led into this future by a Chief Executive Officer (CEO) who is aware of these fundamental future trends, by a CEO who is Future Smart. This describes the ability to see signals that will create a trend and to explore possible future scenarios to better prepare for them today. More than ever, being Future Smart is a vital competency for every business leader. Two mega trends CEOs need to prepare their companies for are sustainability and artificial intelligence (AI) as their impact on the firm’s viability is tremendous. Ten questions are proposed that business leaders should ask about sustainability and artificial intelligence (AI). Being Future Smart will help to answer these questions, leverage both trends and their synergies and thus, gain and maintain competitive advantage in the future. This requires rethinking and adapting strategy with effective strategic management frameworks and processes as well as a Future Smart organization.

James Canton

Chapter 18. Role of Cyber Security in Retail

As the digital retail landscape is rapidly evolving, retailers find themselves to be poorly equipped to handle increasingly sophisticated cyber threats. In the past, retailers gave little importance to IT security. IT security requirements were narrowly framed as ‘checkbox compliance’ given by payment card industry (PCI) for data protection specification and outsourced implementation to individual stores. As the consumer habits are changing, security also should be given a redefined focus. Compliance and privacy requirements are making data protection a very essential and critical task. The paper addresses gaps and solutions for cyber security in retail domain, especially in the backdrop of digitalization and omnichannel retailing.

Kosha Joshi, K. B. Akhilesh

“Why Would You Buy from a Stranger?” Understanding Saudi Citizens’ Motivations and Challenges in Social Commerce

Consumers in many countries like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are increasingly turning to social media platforms like Instagram and WhatsApp to buy and sell products and services. Commercial activities within these platforms are increasing in popularity because of important qualities they provide, such as convenience of use, social aspects, and the variety of the types of products available. Using social media in this way has become popular, even though social platforms lack support for conducting e-commerce. In our study, we aim to understand this new trend, to investigate the needs of social media consumers within KSA, and to investigate how social platforms can be better designed to meet those needs. Using data collected through interviews with 26 social media users, we discuss and propose design directions and trust mechanisms for supporting commercial activity within social media platforms with the aim of improving user experience and increasing user acceptance.

Aisha Ahmed AlArfaj, Ellis Solaiman, Lindsay Marshall

Adoption and Use of Tablet Devices by Older Adults: A Quantitative Study

Information and communication technologies have become essential for everyday activities. Recently, ubiquitous or mobile computing is the new trend whereby information and services can be accessed anywhere and anytime. However, not all groups of society are taking advantage of its benefits, of which the older population is one of such groups. This study aims to identify and evaluate the factors that influence the adoption, use and diffusion of tablet devices within the older population (aged 50 and above) in UK. From an online survey of 203 completed responses, Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived ease of use, Trust, Attitude and Perceived behavioral control were identified as factors that affect the adoption and use of tablet devices. This study also provides the implications of the research to academia, industry and policy makers.

Uchenna Ojiako, Jyoti Choudrie, Ukamaka Nwanekezie, Chike-Obuekwe Chikelue

Prioritizing Use Cases for Development of Mobile Apps Using AHP: A Case Study in To-Do List Apps

With the rapid development of communication technologies, the uses of mobile apps have increased in a significant manner over the past few years. Every day many different types of mobile apps are uploaded to mobile application markets. However, it is very difficult for the apps to stay competitive and survive in these marketplaces. Covering the requirements fitting the needs of users is one of significant factors in mobile apps’ success in the market. In this regard, this study aims to use Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the use cases for the development of mobile apps. The results show that AHP provides an efficient tool which can be used to determine importance of the requirements in mobile apps considering users’ preferences.

Onur Yildirim, Serhat Peker

Chapter 1. Key Issues in Managing Innovation in a Global and Digital World: An Introduction to the Festschrift in Honor of Cornelius Herstatt

The technological revolution of the previous 20-25 years, especially the one brought about by the Internet and other telecommunication technologies, has led to the creation of general purpose technologies (GPTs) that facilitate high quality, easy-to-use and cost-effective solutions (Teece, 2018). The ensuing “democratization of innovation” has led millions of individuals across the world to turn into innovators (von Hippel, 2005). The availability of vastly affordable communication at high bandwidth – in conjunction with globalization – has set free innovational and entrepreneurial spirit that was never possible before in the memory of the humanity.

Rajnish Tiwari, Stephan Buse

Proposing a Service Quality Framework for Mobile Commerce

Customer satisfaction influences the profitability of organizations and can keep competitive advantages. One of the critical factors in customer satisfaction is the availability of a quality scale that measures the service. The service quality aims to ensure that the service delivered meets customer expectations. However, with the popularity of using mobile devices, there are many electronic businesses shifted to mobile platforms. Mobile platforms have unique features that differ from Personal computers, such as mobility, portable, wireless. Mobile business is a category of business development refers to new business platforms that enabled by using the technology of wireless and mobile devices. In this case, measuring of service quality of the mobile business is necessary nowadays to ensure the delivered services with the best quality. Due to the lack of a comprehensive framework to evaluate service quality at the mobile business, the business sector uses electronic service quality measurement to evaluate mobile business services, which results in difficulties in identifying accurate results. Using the theoretical base model of offline service quality “SERVQUAL” and the online service quality model “E-S-QUAL,” the researchers were able to propose a framework of service quality to evaluate the services provided through mobile commerce. The proposed service quality framework is consisting of six dimensions that are application design, reliability, responsiveness, trust, efficiency, and system availability. The proposed service quality framework helps business providers for better development of business strategies and leads for best customers’ expectations due to the compatibility of the proposed model with the unique features of mobile devices with considerations of the environment of business sectors.

Abdulla Jaafar Desmal, Mohd Khalit Bin Othman, Suraya Binti Hamid, Ali Hussein Zolait, Norliya Binti Ahmad Kassim

An Investigation on Sharing Economy Mobile Service Adoption: How Perceived Risk, Value, and Price Interact?

Originally developing from redistribution of idle resources, the sharing economy has expanded rapidly since its emergence because it enhances the efficiency of asset utilization through paid rentals of surplus resources, creating a win-win situation between users and re-source owners, and the subversive business opportunities brought by its business model attract global attention. However, related research on discussing user’s adoption towards sharing economy mobile services (M-services) is still lacking. As we know, a solid understanding of user perception enables a more robust definition of better market alignment. The contribution of this study is to discuss the key elements of sharing economy M-service adoption by including contingencies in which low and high user experience existed. We applied three theories – perceived risk (including security uncertainty and performance uncertainty), perceived value (perceived usefulness), and perceived price – and hypothesized that each had a different effect on sharing economy M-service adoption. The hypotheses were tested by multi-group SEM approach with 509 responses in Taiwan.Our findings verified that users’ perceived usefulness is a major driver to the widespread adoption of sharing economy M-services for both low and high- experienced contingencies. Also, the effects of security uncertainty and performance uncertainty are both mediated by perceived usefulness for high experienced users; while the mediated effect of perceived price does not exist. In addition, there were significant differences in the influence of perceived price on adoption intention in low and high-experienced contingencies, and thus illustrated different strategies have to be proposed for sharing economy M-service marketing. Implications and future research is suggested.

Shu-Ping Lin, Ya-Hui Chan

Chapter 1. Transnational, Ethnic and Returnee Entrepreneurship: Perspectives on SME Internationalization

The concept of transnational entrepreneurship (TE) has attracted much attention in scholarly literature in recent times. Transnational entrepreneurs have a bifocal orientation and maintain business and personal relationships in two different geographical spaces spanning across national borders (i.e. in their home and host countries) while running their enterprises. Returnee entrepreneurship (RE) deals with entrepreneurs who establish enterprises in their home countries on returning from host countries after having gained educational or business experience. While TE is a first step towards international entrepreneurship (IE), ethnic entrepreneurship (EE) is another facet that links TE and returnee entrepreneurship (RE) through the facilitating role played by the diaspora community comprising immigrants from the home country. This chapter provides an overview of the research on TE, RE and ethnic entrepreneurship and explains how they are facilitated by the diaspora of the new generation of opportunity and capability-based immigrants. It further provides an overview of the different theories about SME internationalization with special reference to transnational and returnee entrepreneurs. The concluding part of this chapter explains the role played by different factors such as market/political conditions, technological developments, production networks, social networks and human capital in facilitating or posing challenges to the internationalization process of SMEs, especially of TEs and REs.

Mathew J. Manimala, Kishinchand Poornima Wasdani, Abhishek Vijaygopal

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Machine Learning oder maschinelles Lernen umfasst unterschiedliche Formen des Selbstlernens bei Systemen der Künstlichen Intelligenz und der Robotik. Diese erkennen beispielsweise Regel- und Gesetzmäßigkeiten in den Daten und leiten Schlüsse und Aktionen daraus ab. Ethem Alpaydin drückt es so aus: „Maschinelles Lernen heißt, Computer so zu programmieren, dass ein bestimmtes Leistungskriterium anhand von Beispieldaten oder Erfahrungswerten aus der Vergangenheit optimiert wird.“

Oliver Bendel

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„Schlüsselqualifikation“ ist ein Sammelbegriff für all diejenigen Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen, die notwendig oder auch wünschenswert für die erfolgreiche Beherrschung von in einem bestimmten Kontext wiederkehrenden Anforderungen sind.

Oliver Bendel

Chapter 4. The Adoption and Use of Tethered Electronic Personal Health Records for Health Management

Information Technology becomes a crucial part of the health-care system and it is getting more attention worldwide. Health IT includes well-known systems that have transformed the health sector such as Electronic Health Records (EHR), Electronic Medical Records (EMR), and Electronic Personal Health Records (ePHR). ePHR aims at enabling patients to take more active role in their care by giving them the ability to access their health records in a secure and safe environment. ePHR allows greater patient-provider engagement. The provider’s adoption rate of the ePHR as a tool to connect with patients and to enable them to have access to their records is increasing at an accelerated rate. However, the patient’s ePHR adoption rate remains low. In the USA, the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) reports an increase in the number of office-based physicians’ and hospitals’ adoption of the EHR. The number of office-based physicians adopting EHR increased from 17% in 2008 to 58% as of 2015. Similarly, it shows that the nonfederal acute care hospitals with certified EHR rate increased from 9% in 2008 to 84% as of 2015 [1]. Despite the efforts to encourage the health-care providers’ adoption of certified EHR and ePHR, the adoption rate by patients remains below expectations [2]. This rate is expected to increases due to the wide attention and efforts led by governments and health-care providers to engage patients in their care. The forecasts of future ePHR adoption are expecting 75% of adults to adopt and use ePHR by 2020 [3]. More attention is needed to improve the patient’s adoption of ePHR.

Saeed Alzahrani, Tuğrul Daim

Approaches for Steering Multichannel Retail Companies

This contribution explains steering concepts for multichannel business models. In doing so, the scope and characteristics of single channels (stationary, print, and online) and the objective of a multichannel strategy are described first. Resulting challenges for management accounting are derived. The solution comprises the adaption of general steering dimensions with a focus on the customer perspective. Modern approaches for the steering of “customers” in a multichannel context are explained. Further typical performance indicators are highlighted to observe multichannel developments.

Philipp Graf von Arnim

Chapter 12. A Mobile Cloud Framework for Context-Aware and Portable Recommender System for Smart Markets

Smart city systems are fast emerging as solutions that provide better and digitized urban services to empower individuals and organizations. Mobile and cloud computing technologies can enable smart city systems to (1) exploit the portability and context-awareness of mobile devices and (2) utilize the computation and storage services of cloud servers. Despite the wide-spread adoption of mobile and cloud computing technologies, there is still a lack of solutions that provide the users with portable and context-aware recommendations based on their localized context. We propose to advance the state-of-the-art on recommender systems—providing a portable, efficient, and context-driven digital matchmaking—in the context of smart markets that involves virtualized customers and business entities. We have proposed a framework and algorithms that unify the mobile and cloud computing technologies to offer context-aware and portable recommendations for smart markets. We have developed a prototype as a proof-of-the-concept to support automation, user intervention, and customization of users’ preferences during the recommendation process. The evaluation results suggest that the framework (1) has a high accuracy for context-aware recommendations, and (2) it supports computation and energy efficient mobile computing. The proposed solution aims to advance the research on recommender systems for smart city systems by providing context-aware and portable computing for smart markets.

Aftab Khan, Aakash Ahmad, Anis Ur Rahman, Adel Alkhalil

Chapter 9. Exploring Omnichannel Retailing Differences and Preferences Among Consumer Generations

This chapter discusses differences and preferences among consumer generations, e.g. ‘Baby Boomers’, ‘Generation X’, ‘Generation Y’ (Millennials) and ‘Generation Z’, regarding their use of omnichannel retailing including their purchase and fulfilment needs, willingness to use this format, attitudes and behaviors, and subsequent effects on their satisfaction and loyalty. The development of omnichannel and fulfilment strategies is of increasing concern for international retailers. However, strategic challenges go beyond just targeting consumers via various communication and distribution channels to include the ongoing development and integrated management of such strategies to foster appropriate online purchasing and fulfilment and two-way communication with target generations for mutual data and information exchange. A systematic literature review was undertaken of omnichannel’s theoretical and practical dimensions and its relation to consumer generations. Subsequent analysis found consumer willingness to accept omnichannel options grows over time of use and that use is highly dependent on age moving through generations from Baby Boomers through Generations X, Y and Z. Suggestions for strategic development of these generational segments and fulfilment applications were lacking and this chapter concludes with suggestions for future research and practical applications in expanded strategic areas to address this gap and enable retailers to better meet generational needs and provide appropriate purchase and fulfilment strategies to increase satisfaction and loyalty.

Iulia Diana Popa, Dan-Cristian Dabija, David B. Grant

Open Access

Smartphones as an Opportunity to Increase Sales in Brick-and-Mortar Stores: Identifying Sales Influencers Based on a Literature Review

The increasing popularity of smartphones, the constant rise of e-commerce turnover and plungingdepartment storesales have a significant impact on brick-and-mortar stores revenue. Nevertheless, brick-and-mortar revenue still makes up 90% of total retail revenue. This gives rise to the question of how smartphones affect sales in brick-and-mortar stores. In order to investigate the impact of smartphones on brick-and-mortar store sales, this article presents the results of a literature review, summarizing statements about the impact of smartphones on brick-and-mortar store sales into sales influencers. These sales influencerswere categorized into three main types of sales drivers, namely: Utilitarian drivers, cost and time reduction drivers and hedonic drivers. Subsequently, the categorized statements were evaluated according to their potential positive or negative influence on sales. The resulting overview provides information about the current status of research in the field of smartphones as sales influencers in brick-and-mortar stores. It reveals extensively as well as partially researched sales influencers. Hence, the overview also acts as call for future research, encouraging research progression in the field of smartphone influenced sales in brick-and-mortar stores. It can be concluded that, according to the current literature, smartphones have the potential to increase sales in brick-and-mortar stores. However, the variety of sales influencers identified suggests that research is scattered. Hence, future research is needed to analyse how strongly each individual sales influencer affects sales in brick-and-mortar stores.

Robert Zimmermann, Andreas Auinger, René Riedl

Kapitel 7. Mit Sprachassistenten verkaufen?!

Das Kap. 7 widmet sich der Frage nach Vertrieb und Umsatzgenerierung mit Sprachassistenten. Welche Angebote auf Sprachassistenten unterstützen direkt den Kaufvorgang der Kunden? Welche Anwendungsfälle eignen sich besonders, um Kaufabschlüsse über diese herbeizuführen? Dabei werden direkte wie auch Cross-Channel-Ansätze (z. B. „say and collect“) berücksichtigt.

Thomas Hörner

An App for Who?

An Exploration of the Use and Adoption of Mobile Ordering Applications Among Aging Populations

With the ubiquity of smart and connected devices such as smartphones, and the ease of downloading Apps from various marketplaces, it has become standard practice for companies to enhance their service experience by releasing their own mobile apps. In one particular vertical, Fast-Food Restaurants, these applications have started to offer customers a chance to place mobile-orders. While mobile ordering comes with a variety of benefits such as skipping lines, order customization, and personalization features, it is not clear that current design can benefit all users. This study is part of a larger project that attempts to provide a service experience design that includes the needs of older users. As a first step toward this goal, in this study we assess the adoption, user experience (UX) and overall usability of an actual mobile ordering applications in an organization with respect to generational differences.

Christopher Chagnon, Ryan LaMarche, Soussan Djamasbi

Mobile App Stores from the User’s Perspective

The use of smartphones has become more prevalent in light of the boom in Internet services and Web 2.0 applications. Mobile stores (e.g., Apple’s App Store and Google Play) have been increasingly used by mobile users worldwide to download or purchase different kinds of applications. This has prompted mobile app practitioners to reconsider their mobile app stores in terms of design, features and functions in order to maintain their customers’ loyalty. Due to the lack of research on this context, this study aims to identify factors that may affect users’ satisfaction and continued intention toward using mobile stores. The proposed model includes various factors derived from information systems literature (i.e., usefulness, ease of use, perceived cost, privacy and security concerns) in addition to the dimensions of mobile interactivity (i.e. active control, mobility, and responsiveness). The study sets out 13 hypotheses that include mediating relationships (e.g., perceived usefulness mediates the influence of ease of use, active control, responsiveness and mobility; perceived ease of use mediates the influence of active control). As well as outlining the proposed research method, the research contributions, limitations and future research recommendations are also addressed.

Abdullah M. Baabdullah, Ali Abdallah Alalwan, Nripendra P. Rana, Ata Al Shraah, Hatice Kizgin, Pushp P. Patil

Understanding the Factors Influencing Mobile Commerce Adoption by Traders in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana

The proliferation of wireless communication networks and relative reduction in cost of mobile devices have contributed to exponential growth in mobile device usage, and mobile commerce (m-commerce). Increasingly, mobile devices are being used in various ways by traders. This study analysed the factors that influence m-commerce adoption by traders and the role of Gender in mobile device adoption. The work extends the User Acceptance and Use of Information Technology (UTAUT2) model by highlighting the role of Trust. This study took place in one of the biggest markets in Ghana which is a hub for sale and distribution of agricultural and farm produce. The study analysed responses to a survey of two hundred and fifteen (215) traders using regression analysis. It was discovered that gender has moderating effect on Performance Expectancy, Facilitating Conditions, Habit, Price Value, and Trust and therefore, confirming the need for extension of the UTAUT2 model in relation to the study of adoption and use of m-commerce.

Mercy Kwofie, Joseph Kwame Adjei

Explaining Performance Expectancy of IoT in Chilean SMEs

The purpose of this paper is to validate a research model that explains performance expectancy of IoT from psychological and cognitive variables: personal innovativeness of information technology (PIIT) and social influence respectively. Data were collected from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Chile. A confirmatory approach using PLSc was employed to validate the hypotheses. The conclusions of the study are (a) Chilean SMEs companies do not use IoT massively, (b) goodness of fit indicators allowed to validate the proposed research model successfully, (c) both constructs, social influence and personal innovativeness of information technology, explain 61% of performance expectancy of IoT.

Patricio E. Ramírez-Correa, Elizabeth E. Grandón, Jorge Arenas-Gaitán, F. Javier Rondán-Cataluña, Alejandro Aravena

Analyzing the Prospects and Acceptance of Mobile-Based Marine Debris Tracking

Marine litter has been considered as a growing concern within different coastal areas around the world and to address this issue, there have been apprehensions from various stakeholders including international regulatory bodies and governmental institutions, among others. Amongst the different technologies being promoted by key stakeholders, mobile-based marine debris tracking is being promoted due to the widespread utilization of mobile devices. However, although a few mobile based marine debris reporting, and tracking tools have emerged, limited research has been undertaken about the acceptance of such solution by end users. Assessment of acceptance of this technology is important in order to understand aspects that impact future adoption. To address this gap, this paper investigates and analyses the acceptance of mobile-based marine debris tracking. In order to achieve the purpose of this paper, an application called “Mau Marine-Litter Watch” was developed and assessed through application of the Technology Acceptance Model.

Ashley Thanacoody, Girish Bekaroo, Aditya Santokhee, Suraj Juddoo

Chapter 1. Introduction: Sport Technology and Innovation

The primary objective of this chapter is to describe the processes of innovation involving sport technology to facilitate an understanding about the components of this book. In order to initiate a technology innovation there needs to be some degree of creativity about its usages in sport. This can occur in a variety of different forms from incremental to radical shifts in the way sport integrates technology innovation. Despite the practical usage of technology innovation in sport, the academic literature is still at a nascent stage. This introductory chapter to the book will describe the changes in the way technology is viewed in sport as a way of starting the discussion for the resulting chapters in the book.

Vanessa Ratten

Chapter 6. Communities of Practice

The focus of this chapter will cover ground associated with technology innovation in sport through a communities-of-practice perspective. My perusal of technology innovation texts failed to find any systematic examination of sport, thus it is useful to build on existing research in other fields. Thus, it is important to study sport technology innovation from a community perspective rather than just focusing on technology innovation in a sports environment. The core message of this chapter is that a new theory of sport technology innovation is needed that builds on the teamwork and communities inherent in sport. To really learn about the evolving nature of sport we need to study technology innovation by looking at knowledge management and strategy. Sport organizations differ in their attitudes toward technology innovation and exhibit higher levels of innovative behavior when engaged in a community of practice.

Vanessa Ratten

Chapter 4. Technology Commercialization

This chapter focuses chiefly on the recent advances in sport technology innovation by looking at commercialization outcomes. There is a prodigious body of literature about technology innovation in general but less devoted to sport. This chapter attempts to draw out transferrable lessons for sport technology management by focusing on how entrepreneurship facilitates the innovation process. To do so the chapter discusses how technology innovation is forging a new path for sport organizations through interactive and new media applications. In this chapter, I will focus on technology-driven determinants for sport innovation by examining the role of entrepreneurial ecosystems. Technology is important for enhancing the performance of sport organizations but a better understanding is needed about the commercialization process.

Vanessa Ratten

Digital Wallets ‘Turning a Corner’ for Financial Inclusion: A Study of Everyday PayTM Practices in India

Financial transactions are intimately bound with social interactions and woven into everyday economic lives. In this paper we focus on PayTM, a digital wallet, and a specific set of users of PayTM, street vendors in urban India. Through an ethnographic investigation we offer to unpack two questions: 1. Can digital forms of money create financial inclusion by opening up access to the marginalized 2. Can digital platforms amplify socio-economic capacities of low literate users enhancing financial literacy? We argue that digital and financial literacy are an immersive component of digital wallet use acquiring ‘everyday life’ in specific socio-economic ecosystems. Our study captures daily practices of digital money staking a claim in advancing the understanding of financial inclusion as a lived process accumulating habits, practices and stakes to expand socio-economic capabilities.

Tanmay Joshi, Sharmistha Swasti Gupta, Nimmi Rangaswamy

G. Schlussteil

Im Folgenden werden die wichtigsten Erkenntnisse der vorangegangenen Kapitel stichpunktartig in Thesen zusammengefasst. Im Anschluss erfolgt ein Fazit mit einem Ausblick auf weitere mögliche Entwicklungen und Fragestellungen.

Lisa Kammann

C. Mobile Commerce

Unter Mobile Commerce versteht man Geschäftsabschlüsse unter Verwendung mobiler Endgeräte.267 Der M-Commerce läuft somit ortsungebunden ab — im Gegensatz zum stationären E-Commerce, der einen festen Zugang zu den Datennetzen voraussetzt.268 Grundsätzlich ist der Vertrieb über mobile Endgeräte mit dem Vertrieb über stationäre Computer vergleichbar. Beide Vertriebsarten gehören zum E-Commerce und unterliegen den gleichen gesetzlichen Regelungen. Auch die Umsetzung der gesetzlichen Pflichten kann in vielen Bereichen ähnlich ablaufen. Der wichtigste Unterschied zu einem stationären Computer liegt in der Größe des Displays, auf dem die Applikationen oder Internetseiten angezeigt werden.269 Auf kleinen Displays kann jeweils nur ein geringer Textumfang angezeigt werden, was bei längeren Texten ein aufwendiges Scrollen oder Zoomen zur Folge hat.270 Auch die Übersichtlichkeit ist durch den begrenzten Raum schwieriger zu gewährleisten. Da in den sonstigen Bereichen kaum Unterschiede zum Vertrieb über stationäre Computer bestehen, soll im Folgenden nur auf die Gestaltung und Einbeziehung der AVB und die Erfüllung der Informationspflichten eingegangen werden.

Lisa Kammann

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Oliver Bendel

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„Schlüsselqualifikation“ ist ein Sammelbegriff für all diejenigen Fähigkeiten und Kompetenzen, die notwendig oder auch wünschenswert für die erfolgreiche Beherrschung von in einem bestimmten Kontext wiederkehrenden Anforderungen sind.

Oliver Bendel

Kapitel 3. Instrumente des Online-Marketings

Nach der Durcharbeitung dieses Kapitels verstehen Sie, wie eine Corporate Website aufzubauen ist, Sie können Sie die Usability sicherstellen und wissen, wie der Frequenzaufbau erfolgt. Außerdem sind Sie imstande, verschiedene Formate der Online-Werbung zu unterscheiden und relevante Kennzahlen zur Bewertung einzusetzen, Sie können Suchmaschinen-Werbung zielorientiert einsetzen und Sie kennen sich damit aus, worauf bei der Online-Werbung zu achten ist. Weiterhin beherrschen Sie nach der Lektüre Grundlagen der Suchmaschinen-Optimierung und Sie können verschiedene Maßnahmen zur On-Site- und Off-Site-Optimierung konzipieren. Sie beherrschen die Grundlagen des E-Mail-Marketings und können dessen Erfolgsfaktoren berücksichtigen. Sie beherrschen die Grundlagen des Mobile-Marketings und können Anwendungsfelder unterscheiden. Zudem beherrschen Sie die Ausgestaltungsformen und Ziele des Social-Media-Marketings, Sie sind in der Lage, die relevante Plattformen für das Social-Media-Marketing einzusetzen, und Sie kennen die Möglichkeiten, um den Einsatz des Social-Media-Marketings zu überwachen.

Ralf T. Kreutzer

Kapitel 4. E-Commerce

In diesem Kapitel erfahren Sie, welche Phasen beim E-Commerce zu unterscheiden sind, welche Anforderungen an die Waren-, Informations- und Finanzlogistik beim Aufbau des E-Commerce zu berücksichtigen sind, wie die Online-Präsenz für Einzelhändler zielorientiert ausgestaltet werden kann und wie eine überzeugende Angebots-Positionierung vor der Entwicklung eines Online-Shops erfolgen kann. Nach dem Lesen dieses Kapitels verstehen Sie die Grundlagen des E-Commerce und können dessen Erscheinungsformen einordnen und Sie können den Multi-Channel-Ansatz kommunikativ und distributiv ausgestalten.

Ralf T. Kreutzer

Kapitel 1. Die Grundlagen des E-Business

E-Business ist die Nutzung der Informationstechnologien für die Vorbereitung (Informationsphase), Verhandlung (Kommunikationsphase) und Durchführung (Transaktionsphase) von Geschäftsprozessen zwischen ökonomischen Partnern über innovative Kommunikationsnetzwerke. Doch worauf basiert die elektronische Wertschöpfung, um digitale Geschäftsmodelle im E-Business erfolgreich umsetzen zu können? Als Basis dienen zunächst innovative Entwicklungen im Bereich der Informationstechnik und -technologie wie z. B. die zunehmende Vernetzung und immer schneller werdende Datenübertragung. Diese ermöglichen den virtuellen und zeit- sowie ortsunabhängigen Informationsaustausch sowie die zunehmend ökonomische Nutzung digitaler Informationen für betriebswirtschaftliche Zwecke. Somit entsteht die Informationsökonomie rund um den zentralen elektronischen Wertschöpfungsprozess auf Basis des Informationsaustausches als Ausgangspunkt für die Digitale Wirtschaft. Der daraus resultierende Informationswettbewerb eröffnet neue Möglichkeiten für innovative digitale Geschäftsmodelle im Web 1.0, Web 2.0, Web 3.0, Web 4.0 und Web 5.0.

Tobias Kollmann

Securing Internet-of-Things

In this survey, we first present some vulnerabilities and attacks on IoT systems, and classification of IoT devices, we then show the evolution of the development of lightweight cryptography for securing IoT, the metrics for the design of lightweight cryptography, and the applications in privacy preserving authentication protocols. We use examples including the development of Simon, Simeck, and sLiSCP/sLiSCP-Light lightweight ciphers to demonstrate those approaches.

Guang Gong

Toward an Understanding of the Antecedents of E-Marketing Orientation: The Role of the Fit

Nowadays, firms have realized the importance of using the Internet-based technology for supporting services to their customers and suppliers. For achieving a higher value in operating activities, firms must emphasize on R&D and technological development to fit with customer needs and develop the capabilities for searching and acquiring information via e-business tools. Thus, it is important for firms to know how to acquire market information to satisfy customers’ needs. In this vein, electronic marketing (e-Marketing) is regarded as a strategic weapon for firms to accomplish it. It not only includes the deployment of marketing activities in the Internet but also includes using technology to support services for customers. Drawing on the concept of fit, this present research tries to explore the effect of fit between market orientation and IT adoption strategy on e-Marketing orientation (the antecedents of e-Marketing orientation). Empirical data for hypothesis testing are collected from top-ranked companies in Taiwan, yielding 140 valid samples. Performance implications of fit are examined using fit as covariation approach. The findings indicated that the fit of market orientation and IT adoption strategy plays an important role in explaining e-Marketing orientation.

Hui-Ling Huang, Yue-Yang Chen

Kapitel 3. Werkzeuge der digitalen Transformation

Im Rahmen der digitalen Transformation stehen Unternehmen eine Vielzahl von Werkzeugen zur Verfügung. Die Konzepte und Ideen hinter diesen Werkzeugen sind mannigfaltig und (noch) nicht alle Ideen finden ihre praktische Anwendung in Unternehmen. Im Folgenden werden die wesentlichen sechsundzwanzig Konzepte der Digitalisierung vorgestellt und mit praktischen Beispielen angereichert.

André Kieviet

Chapter 2. Introduction to Money

This chapter provides an introduction to money. The chapter analyses the origins and nature of money, evolution of central banks and the transition from the gold standard to fiat money. The chapter then analyses the standards and qualities of money, making a distinction between economic money and legal money. The chapter also discusses the nature of the payment system and the role of its various players. Apart from providing an overview of the historical development of money, the chapter also looks at emerging forms of money and the challenges these new forms of money present. For example, most forms of digital forms of money like Bitcoin are private money and not state-regulated. Is this a signal of a shift in the sovereign foundations of money?

Sunduzwayo Madise

Chapter 5. Female Entrepreneurship in the African Fashion Industry: A Review of Its Determinants and Characteristics

This chapter reviews the role of women, especially young women, in entrepreneurship in the fashion sector, and defines some of the features that characterize them on a personal level.

Hashim Sabo Bello

Chapter 2. Fashion Sector Outsourcing to African Countries: Taking Advantage of Low-Cost Labor?

This chapter analyzes how globalization has affected the fashion industry over time. The ecosystem of fashion, the different agents it contains and the relationships between them are studied in depth. The chapter ends by exploring the main challenges facing the sector.

Renato Botti

Kapitel 2. Praktische Grundlagen und Prozess des Affiliate-Marketing

Obwohl der Ursprung des Affiliate-Marketing oft dem Online-Händler Amazon im Jahr 1997 oder dem Musikhändler CDNow Ende 1995 zugeschrieben wird, sind die Anfänge des Affiliate-Marketing früher zu finden. William J. Tobin, der Gründer des Unternehmens PC Flowers and Gifts, entwickelte bereits 1994 eine Methode, Transaktionen nachverfolgen und anschließend vergüten zu können, die dem heute bekannten Affiliate- Marketing sehr ähnlich ist. Diese Methode ließ er sich 1996 patentieren.

Patrick Mark Bormann

Kapitel 2. China – Die einzige Mobile-First-Gesellschaft

„Mobile First“ hat sich in den vergangenen zwei bis drei Jahren als regelrechtes Buzzword etabliert und mobiles Einkaufen wird als Zukunft des E-Commerce gehandelt. Die Gründe liegen auf der Hand: Das Handy kann überall mitgenommen werden und wenn wir ganz ehrlich sind, haben wir unser Smartphone tatsächlich immer griffbereit. In China ist das Mobiltelefon kaum noch wegzudenken. Der Alltag der Chinesen wird mittlerweile so stark von mobilen Anwendungen gesteuert, dass man sich kaum noch vorstellen kann, dass es mal eine Zeit vor dem Handy gab.

Elena Gatti, Christina Richter

Kapitel 8. Chinas Millennials – die neuen Superkonsumenten?

Chinas Millennials sind eine neue Generation von Verbrauchern, die die Zukunft des Handels mitgestalten werden. Mehr als 400 Mio. stark und in der Zeit der Ein-Kind-Politik geboren und aufgewachsen – das sind wohl ihre wichtigsten Merkmale. Es sind die „kleinen Kaiser und Kaiserinnen“, denen ihre Eltern alles nur Denkbare ermöglichten. Es ist eine ganze Generation von Einzelkindern. Und genau das unterscheidet sie von Millennials aus anderen Ländern.

Elena Gatti, Christina Richter

2. Technological Background

Technology is becoming part of retail settings, by enhancing consumers’ experience with new exciting and attractive elements. Thus, the technology can be successfully integrated within the physical point of sale, outside the point of sale through interactive storefront windows or becoming more ubiquitous through mobile devices acting as interactive pervasive shopping assistants (anytime and anywhere). This chapter will outline these different technologies and illustrate how retailers have actually integrated within their strategies with different examples.

Eleonora Pantano, Charles Dennis

Chapter 3. Leverage Points for Sustainable, Innovative Logistics Considering Consumer Lifestyles

This article addresses the interrelations between the perpetual growth of the logistics industry and logistics services on the one hand and changing consumption behaviors and lifestyles on the other. More specifically, we look at how consumption patterns can influence the development and expansion of sustainable logistics structures and services along the supply chain of products found in conventional grocery stores and fashion products distributed through online retailing.Through horizon scanning and qualitative expert interviews, we developed potential approaches for increasing sustainability in the logistics industry with respect to consumption behaviors. Integrating logistics into the “container” of sustainability, integrating (more) sharing economy elements into logistics services, and taking advantage of existing areas of consumer awareness, such as regional products, for promoting sustainable logistics to end users are only some examples for potential approaches.

Rosa Strube, Thomas Wagner

12. An Exploratory Investigation into the Consumer Use of WeChat to Engage with Luxury Fashion Brands

This chapter explores the behaviours and impact of consumer engagement with luxury clothing brands on the WeChat social media platform. It presents an investigation into how young Chinese fashion consumers use WeChat to understand and engage with luxury fashion brands and how they engage with other consumers and interested stakeholders during their shopping experience. Our results suggest that consumers do use WeChat extensively to engage with luxury clothing brands, but in doing so currently place the greatest trust for their fashion and product knowledge in the opinions of those in their WeChat friendship groups and WeChat fashion bloggers rather than directly with the brands themselves.

Noreen Siddiqui, Mike Mannion, Ruth Marciniak

1. The Historical Development of Social Commerce

Despite its increasing relevance in academia and business, the concept of social commerce (s-commerce) still remains under-investigated in a marketing context. While its roots can be traced back to the late 1990s, the explosive growth of s-commerce started only a decade ago. Until today, most empirical research is related to information technology. This chapter is based on a literature review with the goal of depicting the historical development of s-commerce and deriving implications for marketing managers today. Analysing literature from the areas of computer sciences, information technology, marketing, and communications led to a holistic view on its progress over time. Implications for the strategic use of s-commerce are provided, for example, the integration of customers in online communications or the strategic use of user-generated content.

Nina Bürklin, Claudia E. Henninger, Rosy Boardman

Kapitel 17. Mobiles Internet und Mobile-Marketing

Einordnung, Entwicklung, Trends

Um es gleich klar zu sagen: Dieses Kapitel soll keine Konkurrenz für die in jüngerer Zeit erschienene Literatur zum Thema „Mobile-Marketing“ oder „Mobile-Commerce“ sein. Mir geht es zunächst nur um eine Einordnung in den Gesamtkontext des Online- Marketings und um eine Sensibilisierung meiner Leser für eine Entwicklung, die ziemlich große Kreise ziehen wird. Eine Entwicklung, die viele Geschäftsprozesse und damit auch das Online-Marketing stark verändern wird.

Erwin Lammenett

Chapter 7. Prospect of the VLSI Architecture for Massive MIMO Detection

With respect to the manufacturing industry, in the 5G times, apart from intelligent terminals, the background network equipment of the 5G technology will encounter revolutionary changes as well. In this era, the network equipment manufacturing industry is no longer proprietary for conventional communications equipment manufacturers. Manufacturers who provide open computation equipment, storage equipment, and network equipment can also participate in the competition. To satisfy both the scalability and ultra-low delay requirements of computing capability on terminal devices, the new rising mobile edge computing (MEC) technology emerges as a promising paradigm in 5G communications. The basic thought of MEC is to offload cloud computing platform to the edge of mobile access network to enable the user equipment to offload computation tasks to the nodes at the edge of network, which is beneficial for 5G services to fulfill technical indicators such as ultra-low delay, ultra-high energy efficiency, and ultra-high reliability. This chapter probes into the future application scenarios and hardware development from three aspects: server, mobile terminal, and edge computing, which correspond to the subsequent sections.

Leibo Liu, Guiqiang Peng, Shaojun Wei

V-Commerce in Retail: Nature and Potential Impact

V-commerce is an emerging phenomenon that is gaining traction in marketing and business literature and is becoming specifically more prominent in content related to retail practices. However, interpretations and explanations as to what exactly v-commerce refers to and comprises are inconsistent. This paper addresses the fluid conceptualisation of the v-commerce terminology and advocates the usage of v-commerce terminology exclusively for referring to, and as an abbreviation of, virtual commerce—for which a unified definition will be proposed. Taking a business-to-consumer approach, the current implementations of virtual commerce in the retail sector, as well as the potential and future research implications will be discussed.

Anouk de Regt, Stuart J. Barnes

Kapitel 2. Geschäftsmodell des Online-Handels

Die Kundenzentriertheit muss Basis für das Geschäftsmodell eines jeden Online-Händlers sein. Losgelöst von der funktional orientierten Marketinglehre rücken Leidenschaft und Glaubwürdigkeit der gesamten Unternehmensführung und ein bedingungslos am Kundenwunsch ausgerichtetes Unternehmen in das Zentrum der geschäftlichen Aktivitäten. Diese Art der „neuen Kundenorientierung“ durchdringt das komplette Geschäftssystem des Unternehmens und gibt Mitarbeitern zugleich einen Orientierungsrahmen für ihre täglichen Entscheidungen vor.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 1. Neues Meta-Targeting im Online-Handel

Mit der weiter zunehmenden Internetnutzung in Hinblick auf die Nutzerzahlen sowie die Nutzungsintensitäten steigen die Umsätze im Online-Handel nach wie vor rasant an. Dabei wird das digitale Universum immer mehr durch mobile Internetnutzung geprägt, die auch die Kundenorientierung erheblich verändert. Diese ändert sich ohnehin fortwährend durch neue Trends, die wiederum durch neue Kundenerwartungen genährt werden. Zugleich beschleunigt sich der Konzentrationsprozess weiter, wodurch der Abstand zwischen dem Marktführer Amazon sowie dem Verfolgerfeld und dabei vor allem den Traditionsunternehmen immer größer wird. Deswegen kommt der Beschleunigung digitaler Reifegrade und dem Abbau digitaler Barrieren ein hoher Stellenwert zu.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Web-Exzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung spielt jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 3. Formen des Online-Handels

Die wenigsten Online-Händler kommen noch in reiner Form vor. Lediglich Start-ups oder neue Formen des interaktiven Online-HandelsOnline-Handel wie zum Beispiel Farfetch verfolgen zu 100 % ein einziges Geschäftsmodell. Schon die großen Pure Plays wie Amazon oder eBay sind Mischformen. Mittlerweile hat sich hier eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Betriebstypen herauskristallisiert, die sich anhand zentraler Merkmale beschreiben lassen und sehr unterschiedlich entwickeln. Zunehmend sind neue Formen des Online-Handels zu beobachten, zu denen auch der weiterhin stark wachsende Mobile Commerce zählt. Daneben entwickelt sich B2B-Online-Handel, also E-Commerce von Business für Business, zum „next big thing“.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 5. Best Practices für Web-Exzellenz im Online-Handel

Best PracticesBest Practices für Web-Exzellenz ergeben sich aus der bestmöglichen Umsetzung der Erfolgsfaktoren, die sie auf der anderen Seite aber auch maßgeblich mit bestimmt haben. Die folgenden Best Practices wurden durch Online-Recherchen identifiziert. Die Daten, Zahlen und Fakten dazu wurden größtenteils den aktuellen Geschäftsberichten aus 2017/2018 oder Informationen auf den Websites und aus der Presse entnommen.

Gerrit Heinemann

Evaluation of Innovative Tools for the Trade Enhancement of Fresh Agrifood Products

The e-Marketplaces have become the global platform for exchange, which have modified social and economic behavior. The digital revolution has opened the doors of the global village to industries, services, cities, and territories. Information and communications technology (ICT) can be a tool for the development of rural and agricultural areas, as demonstrated by real experiences reported in the literature. The advent of new technologies has also led to major changes in consumer buying processes and market relationships. The interest in shopping places is shifting from large shopping malls to “zero-km” shopping and e-commerce.The new e-commerce frontier is represented by logistics adaptations for zero-km sale of fresh produce and same-day delivery.The objectives of this study were to contribute to the knowledge of the phenomenon of e-marketplaces in the Italian agrifood economy and to analyze the new e-commerce models for fresh fruit and vegetables in Italy.

Luisa Sturiale, Alessandro Scuderi

Integrierte Plattformen im Handel

Die Digitalisierung eröffnet Handelsunternehmen ungeahnte Möglichkeiten, das Kundenerlebnis zu perfektionieren und Kosten durch Prozessoptimierungen drastisch zu reduzieren. Traditionelle IT-Architekturen sind zu starr und bieten nicht die nötige Flexibilität, um agil auf die neuen Herausforderungen zu reagieren. Die Zukunft liegt in integrierten, intelligenten Plattformen. In diesem Artikel werden die Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung auf die Customer Journey beleuchtet, der Ansatz der integrierten Plattformen dargestellt und die Chancen und Herausforderungen erläutert, die integrierte Plattformen im Handel bieten.

Thomas Vetter, Rafael Morasch

Mehrwert im Handel durch Location-based Platforms am Beispiel von Bonial

Einzelhandels-Marketing hat sich in den letzten zwei Jahren mehr verändert als in den vorangegangenen 50 Jahren. In einer Welt, in der Kunden sich selbst informieren, sind Apps die persönlichen Manager für lokales Einkaufen. Eine Mobile-First-Perspektive ist für den stationären Einzelhandel und für die Frequenz in den Innenstädten daher unerlässlich. Deutschlands Shopper werden immer anspruchsvoller: Die Erwartungen an das digitale Angebot von Einzelhändlern in Innenstädten sind groß. Dabei spielt das Smartphone eine Schlüsselrolle für die Zukunft des stationären Handels – und zwar sowohl bei der Shopping-Vorbereitung als auch bei der Frequenzgenerierung des innerstädtischen Handels. Die Botschaft kommt bei immer mehr Händlern an: Das Internet ist nicht der Feind, sondern es bietet im Gegenteil großartige Chancen, sich mit Amazon und Co. zu messen.

Gerrit Heinemann, Frederic Handt

Das goldene Zeitalter des Konsumenten – Wie die Digitalisierung, der demografische Wandel und die Veränderung der Werte unserer Gesellschaft das Konsumentenverhalten beeinflussen

Die Bedürfnisse der zunehmend befähigten Konsumenten zu erfüllen wird immer komplexer. Das nächste Jahrzehnt wird voraussichtlich das goldene Zeitalter der Verbraucher sein, mit mehr Auswahl und Kontrolle als je zuvor. Ihnen wird eine wachsende Palette von Produkten und Dienstleistungen präsentiert, die oft auf ihre spezifischen Bedürfnisse und Wünsche zugeschnitten sind. Die Verbraucher werden weiterhin Preis- und Qualitätstransparenz sowie eine breite Palette praktischer Erfüllungsoptionen verlangen. Insgesamt wird die Erfahrung im Einzelhandel für sie inspirierender, aufregender, einfacher und bequemer, abhängig von ihren sich ständig ändernden Bedürfnissen. Durch die neuen Technologien entsteht der hyperverbundene Verbraucher. Die traditionellen Faktoren von Kosten, Auswahl und Bequemlichkeit sind immer noch relevant, doch jetzt werden Kontrolle und Erfahrung ebenfalls wichtig. Der Handel allgemein, vor allem der stationäre Handel, steht somit enorm unter Druck. Die Kundenerwartungen sind geprägt durch die neuen Möglichkeiten und immer stärker personalisierten Angebote, die durch die Digitalisierung geschaffen wurden. Der Handel muss sich mit den sich rasant ändernden Bedürfnissen und Wünschen der Konsumenten auseinandersetzen, um relevant zu bleiben. Wie erreicht und gewinnt man also den deutschen Verbraucher? Was bewegt ihn und wie verhält er sich?

Judith Weuthen

Zukünftige Payment-Lösungen im digitalen Zeitalter – Bestandsaufnahme und aktuelle Trends

Seit 2001 hat das ECC Köln das Thema Payment im Online-Handel in zahlreichen Studien analysiert und dabei das Spannungsfeld zwischen den Interessen der Konsumenten und denen der Online-Händler aufgezeigt. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt, basierend auf den Ergebnissen der ECC-Payment-Studie Vol. 22, den Status quo im Payment-Markt auf. Trotz sich festigender Präferenzen ist wieder Bewegung in den Markt gekommen: Noch ist die Zahlung auf Rechnung vorherrschend, aber PayPal holt weiter auf, und auch weitere Zahlungsverfahren, wie beispielsweise Amazon Payments, gewinnen an Relevanz. Obwohl das Bedürfnis nach Bequemlichkeit seit vielen Jahren unter Konsumenten stetig ansteigt, bleibt das Thema Sicherheit für Händler und Verbraucher das wichtigste Kriterium bei der Wahl eines Zahlungsverfahrens. Online-Händler unternehmen dabei immer intensivere Bemühungen, den Bezahlprozess abzusichern. Die Zukunft des Payments im (Online-)Handel wird durch zahlreiche Treiber und Barrieren bestimmt. Technologisch werden neue Lösungen vor allem durch das Smartphone und das Internet der Dinge (IoT) getrieben. Die entsprechenden Bezahllösungen bieten noch mehr Bequemlichkeit, ohne dabei jedoch den Sicherheitsaspekt zu vernachlässigen. Damit dürften zum Beispiel automatisierte Zahlvorgänge und biometrische Verfahren an Relevanz gewinnen. Auch Instant Payments haben das Potenzial, den Bezahlprozesses weiter zu beschleunigen. Neben den rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen wird aber der Konsument entscheiden, wie er morgen einkauft und bezahlt – im Online-Handel genauso wie im Ladengeschäft.

Kai Hudetz, Svenja Brüxkes

Mobile Eats the Retail World

Nach der Adoption von Online als Vertriebskanal befindet sich der deutsche Handel mit Mobile Shopping kurz vor seiner zweiten großen digitalen Disruptionswelle. Der weltweite Anteil mobiler Nutzung überstieg 2016 mit 51,3 % erstmals den Desktop-Traffic mit 48,7 %. Dieser Steigerung der mobilen Interaktion werden in den nächsten Jahren steigende Umsätze folgen. In dieser neuen mobilen Shopping-Welt steht der Marktführer noch lange nicht fest. Aus der Veränderung der Spielregeln im E-Commerce entsteht also eine noch auszugestaltende und zu besetzende Lücke und somit eine historische Chance für den deutschen Handel. Der deutsche Handel nutzt bisher allerdings nicht die sich bietende Chance. Denn seine Konzepte zahlen nach wie vor kaum auf die erwähnten Entwicklungen des Nutzerverhaltens ein, sondern versuchen die vergangene E-Commerce-Systemlandschaft auf kleine Displays zu übertragen.Der Bedarf an innovativen Verkaufskonzepten für den deutschen Markt scheint also groß zu sein. Dementsprechend werden die wichtigsten Bausteine, die ein großartiges Mobile-Konzept auszeichnen, in diesem Beitrag vorgestellt. Der Spielraum für neue, innovative Verkaufsansätze ist immens groß. Deshalb werden sich die Mobile-Verkaufsansätze zwischen verschiedenen Produkt- und Servicekategorien weiter ausdifferenzieren. Perspektivisch werden wir also deutlich mehr Vielfalt durch Mobile Commerce erleben. Das Erlebnis selbst wird mehr im Mittelpunkt stehen, und es werden sich branchenspezifische Verkaufskonzepte entwickeln, die sich viel stärker als momentan voneinander unterscheiden.

Ruppert Bodmeier, Daniel Scheck, Katharina Lieber

Zukunft des Handels und Handel der Zukunft – treibende Kräfte, relevante Erfolgsfaktoren und Game Changer

Keine Branche ist derzeit größeren Herausforderungen ausgesetzt als der Einzelhandel. Der direkte Kontakt zu den Endkunden bringt mit sich, dass die Handelsbetriebe als erste Kontaktstelle unmittelbar von den Änderungen des Kaufverhaltens betroffen sind, das durch die zunehmende Internetnutzung induziert wird. Allerdings nicht in gleichem Ausmaß, weswegen eine Differenzierung nach Kontaktprinzip, Format sowie Warengruppe erforderlich ist. Vor allem Food und Non-Food entwickeln sich recht unterschiedlich und bedürfen deshalb einer differenzierten Betrachtung. In jedem Fall führt aber die Digitalisierung zu einer Neuausrichtung der Wertschöpfungsstufen sowie einer Neuordnung der Wettbewerbsregeln, die bisher vor allem die Internetgiganten aus den USA („GAFAs – Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple“) sowie aus China („TABs – Tencent, Alibaba, Baidu“) begünstigt haben. Der Handel der Zukunft gestaltet sich dabei vielfältig und ermöglicht bereits „Mehrwert“-Schöpfung in neuen Märkten und mit innovativen Geschäftsideen, wie aktuelle Best Practices zeigen. Auch die Gestaltung von Geschäftsmodellen und Geschäftssystemen eröffnet im Zuge der digitalen Revolution neue Möglichkeiten der Wertschöpfung, vor allem für stationäre Händler und damit für Innenstädte bzw. Shopping Center.

Gerrit Heinemann

An In-Store Mobile App for Customer Engagement: Discovering Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations in UK Grocery Retail

This paper investigates the hedonic and utilitarian motivations that may influence UK grocery consumers to adopt and use new features proposed for an in-store mobile app. The scope of this research is to develop a conceptual model that reflects the motivations for using an in-store mobile app to engage customers. Two pilots were conducted to explore possible attributes for hedonic and utilitarian motivations found in literature, and factor analysis was used to test their validity. A survey with the final items selected was used to collect data from a large UK grocery retailer resulting in a sample of 633 customers. The results supported that utilitarian motivations for grocery shopping include time convenience, performance expectancy and information availability. For the hedonic motivations, the attributes supported include idea motivation, personalisation, value motivation and experiential shopping. Although previous research conceptualised user control as an important utilitarian motivator, this research found that this attribute correlates similarly to both, hedonic and utilitarian motivations. Possible implications are that regardless of customers’ hedonic or utilitarian preferences, it is always essential for customers to have the ability to choose and customise what data and communications they share and receive for successful in-store mobile app engagement.

Joanne Pei-Chung Wang, Anabel Gutierrez

Kapitel 19. Blue Ocean Strategy® in China—Successful Examples in E-Commerce

The objective of this article is to analyze the Blue Ocean Strategy® in China, especially in e-commerce. This contribution mainly focuses on four e-commerce companies by analyzing their business-models and developments. In China, Blue Ocean Strategy® has been ardently discussed since the Chinese market has become increasingly mature. According to data from World Bank, its GDP is 9.24 trillion US dollars and accounted for about 15% of the world GDP in 2013.

Weifangzi Li, Thomas Heupel

Chapter 3. From Neoliberalism to Post-development: Development Theory’s Decline and Redefinition

Moving away from the nation-state as a unit of analysis towards human-centred development, Van der Merwe and Dodd highlight some of the late-twentieth-century trends and thinking by covering the global spread of capitalism and neoliberalism through globalisation. The chapter describes neoliberal theory as the dominant framework through which globalisation occurred, and as a global political-economic project and policy framework. The counter-currents in the literature such as those presented in post-development and critical development theory are also covered. The chapter suggests that contemporary praxis has continued to underdevelop countries in the Global South, albeit through new, deceptive means. These processes have had an uneven effect on development as almost no area of human life remains untrammelled. Placing the ‘human’ at the centre of these debates restores some of the initial optimism upon which the development project was founded.

Justin van der Merwe, Nicole Dodd

A Robust Remote Authentication Scheme for M-Commerce Environments

With the rapid growth of electronic and mobile commerce today, how to design a secure and efficient remote user authentication scheme with resource-limited devices over insecure networks has become an important issue. In this paper, we present a robust authentication scheme for the mobile device (a non-tamper-resistant device in which the secret authentication information stored in it could be retrieved) to solve the challenging lost device problem. It tries to satisfy the following advanced essential security features: (1) protecting user privacy in terms of anonymity and non-traceability, (2) supporting session keys with perfect forward secrecy, and (3) secure even for the case of lost devices, in addition to the conventional security requirements. The security of our scheme is based on the quadratic residue assumption, which has the same complexity as in solving the discrete logarithm problem. However, the computation of the quadratic congruence is very efficient. It only needs one squaring and one modular operations in the mobile device end, which is much cheaper than the expensive modular exponentiation used in those schemes based on the discrete logarithm problem. Thus, using the quadratic congruence, our scheme can achieve robustness and efficiency, even for the non-tamper-resistant mobile device.

Shih-Yang Yang, Jian-Wen Peng, Wen-Bing Horng, Ching-Ming Chao

Chapter 7. Conclusion: Urban Rural Flows with Online Urbanization

The urban and rural structural patterns are related to their social relations. The combination of technology and local communities has rendered the space of flows more grass-rooted, and has expanded the space of flows paradigm to much larger scale. The Internet of everything is coming upon us. The Space of flows is so pervasive, that maybe there is practically no non space of flows. As discussed previously, the phenomena in rural China are references of this trend.

Li Zi

Chapter 1. Introduction

Through description of phenomenon of ecommerce in rural China农村电商 e-commerce in rural China/ rural E-commerce , I try to explain the influence on China’s urban-rural relationship in a framework. The propose is not to find a solution for existing problem of urbanization in China, but try to reply research questions: 1. What is rural ecommerce? 2. What is the urban-rural spatial relationship under the influence of rural ecommerce in China?

Li Zi

Kapitel 2. Logistische Netzwerke

Das zweite Kapitel beschäftigt sich mit den wesentlichen Aspekten von logistischen Netzwerken. Es geht darum, die Auswirkungen von relevanten Megatrends, vor allem die der Digitalisierung, auf distributionslogistische Netzwerke abzuleiten und zu bewerten. Darüber hinaus werden die Potenziale und Grenzen von Supply Chain Management aus Theorie und Praxis miteinander verbunden und kritisch reflektiert.

Christoph Tripp

Showrooming im stationären Facheinzelhandel

So vielfältig wie die Begriffe und Formen des stationären Facheinzelhandels ausfallen, sind die Herausforderungen und Perspektiven, mit denen er konfrontiert wird. Deshalb wird in diesem Kapitel ein detaillierterer Blick auf die Situation des Showroomings im stationären Facheinzelhandel geworfen. Ferner wird speziell der Einfluss der Digitali-sierung betrachtet, d. h. Onlineshops als virtuelle Facheinzelhandelsgeschäfte sowie das Kundenverhalten bei Kaufentscheidungen im Multi-Channel-Kontext.

André Schneider

Predicting the Risk Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention to Adopt Mobile Banking Services: An Exploratory Analysis

Mobile Banking is a next big challenge in the technologically dependent era after Mobile Commerce and there are many factors that are influencing the use of M-banking Services, perceived Risk is one of them. Although perceived Risk as a single construct has been studied by many researchers but in this paper, empirical research has been done to find out the actual characteristics of Perceived Risk and the reason for refusing the use of m-banking services by the users in the technologically advanced era. In order to study the reason behind the reluctance in using m-banking services, a more detailed study of attributes of Perceived Risk has been conducted. This research work is intended to examine the six components of Perceived Risk. In this study EFA was applied on various measures of Risk to ascertain the different underlying variables affecting the individual’s Behavioral Intention to adopt m-banking services. After applying EFA researcher has applied SEM in order to investigate the association between the factors. The results of this empirical testing found that out of all the six variables only four variables i.e. Social Risk, Psychological Risk, Time Risk and Financial Risk were statistically significant as per results of this study and these are the main factors affecting the influence of Behavioral Intention towards using m-banking services in the Indian context.

Nitin Nayak, Vikas Nath, Nancy Singhal

Mobile Agent-Based Mobile Intelligent Business Security Transaction Model

The flexibility and convenience of mobile commerce is more in line with the needs of e-commerce in the new era, but it also brings a series of unique security issues in the mobile environment. The serious information asymmetry between the two sides of the transaction creates more opportunities for fraud. This has caused consumers to lose trust in the mobile commerce market. The phenomenon of mobile commerce fraud and lack of trust has become one of the main factors hindering the development of mobile commerce. The paper proposes a dynamic trust computing model which is based on mobile agent, which realizes the qualitative and quantitative conversion of trust. To stop malicious users from credit hype and deception, a special attribute evaluation method and trust punishment method are proposed. The new user trust degree assignment method has been improved, and a method of dynamically setting the initial trust degree of new users based on the minimum trust degree of the previous system is proposed, which resists the ruin behavior of abandoning the reputation data at random. By adopting the transaction evaluation system and weights. The system introduces a multi-factor mechanism. The model better reflects the influence of subjective factors such as individual preference and risk attitude on trust calculation, and enhances the sensitivity of trust algorithm in trading individual attributes. Detailed theoretical analysis and a large number of simulation experiments verify the mechanism can solve the problem of trust computing in mobile network transactions.

Wei-Jin Jiang, Jia-Hui Chen, Yu-Hui Xu, Yang Wang

Marketing 4.0

Digitale Technologien haben dem Marketing eine neue Dimension hinzugefügt. Während die Prinzipien des traditionellen Marketings unverändert Gültigkeit haben, ermöglichen technologische Neuerungen, dass Unternehmen und Verbraucher näher zusammenrücken.Auf Seiten der Verbraucher sind durch internetbasierte Anwendungen wie etwa die sozialen Netze Foren geschaffen worden, die Meinungsäußerungen von Privatpersonen über deren unmittelbares Umfeld hinaus verbreiten. Private Meinungsäußerungen im Internet stellen eine der signifikantesten Veränderungen des Verbraucherverhaltens dar. Die gleichfalls geschaffene, zunehmend unkomplizierte Möglichkeit zur VernetzungVernetzung der Verbraucher untereinander, auch grenz- bzw. kulturüberschreitend, gilt als Treiber einer der tiefgreifendsten Veränderungen der Instrumente und Methoden des Marketings.Auf Seiten der Unternehmen muss man sich darauf einstellen, schneller auf veränderte Erwartungen internetaffiner Kundengruppen einzugehen. Das professionelle Management von Kundenrezensionen im Netz ist dabei eine besondere Herausforderung. Chancen bieten sich den Unternehmen im Bereich der Datenverarbeitung und -nutzung. Zum einen stellt die datenbasierte Entwicklung personalisierter EmpfehlungssystemeEmpfehlungssystem, die dem Suchprofil eines Kunden entsprechende Angebote unterbreiten, eine neue Dimension der Verkaufsförderung dar. Zum anderen können auf der Grundlage großer Datenmengen, zusammengetragen aus unzähligen „Fußabdrücken“, die ein Nutzer im Internet hinterlässt, Profile von Personen erstellt werden, die – weg vom Massenmarketing – die Gestaltung und Übermittlung personalisierter Werbebotschaften ermöglichen.

Britta Bergemann

5. Open Innovation Ecosystems

As you learned from open innovation, partnerships accumulate knowledge and accelerate innovation and growth. This chapter builds upon research on value constellations and their role in open innovation as an iterative model with the ability to create an ecosystem. Innovation ecosystems that are strategically linked through firms to foster idea generation, co-development, and collaboration are explored. As the first, we introduce hyperconnectivity as one fundamental principle of a business ecosystem. The world is a digital network, characterized by interdependency and integrated collaboration where everything is connected; hence, value can only be generated through mutual exchange. We broaden your understanding about how incumbents, fintechs, and non-banks link financial services to create ecosystems that provide clients with new experiences and added value. By tapping into the Silicon Valley, as the case in point of a geographically localized ecosystem, we introduce other smaller ecosystems relevant for blockchain like the Crypto Valley. The financial inclusion ecosystem of Ningbo represents how they can be used for developing rural areas and fighting poverty. In contrast, highly efficient cross-sector ecosystems that emerged in China out of the Alibaba Group became rapidly a dominant force also because they are increasingly spreading their reach into financial services. Based on our research, we discuss the success factors of an ecosystem incubator. Like economic areas and alliances, we assume global competition will be between ecosystems without borders of sectors rather than companies.

Daniel Fasnacht

Steuerung der Wahrnehmung von Dienstleistungsqualität durch den Einsatz typischer Qualitätsinformationen

Service outcomes are basically intangible. Therefore it is difficult for consumers to evaluate the service quality prior to their consumption. For this reason potential customers usually rate the service environment as well as tangible service attributes to make a quality evaluation within the buying process. The service provider can use tangible service elements to send dedicated quality information to reach dedicated marketing objectives – e.g. catch the attention of new customers or create a specific image in the market.This article discusses the perception of such quality information within the scope of service consumption based on the concepts of cognitive patterns and stereotypes. The effects of typical and untypical service attributes on consumers are discussed. Above that the article shows levers for service companies to apply tangible elements in the service environment that are either perceived typical or untypical to achieve positive and desired behaviors by consumers.

Dirk Steffen

Mobile Malware Detection - An Analysis of the Impact of Feature Categories

The use of smartphones and hand-held devices continues to increase with rapid development in underlying technology and widespread deployment of numerous applications including social network, email and financial transactions. Inevitably, malware attacks are shifting towards these devices. To detect mobile malware, features representing the characteristics of applications play a crucial role. In this work, we systematically studied the impact of all categories of features (i.e., permission, application programmers interface calls, inter component communication and dynamic features) of android applications in classifying a malware from benign applications. We identified the best combination of feature categories that yield better performance in terms of widely used metrics than blindly using all feature categories. We proposed a new technique to include contextual information in API calls into feature values and the study reveals that embedding such information enhances malware detection capability by a good margin. Information gain analysis shows that a significant number of features in ICC category is not relevant to malware prediction and hence, least effective. This study will be useful in designing better mobile malware detection system.

Mahbub E. Khoda, Joarder Kamruzzaman, Iqbal Gondal, Tasadduq Imam

Chapter 9. The State of the Indian ICT Sector

This section describes the current state of the Indian ICT ecosystem. Along with a brief history of ICT in India, the section also discusses the various forces that are often at play regarding the ICT ecosystem: India’s geographic and socio-economic conditions, cultural factors, business models, the economy, technology adoption, regulations, trends, constraining factors, and so on. It shows the usage, and development of ICT, and the initiatives of the government.

Sriram Birudavolu, Biswajit Nag

Exploring the Perceived Usefulness and Attitude Towards Using Tesys e-Learning Platform

In this paper we present a study that aims at exploring two components of the Technology Acceptance Model. As an evaluation environment, we used Tesys e-Learning platform, R programming language for data processing, and Google Forms for data collection. The study intended to explore if there are significant differences between genders regarding the perceived usefulness and attitude towards evaluation using online educational environment. The questionnaire exploring the above-mentioned components was applied to a group of full-time students that have never used e-Learning platforms. The results showed that the questionnaire was reliable and there is no cross-gender difference regarding students’ perceived usefulness of e-Learning platforms and their attitude towards using them. The overall feedback received from each of the explored items is positive with a grade above four on a five Likert scale.

Paul-Stefan Popescu, Costel Ionascu, Marian Cristian Mihaescu

Kapitel 7. Dialogmarketing und Connected Cars

Dialogmarketing umfasst alle Marketinginstrumente, die eingesetzt werden, um eine gezielte und direkte Interaktion mit Zielpersonen aufzubauen und dauerhaft aufrecht zu erhalten, und hat das Ziel, eine messbare Reaktion (Response) auszulösen. One-to-One Marketing ist die individuellste Form von Dialogmarketing, dabei steht die Gestaltung der Beziehung mit der einzelnen Person im Vordergrund. Die Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre haben die Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Dialogmarketings und die Palette der nutzbaren Medien ausgeweitet. Durch den technischen Fortschritt und die Kreativität der Anwender entwickeln sich ständig neue Dialogmedien. Das crossmediale Dialogmarketing, und dabei speziell die Integration von Online- und Offline-Medien, führt zu einer Verstärkung der Kommunikationswirkung. Das Resultat sind messbare ökonomische Variablen und psychologische Effekte. Das Connected Car kann, ähnlich dem Smartphone, als ein mobiles Endgerät betrachtet werden und damit in die Kategorie Mobile Marketing eingeordnet werden. Mobile Marketing beschreibt die Marketingaktivitäten auf mobilen Endgeräten und stellt eines der Instrumente von Online-Marketing dar. Eine Personalisierung der Nachrichten und Marketingbotschaften an den Kunden im Rahmen des Dialogmarketings bzw. One-to-One Marketings kann nur durch die Erhebung von relevanten Kundendaten stattfinden. Die Kombination verschiedener Daten ermöglicht es dem Automobilhersteller Inhalte von Relevanz und Interesse für den Kunden zu präsentieren. In diesem Kapitel werden Hypothesen aufgestellt und bewertet, die den Einsatz des One-to-One Marketing in Verbindung mit Connected Cars konkret untersuchen sollen.

Heinrich Holland

Kapitel 5. Adoption von Connected Cars

Die Adoption von Connected Cars durch die Endnutzer in Deutschland wird direkt sowie indirekt durch mehrere Dimensionen beeinflusst, welche zum Teil Interdependenzen aufweisen. Hierzu gehören die Dimensionen der Innovationseigenschaften, der persönlichen sowie sozioökonomischen Eigenschaften und der wahrgenommenen Risiken sowie die makroökonomische und politisch-regulatorische Dimension. Innerhalb der Dimension der Innovationseigenschaften wurde festgestellt, dass die Darbietung von relativen Vorteilen eine signifikante Rolle für die Adoption von Connected Cars durch die Endnutzer einnimmt. Daher wurde angenommen, dass die wahrgenommenen Vorteile, die derzeitig in Deutschland über die Konnektivitätsfunktionen im Fahrzeug angeboten werden, nicht ausreichend sind, um die Bildung eines positiven Standpunktes gegenüber Connected Cars zu bewirken. Weiterhin spielt die Interoperabilität aus der makroökonomischen Dimension eine bedeutende Rolle für die Wahrnehmung der relativen Vorteile durch die Endnutzer in Deutschland. Die Errichtung einer einheitlichen Big-Data-Plattform, mit der Fahrzeuge aller Fabrikate verbunden werden und kommunizieren können, wäre ein erster Schritt in Richtung der Realisierung der Interoperabilität. Die Bildung eines positiven Standpunktes gegenüber Connected Cars wird gestärkt, wenn eine Wahrnehmung der Verständlichkeit sowie Übersichtlichkeit der Funktionen gegeben ist. Die reibungslose Funktionalität der Konnektivitätsfunktionen im Fahrzeug entspricht derzeitig nicht vollständig den Erwartungen der Endnutzer in Deutschland. Dies ist durch die fehlende Zusammenarbeit aller beteiligten Akteure zu begründen. Daher wurde eine noch fehlende wahrgenommene Kompatibilität mit den vergangenen Erfahrungen sowie Bedürfnissen angenommen, welche die Entstehung eines positiven Standpunktes gegenüber Connected Cars beeinflusst.

Heinrich Holland

Improving the Mobile Payment Experience and Removing the Barriers

Sitting in the intersection of commerce, banks and mobile revolution, mobile payments are expected to grow by double-digits in the forthcoming years. There has been an increasing and intensive interest in mobile payments domain from banks, telecom companies and technology giants. Notwithstanding the introduction of numerous innovative mobile payment solutions, mobile payment experience is still frictional and restricting. This paper analyses the current mobile payment market starting with a historical development perspective and proposes a new solution to improve the mobile payment experience. The advantages of proposed solution for customers, merchants and banks are discussed in detail and compared with existing solutions.

Ersin Unsal

Kapitel 4. Marketing und Verkauf im Einzelhandel

Dieses vierte Kapitel befasst sich mit Konsum sowie Marketing und Verkaufsaktivitäten in China. Zu Beginn werden Trends im Onlineverhalten näher betrachtet, wobei Social Media und Suchmaschinen im Mittelpunkt stehen, die auch interkulturell reflektiert werden. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird anschließend der Umgang mit chinesischen Kunden von der Erstansprache über den Verkauf bis zur langfristigen Bindung besprochen. Der Schwerpunkt liegt hierbei auf den Möglichkeiten im (grenzüberschreitenden) E-Commerce.

Yahui Luo-Alt, Jonas Polfuss

The UbiCARS Model-Driven Framework: Automating Development of Recommender Systems for Commerce

Recommendations of products to customers are proved to boost sales, increase customer satisfaction and improve user experience, making recommender systems an important tool for retail businesses. With recent technological advancements in AmI and Ubiquitous Computing, the benefits of recommender systems can be enjoyed not only in e-commerce, but in the physical store scenario as well. However, developing effective context-aware recommender systems by non-expert practitioners is not an easy task due to the complexity of building the necessary data models and selecting and configuring recommendation algorithms. In this paper we apply the Model Driven Development paradigm on the physical commerce recommendation domain by defining a UbiCARS Domain Specific Modelling Language, a modelling editor and a system, that aim to reduce complexity, abstract the technical details and expedite the development and application of State-of-the-Art recommender systems in ubiquitous environments (physical retail stores), as well as to enable practitioners to utilize additional data resulting from ubiquitous user-product interaction in the recommendation process to improve recommendation accuracy.

Christos Mettouris, Achilleas Achilleos, Georgia Kapitsaki, George A. Papadopoulos

Chapter 5. Customer Acceptance of AI in Service Encounters: Understanding Antecedents and Consequences

In this chapter, we take a customer-centric view of narrow artificial intelligence (AI), or task-specific AI applications. Because of the breadth and extent of AI applications, we limit our focus to service encounters—which are times when customers interact directly on the frontline with a service company or organization. The purpose is to illuminate the roles of AI in the context of frontline service encounters and to identify the potential benefits and negative consequences for customers of AI-supported, AI-augmented, and AI-performed services. We develop a conceptual framework of the antecedents and consequences of AI acceptance by customers grounded in previous research, theory, and practice. Previous research has examined the adoption of self-service technologies (SSTs) and established that innovation characteristics and individual differences predict role clarity, motivation and ability (RMA), which in turn predict adoption of SSTs (see Meuter et al. 2005; Blut et al. 2016). However, we believe that additional antecedents will come into play in predicting the acceptance of service encounter technologies tied to AI. Therefore, we expand the relevant set of antecedents beyond the established constructs and theories to include variables that are particularly relevant for AI applications such as privacy concerns, trust, and perceptions of “creepiness.” We also examine a broader set of potential consequences of customer acceptance of AI including what customers may experience (e.g., more personalized service encounters) and how AI may affect customers (e.g., lead to increased well-being due to more access to services). The chapter concludes with research questions and directions for the future tied directly to the conceptual framework.

Amy L. Ostrom, Darima Fotheringham, Mary Jo Bitner

Chapter 1. Introduction to E-commerce

Online store. Online payments. Mobile commerce. Contrary to what you might think, e-commerce didn’t burst onto the scene overnight. It has been around in various forms for years and improves daily. Before we can truly celebrate the present and future e-commerce accomplishments, it’s a good idea to look back and review its history.

Lisa Sims

Chapter 4. WooCommerce for E-commerce

What is the simplest way to accept credit and debit cards online?

Lisa Sims

Generic Business Process Model for SMEs in M-Commerce Based on Talabat’s Case Study

SMEs face a variety of challenges in their attempts to keep up with the cyber revolution, even though SMEs are a major part of the world economy. In a previous publication, the authors established that ‘B2C’ model does not accurately represent or support SMEs in M-Commerce. Instead, the authors reviewed SMEs and SME supporting apps from mobile app marketplaces and suggested a model called ‘B2i2C’. In this model, the ‘i’, in the form of intermediary business entity are playing a vital role in SMEs breakthrough into M-Commerce. Following on, this paper reviews business processes to generate a generic model adaptable to a variety of SME related products and services. This paper presents the case study of Talabat, one of the most successful GCC e-business models that supports SMEs to have come out from Kuwait. The information collected from online resources, student placements and feedback from operation managers attempt to emulate the business process model for a variety of ‘B2i2C’ business models. The generic model is then tested against three different scenarios to identify the level of similarity. The results demonstrate a high degree of adaptability of the model and a major opportunity to explore in the area of SME supporting app in M-Commerce.

Fadi Safieddine, Imad Nakhoul

Examining the Factors Affecting Behavioural Intention to Adopt Mobile Health in Jordan

Health organizations worldwide express a considerable attention to utilize Mobile technology applications to provide a better health services to their people. One of the most emerging apps in this regard is Mobile health (M-health). Large amount of efforts, money, and time have been invested to provide such innovative technology. Yet, the adoption rate of these systems is still low. Additionally, such system has never been examined over the Jordanian context. Thus, this study aims to test the most important factors that could shape the intention of Jordanian people to use Mhealth. Four factors: perceived usefulness, social influence, awareness, and innovativeness were proposed as key predictor of behavioural intention. Data was collected using convenience sample size of 365 and was analyzed using structural equation modelling. The main statistical findings supported the role of perceived usefulness, social influence, and innovativeness. More discussion will also be provided regarding the current study practical and theoretical implications.

Ali Alalwan, Abdullah M. Baabdullah, Nripendra P. Rana, Yogesh K. Dwivedi, Fadia Hudaib, Ahmad Shammout

Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster als Instrumente des Privacy by Design

Der Beitrag stellt ein DFG-Forschungsprojekt vor, das die zum Teil widerstreitenden Zielsetzungen der Dienstleitungsqualität und des Datenschutzes durch Softwaregestaltung im Rahmen einer Privacy by Design-Lösung zum Ausgleich bringen will. Die DSGVO formuliert nur in sehr abstrakter und abwägungsbedürftiger Form Anforderungen an Datenschutz durch Technikgestaltung und datenschutzfreundliche Voreinstellungen. Um diese Vorgaben für die Softwaregestaltung ausreichend zu konkretisieren können Anforderungs- und Entwurfsmuster helfen. Ziel ist es dabei nicht, lediglich rechtliche Mindeststandards einzuhalten, sondern einen möglichst hohen Grad an Rechtsverträglichkeit zu erreichen. Besondere Relevanz erlangen diese Muster bei datenintensiven Produkten wie kontextsensitiven Applikationen am Beispiel von Assistenzsystemen.

Laura F. Thies, Robin Knote, Silke Jandt, Matthias Söllner, Alexander Roßnagel, Jan Marco Leimeister

A Proposal for an Electronic Negotiation Platform for Tourism in Low-Density Regions: Characterizing a Functional Analysis and Prototype for the Douro Valley

Traditional e-Commerce platforms tend to mimic existing physical store processes in which customers are given the opportunity to purchase only the available products without any type of personal customization or even without the possibility of being allowed to present a desired product/service to which the market might be able to respond. With this in mind, a prototype for an electronic negotiation platform directed at the tourism sector has been developed and focused on Douro Valley tourism operators, products and services. In our opinion this prototype might help to develop new business models drawn from the customers’ willingness to have a personal tourism experience and not just something off the shelf.

Luís Cardoso, José Martins, Ramiro Gonçalves, Frederico Branco, Fernando Moreira, Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira

2. Examples from Different Industries, Services, and Continents

This chapter provides up-to-date examples of supply chain and operations management in manufacturing, services, and e-operations. The case-studies include examples of operations and supply chains from different industries, services, and continents. Particular focus is directed to e-operations and e-supply chains. With the help of the case-studies, readers obtain an overview of typical decisions and trade-offs in supply chain and operations management that will be addressed in detail in later chapters of the textbook. An E-Supplement containing additional case studies and video streams provides further insights related to the content of this chapter.

Dmitry Ivanov, Alexander Tsipoulanidis, Jörn Schönberger

Omni-Channel Service Architectures in a Technology-Based Business Network: An Empirical Insight

This article investigates the existing omni-channel service architectures in the front-office of technology-based business networks. It discusses the implications from the existing alignment between the network-preferred channel with other channels and clients. The methodological approach is qualitative, exploratory in nature, and employs case study research in a large private retail bank in Portugal. It includes multiple sources of data collection for corroboration purposes, including semi-structured interviews, direct observation and institutional documents. Although we have identified four types of omni-channel architectures in a business network context, the case analysis revealed that only two of them meet all the requirements, namely: the mixed services and pure virtual services. For academics this is the first attempt to discuss a growing topic in the operations management literature. Thus, this study may also help practitioners to understand the challenges they may have to deal with an omni-channel strategy in a business network context.

João Reis, Marlene Amorim, Nuno Melão

Chapter 7. Napify App: An Example of Mexican Social Entrepreneurship

Napify is a Mexican mobile application company created by a young group of entrepreneurs, reflecting a certain concern about the quality of life of the entire population, and especially in an attempt to reduce automobile accidents, low academic performance, and a negative impact on the social circle, all of these problems caused by the excessive use of the mobile phone. In their recent planning, Salvador (CEO & Cofounder) and his partners have talked about the internationalization of Napify, because they expect successful market acceptance in Europe, Asia, and the US. Nevertheless, despite the innovative and valuable proposition of Napify, Salvador and his partners are in search of a business model to achieve internationalization. This chapter presents relevant information on Napify’s trajectory in order to provide students with the elements to propose decisions, strategies, and a business model for the successful internationalization of Napify.

Lizbeth Magdalena Puerta-Sierra, Moisés Maislin Mendoza

Phishing Detection Research Based on LSTM Recurrent Neural Network

In order to effectively detect phishing attacks, this paper designed a new detection system for phishing websites using LSTM Recurrent neural networks. LSTM has the advantage of capturing data timing and long-term dependencies. LSTM has strong learning ability, has strong potential in the face of complex high-dimensional massive data. Experimental results show that this model approach the accuracy of 99.1%, is higher than that of other neural network algorithms.

Wenwu Chen, Wei Zhang, Yang Su

Preserving User Location Privacy in Era of Location-Based Services: Challenges, Techniques and Framework

The technological advancements of mobile networks, devices, global position technology and sensors, have lead to a plethora of location-based services (LBSs) which is being offered to user. In the modern digital age, most of the automobiles use location sensing technologies and the mobile devices are equipped with GPS location tracking. In spite of the numerous potential benefits of location-based services, location awareness poses some foreseeable threats, the most important of which is location privacy. A single piece of information about location can reveal a lot about user, such as ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’ and ‘where’ someone is. This paper presents a comprehensive review of various aspects related to location privacy. An attempt has been made to introduce a framework to balance the trade-offs between privacy and security. The proposed framework uses privacy mechanism to protect individual’s sensitive data, and a role-based access control technique to provide security of collected data through authorized user.

Rigzin Angmo, Veenu Mangat, Naveen Aggarwal

bKash: Revolutionizing Mobile Financial Services in Bangladesh?

This study discusses the emergence of bKash as the m-banking pioneer in Bangladesh. It focuses on the services provided by bKash and its current operating scenario in Bangladesh. bKash’s strategy of market penetration and bringing a completely new service is discussed here. Comparing with the mobile financial services existing in the world, Kenya’s mPesa inspires the fast growth trend of bKash. The mobile financial services providers of Bangladesh are also discussed here along with bKash’s rising contender DBBL Rocket. Finally, the case study discusses some issues arising regarding the market leader position of bKash and its future agendas.

Shamima Yesmin, Tonmoy Ananda Paul, Md. Mohshin Uddin

Antecedents and Consequences of App Update: An Integrated Research Framework

E-commerce firms now compete intensively on mobile applications (apps). The transparency of digital environment has made customers and competitors as major external driving forces of app updates. However, app-related studies mainly focus on how to succeed in the hyper-competitive app market and how platform governance influence app evolution, overlooking the interaction among customers, competitors, and focal firm that shapes continuous app updates. Moreover, extant studies on app updates has drawn inconsistent conclusions regarding the impact of update frequency on market performance. We, therefore, proposed an integrated research framework to explore antecedents and consequences of app updates. We empirically test it by tracking customer reviews, updating notes, and ranks of 20 iOS apps within travel category in China for 60 months. The results indicate that the extreme sentiment expressed by customers will urge focal firm to update frequently and the focal firm will incorporate useful customer feedbacks to release a major update. Interestingly, we find that focal firm is reluctant to release superfluous updates and perform major updates if there are more high-ranking competitors update earlier. Our findings also testify the dual role of the number of total apps focal firm owns in facilitating update frequency and volume, as well as constraining days between two subsequent releases. Lastly, frequent updates will induce a higher degree of rank volatility, while long update intervals will decrease ranks. Our study has important implications for firms to succeed in the fierce competition in mobile commerce.

Hengqi Tian, Jing Zhao

Chapter 11. Towards the Implementation of Digital Through Wifi and IoT in Wine Tourism: Perspectives from Professionals of Wine and Tourism

This research intends to fill the gap on holistic customer experiences in the offline and online retail environments helping understand the developing omni channel business environment, through the lens of smart tourism. Smart wine-tourism consists in using digital technologies such as Wifi and IoT to target nearby wine tourists and invite them to enjoy a wine experience while they visit rural areas. To compensate for these gaps, we have conceptualized customer experiences in offline and online retail environments through a literature review. Twenty semi-direct interviews were conducted using an interview guide and analyzed thanks to manual coding. Findings and analysis from winery and wine tourism professionals as well as wine consumer opinions on digital connectivity are presented. The research results provide insight into the different aspects of what a holistic online and offline customer experience means. The results highlight the importance of providing Internet access, thanks to Wifi terminals and IoT along the roads in touristic areas, to facilitate winery visits and or other touristic activities. Wifi could provide the digital infrastructure necessary for businesses to target tourists through location-based systems (LBS) and push notifications. This research is limited to the Sonoma County, California wine tourism destinations. It uses coding rather than analytical tools enabling frequencies of occurrence in a more systematic manner to be discovered. It is wine oriented and feedback from other professionals of the food industry would be valuable.

Jean-Éric Pelet, Marieshka Barton, Claude Chapuis

Kapitel 4. Empirische Exploration der Erfolgsstrategien datenzentrischer Geschäftsmodelle

Das Erkenntnisinteresse der Untersuchung besteht darin, die spezifischen Strategieinhalte datenzentrischer Geschäftsmodelle zu explorieren sowie deren Erfolgswirkung zu rekonstruieren (vgl. Abschnitt 1.2). Um dieses Forschungsziel zu erfüllen, wurde in Kapitel 3 der theoretische Bezugsrahmen entwickelt, der die empirische Exploration der Erfolgsstrategien anleitet. Abschnitt 4.1 stellt das Forschungsdesign der Untersuchung dar, bevor in Abschnitt 4.2 die Ergebnispräsentation erfolgt.

Laura Dorfer

Prediction-Based Parallel Clustering Algorithm for M-Commerce

A rapid increase of mobile commerce (M-Commerce) with sensing devices has resulted in enormous services from different service providers. M-Commerce services provide numerous ranges of emerging services. Also, different qualitative matrices are provided with similar functionality. Automatically the service flow is combined with other services. M-Commerce stakeholders are ambient, dynamic in nature, which requires efficient techniques to enhance the output. Major challenge is to select appropriate optimization technique or algorithm to provide a numeric set of services with dynamic qualities. It is difficult to propose a method directly to predict M-Commerce. Hence, this research proposes a method of prediction in M-Commerce techniques proposed a prediction based parallel clustering algorithm using hybrid optimization technique for M-Commerce. Hybrid optimization technique or algorithm can be developed by applying cross-mutation technique in adaptive ant colony optimization with particle swarm optimization to improve the efficiency and throughput of the system in M-Commerce. To predict the optimum service it runs in parallel using MapReduce on a Hadoop platform. Parallel processing services reduce the time factor, which is essential for processing the massive amount of unstructured data in a mobile environment. Relevancy, correctability of this proposed system would be validated through simulation and modeling on real-time existing data sets.

Likhesh N. Kolhe, Vaishali Khairnar, Ashok Kumar Jetawat

An International Comparative Study on the Intension to Using Crypto-Currency

Currently, various cryptocurrencies are being traded throughout the day for the whole 24 h via crypto-currency markets in this borderless virtual world. Many people invest in cryptocurrencies which can be utilized and replace existing currencies. Despite this, not many studies on actual demand for cryptocurrencies have been conducted yet. This research extensively applied UTAUT to study elements influencing intention of usage for cryptocurrencies. It also added economic feasibility, payment convenience, government regulation, and risk as independent variables and established an UTAUT model applying said independent variables. Particularly, this research seeks to figure how characteristics among countries respond to the intention of usage for cryptocurrencies by comparing Korea, China, and Vietnam.

Kyung-Jin Jung, Jung-Boem Park, Nhu Quynh Phan, Chen Bo, Gwang-yong Gim

Understanding Mobile Purchase Intentions in Poland: Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model

The purpose of this article was to identify factors influencing intention to use mobile device during purchasing process. To achieve this goal Technology Acceptance Model extended with additional variables (social influence and perceived enjoyment) was chosen as the research model. There were 500 respondents from 5 Polish cities – Warsaw, Poznań, Gdańsk, Wrocław and Białystok. Data was collected with paper questionnaire and analyzed with partial least square path modeling (PLS-SEM) method in Smart PLS 3 software. Model explained over 50% of variance of endogenous variable. According to results perceived usefulness has the strongest influence on intention (0.389; p < 0.01). Other statistically significant predictors of intention were perceived ease of use (0,222; p < 0.01) and perceived enjoyment (0,172; p < 0.01), while social influence turned out to be the sole insignificant factor in the model (0.050; p > 0.05). Outcomes of the study suggest that sellers should focus on the utilitarian aspects of the mobile sales in the first place (such as providing free delivery of products, offering multitude of payment options and increasing overall performance of their websites), and then also on the facets related to simplifying of the mobile shopping (production of video tutorials, clear and plain explanations regarding purchasing process on the website) and pleasure of the mobile buying process (creation of additional features in the sellers’ applications e.g. quizzes, games or downloadable materials).

Mariusz Trojanowski, Jacek Kułak

Prioritizing Factors Affecting the Adoption of Mobile Financial Services in Emerging Markets—A Fuzzy AHP Approach

Mobile financial services (MFSs) such as ‘mobile banking’ and ‘mobile payments’ have revolutionized the global banking and financial industry by bringing financial services closer to the consumers. Successful diffusion of various types of MFSs depends on their acceptance and adoption by the end-users (customers). Also, customers make trade-offs while choosing MFSs on the basis of various factors that are important to them. The present study attempts to find the relative importance of various factors that influence the customers’ choice of MFSs. The study also prioritizes three MFSs, namely mobile banking, prepaid instruments (PPIs) and payments banks on the basis of multiple factors. The present problem is modelled as a multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem, wherein fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) is used to rank the potential factors of MFS selection and to evaluate various MFSs. The findings of the study reveal that functional benefits and economic benefits dominate over trust and perceived risks in customers’ decision-making regarding the selection of MFSs. With regard to the evaluation of the three MFSs, the findings indicate that payments bank is the superior choice as it offers best economic and functional benefits and involves minimum risks. The findings of the study may help MFS providers, to evaluate critical factors of adoption of MFSs. This may help them in achieving cost-effective implementation of MFSs by efficiently managing their resources.

Kriti Priya Gupta, Rishi Manrai

Smartphone Usage Among Millennial in Finland and Implications for Marketing Segmentation Strategies: Lessons for Nigeria

The study examines smart phone usage by millennial based on different criteria of operating system, Wi-Fi, text messaging, internet surfing and social media. The study used quantitative methodology and data were gathered with online questionnaires with 391 young smartphone users in Finland. The Millennial were clustered into five levels. The results reveal the prominent status of profiling in a developed market and how marketers in emerging markets can apply segmentation and targeting strategies using instant messaging, text messages, email, mobile app, gamification and social media based on the profile of each segment. Nigerian policy makers should adopt a framework to make smartphone affordable for people as it constitutes a goldmine for marketing professionals on their segmentation and targeting strategies.

Sunday Adewale Olaleye, Ismaila Temitayo Sanusi, Dandison C. Ukpabi, Oladapo Aina

7. Codes in der industriellen Kennzeichnung

Optische Codierungen wurden entwickelt, um Daten schnell und sicher auf optischem Wege, maschinenlesbar zu erfassen. Diese Art der Datenerfassung wird mit dem Begriff Identifikation beschrieben und definiert sich weiter mit dem eindeutigen und zweifelsfreien Erkennen eines Objekts. Zu diesem Zweck werden Objekte indirekt, das heißt mittels eines Etiketts beziehungsweise einem Schild, oder direkt, das heißt durch Einflussnahme auf das Objekt, zum Beispiel durch Laser- Beschriftung, eindeutig gekennzeichnet. Dabei kann die Kennzeichnung zum Zwecke der Identifikation eine sehr kurze Lebensdauer, das heißt von wenigen Minuten, zum Beispiel bei der Frischeinwaage im Handel bis lebenslänglich, zum Beispiel bei der Kennzeichnung von Bauteilen in der Industrie, besitzen.

Bernhard Lenk

Kapitel 13. Multikanalmanagement

In den letzten Jahren konnten Entwicklungen beobachtet werden, dass Anbieter und Händler zunehmend verschiedene Absatzkanäle parallel einsetzen. Unter Multikanalmanagement wird vor diesem Hintergrund die Kombination und Koordination verschiedener Absatzkanäle verstanden. Ziel ist es, dem Kunden durch die Vernetzung der Absatzkanäle ein kanalübergreifendes und konsistentes Einkaufserlebnis zu bieten, daraus resultierendes Umsatzwachstum abzuschöpfen und Kosten durch Synergieeffekte zu senken.Im Folgenden werden zunächst die Grundlagen und Entwicklungen im Multikanalmanagement beschrieben. Darüber hinaus erfolgt eine knappe Einführung zu den jeweiligen Absatzkanälen des Distanzhandels. Abschließend werden das Kundenverhalten im Multikanalkontext sowie wesentliche Herausforderungen aus Unternehmensperspektive skizziert.

Dieter Ahlert, Peter Kenning, Christian Brock

Measuring the Effectiveness of E-Wallet in Malaysia

In[aut] Nizam, Faisalview[aut] Hwang, Ha Jinof[aut] Valaei, Naser the promising growth of E-wallet in Malaysia, this study aims to discover the important factors influencing consumers purchase decision using E-wallet. Previous studies reveal that factors such as convenience, security, and cost saving influence consumers’ purchase decision using E-wallet. The survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 230 respondents, out of which 222 valid responses were used for further statistical analysis. The result of this study indicated that convenience, security, and cost saving were proved to make significant influences on consumers purchase decision using E-wallet. The small sample size could limit the opportunity of generalization of the findings in this study, which future studies should seek to overcome. For practical implications, the use of E-wallet by the majority of respondents confirms that there is a great potential for future expansion of such payment devices in Malaysia.

Faisal Nizam, Ha Jin Hwang, Naser Valaei

An Analysis of Usability Issues on Fashion M-commerce Websites’ Product Page

Due to the increasing number of mobile phone users with access to the Internet over the last decade, it has become increasingly necessary to propose usability guidelines designed to be applied to projects made for mobile devices. In Brazil, m-commerce is becoming more and more popular and in the short-term it is likely to reach similar performance numbers as to the traditional ecommerce. However, there are still several websites that are not specifically designed for mobile devices and do not take into account their characteristics and singularities. A review of the existing literature on the subject was undertaken to elicit suggested guidelines for the development of digital interfaces. Based on these guidelines the websites of two retail companies were analyzed. The objective of the analysis was to assess what are the impacts on usability caused by uncritical adaptations of complete websites to mobile versions. This evaluation was done bearing in mind the categorization of usability principles developed by Brangier e Barcenilla (2003). Issues such as: confusing translations, lack of consistency, small touch targets, amongst others, were detected on the analyzed websites. This investigation showed it is possible to make small changes that would result in websites with improved usability.

Carolina Bozzi, Claudia Mont’Alvão

Kapitel 2. Grundlagen und Besonderheiten des digitalen Pricing

Traditionelle Preiskonzepte lassen sich nicht ohne Weiteres auf digitale Angebote anwenden. Denn Informationsangebote (Software, Online-Content, digitale Services etc.) unterliegen ökonomischen Spielregeln, die sie von anderen Sektoren (Produkte und persönliche Dienstleistungen) grundlegend unterscheiden.

Frank Frohmann

Chapter 3. Digital China

However, it is not just the pace of adoption which causes amazement—it is the strength of the embrace and the whole-hearted enthusiasm and pervasiveness of the different ways in which the Chinese have taken to the internet, which inspires awe. The internet, and especially the mobile internet, has entirely transformed all key aspects of the consumers’ lives—entertainment, information, shopping, and social interaction. The social character of the web creates a unique environment, as well as unique consumer state of mind. For brands to get their messages across in this environment is a challenging task and definitely, a very different task than what they have faced so far—and definitely showing TV advertising on the digital platforms is not a good way to do it. The impact is even larger in the retail space. According to China’s National Bureau of Statistics, online retail transactions in the country are larger than the combined online sales of USA and Europe.

Ashok Sethi

Chapter 9. Zhejiang Province: Role of Entrepreneurship and Industry Cluster

In 2017, Zhejiang’s innovation capability ranks 5th in China, the same as the previous year.

Xielin Liu, Taishan Gao, Xi Wang

Traffic Optimization and Multi-sided Pricing in Congested Networks

The paper we consider traffic optimization problem for a model with multi-sided dynamic pricing in the telecommunications market with incomplete competition and taking into account congested networks. The model consists in the use of mathematical modeling methods, game theory and queueing theory. It is assumed that telecommunication companies agree on the rules of incoming and outgoing traffic charging in pairs, and this charging is built as a function of the tariffs that companies offer their subscribers for service. Companies are limited the agreement on mutual rules of reciprocal proportional charging for access traffic at first, which subsequently determine the tariffs for the network users. The reciprocity of the rules means that companies are subject to the same rules for the entire time interval during which the agreement is in force. Taking into account imperfect competition in the telecommunications market and using traffic and profit optimization method for each company the equilibrium tariffs and the volume of services are found with subject to congestion in multi-service networks. Numerical calculation is performed to illustrate the results.

Haroun H. Salih, Dina A. Urusova, Sergey A. Vasilyev

On Trust and Security Risk: Mobile Commerce Acceptance and Readiness in Sudan

This paper looks at the mobile commerce readiness and presents an insightful look at Sudan and the rise of new opportunities for mobile technology use in the wake of emerging technology risks. Data elicited from Sudanese users of mobile applications was analysed with the objective of understanding and explaining the extent to which constructs such as trust and security risks has influenced Sudan’s readiness for mobile commerce. The work applied the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model towards this end. A sample size of 145 Sudanese respondents working in the public sector provided useful data that was subjected to the UTAUT approach. Findings suggest that Sudanese users’ perceived technology risk and trust of m-commerce services in mobile platforms tended to inhibit the desired rate of m-commerce adoption and therefore readiness. These findings are seen to be in contrast of m-commerce readiness in Sudan’s neighbouring eastern and central African countries such as Rwanda, Kenya and Ethiopia.

Kennedy Njenga, Sara Salih

Kundenerlebnis und digitale Innovationen als Treiber erfolgreicher Geschäftsmodelle

Erfolgreiche Geschäftsmodelle im nationalen und internationalen Handel basieren auf einer Omni-Channel-Strategie, die es dem Kunden erlaubt nahtlos („seamless“) zwischen den Vertriebs- und Kommunikationskanälen hin- und herzuspringen. Führende Händler haben erkannt, dass das Heilmittel nicht in der Technologie oder der digitalen Innovation per se liegt, sondern in einer Omni-Channel-Strategie, die das Kundenerlebnis, den damit verbundenen Kundennutzen und die Kundenperspektive in den Mittelpunkt rückt. Diese strategische Sichtweise ist der entscheidende Erfolgsfaktor für den richtigen Einsatz digitaler Innovationen gepaart mit höherem Profit.

Marc Knoppe

10. Conclusion: The Sino Digital Economy: Development History, Current Status, and Challenges Going Forward

China has been undergoing an economic transition from the export-led growth typical of low-value-added manufacturing, to the development of a consumption-led economy. After entering the phase of “new normal” economy characterised by a relatively stable state of low growth, China has actively promoted an initiative called “Internet Plus”, with the aim of utilising the Internet and any related technological means to spur the next stage of economic development. With a well-established digital foundation, on the other hand, Taiwan has also experienced a remarkable growth in e-commerce right across the Taiwan Strait. In terms of cross-border e-commerce, however, it still leaves much to be desired for Taiwan’s small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In this chapter we will first review the development history of the digital economy across the Taiwan Strait, followed by a close examination of the current trends and imminent opportunities/challenges for China and Taiwan, respectively.

Chung-Shen Wu, Chih-Yuan Weng

6. Smarte Technologien smarte Technologien

Das Leben von Morgen wird smart und zwar in allen Bereichen. Schon heute wird intelligente Technologie vielerorts eingesetzt. Für die Realisierung von zentraler Bedeutung ist das Internet der Dinge, also die intelligente Vernetzung verschiedener Gegenstände und Objekte untereinander und nach außen über das Internet. So entstehen smarte Objekte, die als Schnittstelle zwischen der virtuellen und der realen Welt agieren.Möglich wird dies durch verschiedene smarte Technologien, sogenannte Proximity- und Location-based Technologien, Near Response-Technologien, Mixed Commerce Technologien und Conversational Technologien. Diese verzahnen physische Objekte, Medien und den Menschen mit digitalen Inhalten.Sie ermöglichen die Realisierung neuer digitaler Touchpoints in der Customer Journey und fördern die Interaktion zwischen Marke, Produkt oder Services mit dem Käufer und dem Konsumenten. Die Kenntnis der Technologien, ihrer Vor- und Nachteile erleichtern eine differenzierte Einsatzentscheidung.

Tanja Kruse Brandão, Gerd Wolfram

2. Digitalisierung

Nach McKinsey wird die voranschreitende Digitalisierung und Vernetzung von Geräten und Maschinen über das Internet weltweit einen wirtschaftlichen Mehrwert von bis zu elf Billionen Dollar im Jahr 2025 erzeugen (McKinsey 2015). Mithilfe verschiedenster Informationstechnologien schreitet die digitale Transformation voran. Die aktuelle Agenda in Politik, Wirtschaft, Industrie und in Unternehmen wird von Schlagworten wie Industrie 4.0, Handel 4.0, Marketing 4.0 oder Kunde 4.0 geprägt.Großen Einfluss hat die Digitalisierung auf die Industrie durch höhere Produktivität und auf die urbane Infrastruktur. Auch der Handel verändert sich, ebenso die Kommunikation zwischen Kunde und Marke. Klassische Ansätze im Marketing wandeln sich. Durch die Digitalisierung eröffnen sich neue Kommunikationskanäle, Kontexte und Datenquellen. Das mobile Marketing erhält neue Impulse und bezieht zukünftig den Nutzungskontext und Location Based Services mit ein. Traditionelle Beziehungen zwischen Kunde und Unternehmen werden komplexer und müssen differenzierter verstanden werden.

Tanja Kruse Brandão, Gerd Wolfram

1. Einführung

Marken begegnen uns heute fast schon überall – in Museen, Arztpraxen, Fußballstadien, Bahnhöfen, Haltestellen, Talkshows, Spielfilmen, Nachrichtenportalen, Schulen und Universitäten, Büchern und an vielen anderen Orten. Sie lassen keine Gelegenheit aus, um auf sich aufmerksam zu machen. Die Marke folgt dem Konsumenten auf Schritt und Tritt und versucht, eine langfristige Kunden- und Markenbindung aufzubauen.Immer mehr Unternehmen zielen darauf ab, ihren Kunden ein umfängliches Markenerlebnis entlang der Informations-, Entscheidungs-, Einkaufs- (Customer Journey) und Nutzungsprozesse (Consumer Journey) zu bieten. Das strategische und systematische Management aller Touchpoints zwischen Marke und Mensch wird damit erfolgsentscheidend und stellt alle daran Beteiligten vor große Herausforderungen.Die Digital Connection umfasst alle Bereiche, die zur Entwicklung einer digitalen Strategie und der Realisierung der dazugehörigen Touchpoints notwendig sind.

Tanja Kruse Brandão, Gerd Wolfram

Advertising Effects of In-Game-Advertising vs. In-App-Advertising

More than 135 million games were sold in the USA in 2014 with a revenue of 22 billion USD (Entertainment Software Association, 2014). At least sixty-three percent of all American households own at least one device to play video games with forty-two percent of the Americans playing video games on a regular basis (at least 3 hours per week) (Entertainment Software Association, 2015). It is predicted that the revenue of the digital game industry will increase from 91.8 % in 2015 to 118.6 % in 2019 (GMGC, 2015).

Sonja Bidmon, Johanna Röttl

Exploring the Use of Global Positioning System (GPS) for Identifying Customer Location in M-Commerce Adoption in Developing Countries

M-commerce in Kenya has seen tremendous growth over the last few years due to the availability of mobile payments, mobile internet access, and expansion of mobile banking systems. A critical factor to the success of m-commerce is timely delivery of purchased items to the customers’ premises. Timely delivery is highly dependent on the courier’s ability to locate the buyer’s physical location. To do this, the courier requires a reliable physical addressing system. However, like most developing countries, Kenya lacks a National Addressing System to provide properly registered physical identity of buildings, streets, and roads. The study explored the use of GPS in identifying customer’s location as an alternative to named physical addresses. This paper describes the study design and discusses the findings concerning the use of GPS tracking application among six retailers and thirty customers. The study reveals that geolocation can substitute physical addresses in m-commerce home deliveries.

Patrick Kanyi Wamuyu

2. Australia

Competition law issues arising with regard to online sales platforms centre around computer software, services provided online by online sales platforms, contractual relationships between the online platforms and sellers or buyers, information exchange, power and integration. Specifically, they may include algorithms that can coordinate and monitor prices and other business practices among competitors; collecting, exchanging and blocking information and targeting specific customers (consumers or businesses); and creating innovation-driven new monopolistic markets or markets where one online platform possesses significant market power.

Barbora Jedličková, Julie Clarke

10. Boundaries Synchronization and Capabilities Congruence: Discussion and Implications

In this chapter, I derive common theoretical and empirical knowledge through cross-case analysis of multiple in-depth case studies in Part 2, and at the same time present a new theoretical framework derived from case studies while verifying the propositions and hypotheses derived in Chaps. 1 and 2.This chapter first discusses the characteristics of capabilities on knowledge boundaries between stakeholders. Then it discusses how synchronization of stakeholder activities on knowledge boundaries promotes synchronization of the dynamic capabilities (DC) of the various individual players involved, which brings about collaborative dynamic capabilities (C-DC) among players. The chapter shows the necessity of synchronizing pragmatic boundaries by forming strategic communities with the main player and partners. Moreover, pragmatic boundaries synchronization between main player(s) and partner(s) on the Capabilities Map brings about synchronization of the strategic innovation loop (boundaries synchronization).This chapter also discusses the importance of optimized asset orchestration in companies, between companies and between industries, the formation of strategic communities within companies, between companies and between industries, and the acquisition of C-DC in companies, between companies and between industries for success in building ecosystems through service innovation, and clarifies the potential of these factors in bringing about the construction of health support ecosystems.As an element of C-DC, the chapter also clarifies the importance of the concept of “capabilities congruence” among ecosystem partners in achieving capability synthesis to maximize capabilities in ecosystems. As requirements for the five capabilities elements of ecosystem partners, (1) strategy capabilities, (2) organizational capabilities, (3) technology capabilities, (4) operational capabilities, and (5) leadership capabilities, the chapter presents the concept of “congruence among capabilities elements” as well as new theoretical and practical implications.

Mitsuru Kodama

5. COPS and Robbers: Customer Operated Payment Systems, Self-Service Checkout and the Impact on Retail Crime

Drawing on a range of international examples, this chapter examines the impact that customer operated payment systems (COPS) are having on the retail industry, and in particular on crime. Organised broadly into four parts, it first provides an overview of new developments in COPS and maps their future trajectory, exploring the emergence of self-service checkout (SCO), scan-as-you-go, and mobile payment systems. It then turns to mapping the known impact on customer theft before outlining some of the key concerns and vulnerabilities about their implementation. The final section considers the future of point of sale (POS) technology, including sensor-based retailing, and the impact on retail crime, providing recommendations to the industry on how to embrace customer autonomy in the age of automation and deliver retail solutions that are cognisant of potential vulnerabilities and risks.

Emmeline Taylor

Zur Relevanz von Permissions für smarte E-Services

Die zunehmende Durchdringung der Gesellschaft mit Informationstechnologien wurde bereits vor vier Dekaden von Nora und Minc attestiert und mit dem Begriff „Informatisierung“ belegt. Ein Ende dieser Entwicklung ist nicht absehbar, vielmehr scheint die Gegenwart nur eine Übergangsphase darzustellen, die durch eine nachhaltige Veränderung der Mensch-Computer-Beziehung gekennzeichnet werden kann. So prognostiziert Mattern die umfassende Durchsetzung smarter, lernfähiger, sich selbständig vernetzender und zur Interaktion befähigter Informationstechnologien, die imstande sind, unauffällig Aufgaben zu übernehmen. Eng mit diesem Gedankengang ist der Begriff der smarten Objekte verbunden, der physisch unverbundene und dezentralisiert vernetzte Gegenstände bezeichnet, die mit Hilfe geeigneter Technologien interagieren und „intelligenten“ elektronischen Service (im weiteren E-Service) erbringen können.

Christian Arnold, Hermann Knödler, Martin Reckenfelderbäumer

Freemium Service Business Models – Eine empirische Analyse der Akzeptanz von kostenpflichtigen Musik-Streaming-Diensten

Angesichts der zunehmenden Bedeutung von Musik-Streaming ist das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags die empirische Analyse der Akzeptanz von kostenpflichtigen Musik-Streaming-Diensten. Basierend auf einem erweiterten Technologieakzeptanzmodell (TAM) werden dazu die Einflussfaktoren der Nutzungsintention untersucht. Zur Prüfung der aufgestellten Hypothesen wurde eine Online-Befragung durchgeführt, an der über 500 Probanden teilnahmen. Mit Hilfe einer Strukturgleichungsanalyse werden Determinanten der Nutzungsintention von kostenpflichtigen Musik-Streaming-Diensten identifiziert, aus denen sich Handlungsempfehlungen für das Dienstleistungsmanagement sowie für die weiterführende Forschung ergeben.

Sebastian Danckwerts, Helena Maria Lischka, Peter Kenning

Conversational Commerce – A New Era for Service Business Development?

Digitization, the rise of the Internet and mobile devices have changed the way people interact with each other and with companies. In recent years, the voice interface has become a growing feature in mobile devices. Industry reports indicate that in mid-2016, 20 percent of Android searches were voice-based and Siri received two bn. requests per week. ComScore predicts that by 2020, 50 percent of all searches will be voice searches. Furthermore, it is anticipated that voice will become the default method to control a variety of interfaces including mobile devices, Internet of Things (IoT) appliances, and automobiles.

Sven Tuzovic, Stefanie Paluch

Cost-Effective Vertical Handoff Strategies in Heterogeneous Vehicular Networks

Vehicles are able to access Internet via cellular networks GPRS/UMTS/LTE. The IEEE has also released 802.11p standard for vehicle ad hoc network (VANET) that can connect vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) using a dedicated spectrum. Other prominent wireless technology is Wi-Fi (IEEE802.11) that is used as an alternative for short distances. Currently vehicular communication relies on single type of wireless network, e.g., for safety applications utilizes 802.11p and for infotainment applications, Internet is accessed via cellular networks. Wi-Fi technology is always an attractive solution for increase in data demand in mobile network because high data rate can be achieved with low cost. In order to improve network performance and to reduce the data transfer cost and time, Wi-Fi is used as complementary network to deliver data that was transmitted via cellular network. Communication through above two different networks is called heterogeneous vehicular network (HVN). Frequent switching occurs from one network to other particularly when vehicle moves across overlapping heterogeneous network. Such switching is called vertical handover (VHO). Efficient VHO is needed to minimize the data transfer cost and time. Three cases have been considered in this paper, first Cellular network interworking with Wi-Fi with fixed inter-distance between Wi-Fi Access points (AP), second with statistical inter-distance between Wi-Fi-APs in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas, and third the combination of cellular, Wi-Fi, and VANET which outperforms compared to above two cases.

Praneet Dhingra, Prem Chand Jain

Exploring the Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Responses of Korean Consumers Toward Mobile Payment Services: A Text Mining Approach

The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses of Korean consumers toward mobile payment services based on the tri-component model by using a text-mining technique. Samsung Pay was chosen it is used in both online and offline transactions. We targeted social media data posted during the period between 1 July 2016 and 31 December 2016, which was about one year after Samsung Pay was launched. We conducted word frequency analysis, clustering analysis, and association rules using R programming. The results were the following. First, the 50 most frequently used words referenced the brand names of the mobile devices, payment methods, and the procedures and unique functions of Samsung Pay compared to other types of payment methods. Second, we classified the terms into 24 categories (11 categories of cognitive responses, 10 categories of affective responses, and 3 categories of behavioral responses) based on the tri-component model. The results of the clustering analysis based on the 24 categories showed a clear split between positive and negative responses at the macro level. The positive responses were further clustered into four groups, while the negative responses were fused into two groups at the micro level. Third, the association rules produced 65 rules, and we found that economic benefits played a great role in the positive feelings and continuous use of mobile payment services. This study offers valuable implications that may help mobile payment marketers with delivering services that correspond to consumer values and expectations, thus increasing consumer utility and satisfaction.

Minji Jung, Yu Lim Lee, Chae Min Yoo, Ji Won Kim, Jae-Eun Chung

Information Technologies in Economics: Semiolinguistic Aspect

The article deals with semiolinguistic aspects of the application of information technologies to such a branch of human knowledge and activity as an economy that is a semiotic fragment of the linguistic and semiotic picture of the world. The concept of digital economy as an alloy of economic concepts and information technologies proper as an instrument of their application is explored. The process of clustering the signs of the digital economy into groups is studied, the definition of the corresponding sign-nominations entering into these groups is given. A special place is given to the concepts associated with digital financial assets, which are supposed to be introduced into the Russian financial system. The interest of the higher Russian school in the digital economy is ascertained, as a result of which the first educational units are created that are engaged in the propagation of knowledge in this field. It is also stated that the basic language of the industry remains English as the base language for fixing ideas and knowledge in the field of digital economy.

Andrew V. Olyanitch

Acceptance of Social Robots by Aging Users: Towards a Pleasure-Oriented View

The aging population is getting larger and the demands for social robots in providing home-based care services is increasing. As social robots are new technology and have not fully reached domestic fields, this study explored aging adults’ acceptance of social robots in a domestic environment. This study adopted the adapted UTAUT to develop aging adults’ acceptance. The model in this study involved both utilitarian use and pleasure-oriented use of social robots perceived by aging adults. A questionnaire survey involving 277 valid responses was conducted. This study examined that both pleasure expectancy and the four influencing constructs in UTAUT showed significantly positive effects on user adoption of social robots. In addition, based on the results, aging adults slightly did not think they could get pleasure from social robots whereas they had slightly preference to accept social robots. Implications were discussed for future work.

Na Chen

Applying Context Awareness Model in Interaction Design Process

The traditional process of interaction design includes several parts, such as background analysis, character modeling, scenario analysis, concept stage, and evaluation stage. With the application of context awareness model to design process, more context factors could be considered and the system could actively respond to certain action based on user activity model. In this way, the gap between system behavior and user cognition can largely reduce. This study based on the theory of context awareness, aiming at understanding and describing user context awareness mechanism, providing a reference for the establishment of the corresponding model of context aware systems, meeting user context awareness requirement in the process of the cognitive model. Through user’s context aware mechanism modeling, build context perception interaction design model, and explore context aware approach of interaction design.

Jian Sun, Jianming Yang

Chapter 4. Online Advertising: Creating a Relationship Between Businesses and Consumers

The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of creating a relationship between businesses and consumers. The paper addresses the advantages, issues, and current trends of online marketing. The findings reveal that some of the most common mediums to make connections with consumers are email, social media, and mobile advertising. In this article, the authors formulate the e-marketing strategies to build and maintain relationship with consumers in response to the current development of online marketing.

Herbert Kresh, Ashley Laible, Mei Lam, Mahesh Raisinghani

Chapter 8. Hyper-localizing e-Commerce Strategy: An Emerging Market Perspective

With the rise of global competition, multinationals are facing a decline in sales outside of their home regions as startups chip away at their dominance. One method of countering this trending decline is to embrace a hyper-localization e-commerce strategy, wherein unique locale-specific consumer segments are identified and then targeted to meet hyper-local needs and consumer demands. This piece identifies how organizations are developing hyper-localized strategies and leveraging local resources to deliver their product, services, and communications to the targeted emerging economies.

Nitish Singh, Brendan M. Keating

Chapter 15. Factors Influencing the Adoption of E-Ticketing in Arabic Frontier Markets: Conceptual Extension of UTAUT

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest of researchers to examine e-commerce (EC) systems and mobile commerce (MC) role in different sectors. e-ticketing—a paperless, electronically recorded to merchant’s system, electronic document used for ticketing travellers or event attendants—is one of the most important services in e-commerce.This conceptual paper aims to investigate, understand, and improve e-ticketing adoption in Arabic frontier markets—Morocco, Tunisia, Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, and Oman. To achieve this goal, a revised unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model was introduced. The introduced model emphasized the significant relationship between theory’s main four independent variables—performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and facilitating conditions—and intention. Trust was incorporated into UTAUT, and nonempirical suggestion of a significant positive relationship between social influence and trust and facilitating conditions and trust were proposed.

Zainah Qasem

Kapitel 15. Die digitale Mobilisierung der Wertschöpfung als Instrument der Nachhaltigkeit

Eine hohe Zahl von Managementkonzepten hat die Führung von Unternehmen in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten beeinflusst. Vom Shareholder Value Management bis zur Digitalisierung wurden ganz verschiedenartige Maxime des unternehmerischen Handelns propagiert und adoptiert. Neben der Frage nach der jeweiligen Substanz dieser Neuausrichtungen muss vor allem auch interessieren, welche Wirkungszusammenhänge zwischen einzelnen Managementkonzepten bestehen. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird gezeigt, wie das Mobile Business eingesetzt werden kann, um einen Beitrag zu den ökonomischen, ökologischen und sozialen Zielen der Nachhaltigkeit zu leisten.

Christoph Wamser

Chapter 4. Cross-Border E-Commerce: A New Driver of Global Trade

In this chapter, we explore cross-border e-commerce (CBEC) as a new driver of international trade. We adopt a revised i-based N-OLI framework for CBEC. Using China as a case study, we discuss the rapid growth, structure, export/import models, and infrastructure and environment of China’s CBEC. We attribute China’s CBEC success to the important role of e-commerce giants such as Alibaba.com and JD.com, the designation of CBEC pilot cities, supportive governmental policies, and big capital inflows. Four factors are seen to create future opportunities for all stakeholders of global CBEC, especially for merchants: the push from governments, the rise of middle class in developing countries, technological improvements, and more SMEs adopting CBEC. On the other hand, cultural differences, customer trust, logistics, payment, and legal and regulatory barriers are among the biggest challenges facing CBEC. Lastly, we outline several recommendations for foreign firms planning on entering into China’s market by means of CBEC.

Yanbin Tu, Joe Z. Shangguan

Chapter 2. A Study on Cooperation Strategies of Dual Channel Supply Chain Based on Service Level

Dual channel operation under the competition condition not only requires to improve service level, but needs to achieve the collaborative service among channels, which amplifies the conflict of the manufacturer and the retailer and cooperation of the whole supply chain. Based on the service level under the dual channel supply chain, considering that cooperative strategy between network direct-channels and retail channels, to realize supply chain coordination, this paper builds providing the same services and differentiation service model based on the centralized decision and decentralized decision, through the theoretical model and numerical computation to explore the different service levels and network channels that effect on demands, prices, profits. Our conclusions show that to provide differentiated services to enable the system to achieve the optimal profit, manufacturers and retailers to adopt decentralized decision or centralized decision are affected by the acceptance degree of direct marketing network.

Guojun Ji, Xi Liu

The effects of perceived convenience and psychological reactance on resistance at different levels of signalized autonomous e-service provisioning

The increasing penetration of society by information technologies was already noted four decades ago by Nora and Minc (1978) and was identified with the concept of computerization. An end to this development is not in sight; instead we presently appear to be in a transitional phase, which can be characterized by a lasting change in the human-computer relationship. Mattern (2003, 2007), for example, predicts the comprehensive implementation of smart, adaptive, self-interlinking, and interactive information technologies capable of taking over unobtrusive tasks and providing service ubiquitously.

Christian Arnold

Einflussfaktoren der Adoption von Connected Cars durch die Endnutzer

Connected Cars zeichnen sich aus durch eine internetbasierte, bi- oder multilaterale Verbindung zum Fahrzeughersteller, Fahrzeughändler, zu Versicherern, zu Regierungsbehörden (z. B. Mautstellen oder Straßenverkehrsamt), zur Infrastruktur (z. B. Ampeln, Parkhäuser oder Verkehrsschilder) und anderen Fahrzeugen. Vernetzte Fahrzeuge sind auf technische Daten und Daten anderer Nutzer angewiesen, um einen Mehrwert gegenüber herkömmlichen Fahrzeugen zu generieren. Die Vorzüge und Potenziale der Connected Cars können allerdings nur dann realisiert werden, wenn eine kritische Masse von Nutzern diese Konnektivitätstechnologien im Fahrzeug akzeptiert und nutzt.Zur Untersuchung der Adoption von Connected Cars in Deutschland wird in dieser Studie das fünfstufige Modell Innovation Diffusion Theory herangezogen. Im Rahmen dieses Modells definiert Rogers einen vollständigen Prozess für die Adoptionsent scheidung durch Individuen und nutzt einen multidimensionalen Ansatz, um die Einflussfaktoren auf den Adoptionsentscheidungsprozess zu erklären.Die Adoption von Connected Cars durch die Endnutzer in Deutschland wird direkt sowie indirekt durch mehrere Dimensionen beeinflusst, welche zum Teil Interdependenzen aufweisen. Aus der Literatur werden 16 Fragen identifiziert.

Heinrich Holland, Sam Zand-Niapour

Game-Based Mobile Traffic Sharing with WiFi

Mobile data traffic is important for the remote device control in Internet of Things (IoT). Due to heterogeneous usage and subscribed data caps, mobile traffic sharing is attractive for the users. This paper mainly studies how the users share the leftover traffic efficiently. In particular, it presents a framework that allows the users to share their traffic based on WiFi. The framework can collect all the users’ bids, and then the sellers allocate their traffic according to the buyers’ bids. In such scenario, the competition between the buyers exists, so how to bid efficiently is critical for the buyers. This paper models the problem as the non-cooperative game. According to the number of sellers, it considers two different cases. The existence of the Nash Equilibrium in both cases is mathematically proved.

Rong Wang, Zhifei Wang, Jibing Wu, Hongbin Huang, Su Deng, Yahui Wu

An Easy-to-use Itinerary Planner Application Based on Kansei Approach

The objective of this paper is to present the current studies carried out related to youth tourism’s need in a travel planning process. A systematic literature review (SLR) is performed to investigate current technology assisting in trip planning, and decision-making process. Twenty-one papers were used in the synthesis of the study. The result of this SLR shows a gap in this research field that lacks studies focusing on the usability requirement to assist designers in designing and developing websites, and mobile applications for youth tourism during travel planning. Therefore, this study attempts to investigate the implicit need factors using Kansei Engineering approach that can attract youth tourists to use itinerary applications so that designers can better facilitate in designing an itinerary planner.

Nurul Asma Wozzari, Anitawati Mohd Lokman

A Conceptual Model Proposal for Characterizing Discount and Outlet Platforms Adoption

The importance of e-commerce continues to grow in retail, providing companies with a critical tool to improve marketing and commercial strategies. In this context, understanding the distribution channels and the new business models becomes a fundamental issue for both researchers and business managers. This paper has two priority objectives. First is the accomplishment of a specific recent literature review survey on the theme of e-commerce platforms adoption that will support the next step. Second is to propose an adoption model that characterizes Discount and Outlet Platforms (DOP) adoption. The last contribution is distributed in the form of practical and theoretical implications, as well as future lines of action for possible investigations.

Carlos Peixoto, José Martins, Ramiro Gonçalves, Frederico Branco, Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira

How Web site Quality Affects Apparel Mobile Commerce Consumer Satisfaction and Intent to Purchase? A Study of Chinese Consumers

In recent years, apparel mobile commerce has experienced a rapid development in China, which is largely fueled by proliferation of smartphones, decreased cost of mobile data, increasing number of m-tailers, and shift of consumer shopping style toward mobility and time flexibility. Some apparel m-tailers can attract millions of visitors to their web sites everyday while others seem not appealing to consumers. Thus, this study aims to identify the effects of key features of mobile web site quality on the Chinese consumer satisfaction that in turn affects their intent to shop apparel via mobile web sites. Six dimensions of mobile web site quality, including web site visual appeal, apparel visual appeal, brand trust, web site informativeness, web site response time, and web site security, were investigated. Using the primary data collected via an online survey, multiple regression analysis was applied to test the proposed relationships. Results reveal that web site informativeness, web site visual appeal, apparel visual appeal, and web site security positively affect consumer satisfaction toward apparel m-commerce web site while web site response time and brand trust show insignificant impacts on consumer satisfaction. With higher satisfaction on apparel m-commerce web site, consumers are more likely to purchase apparel through the web site.

Ting Chi, Quinn Sullivan

Analysis and Detection of Ransomware Through Its Delivery Methods

Cyber criminals are utilizing diverse approaches to draw money from internet users and organizations. Recently, a malware called ransomware has become effectively accessible for this job due to its ease of availability and distribution methods. Security experts are working to counter ransomware attacks by fixing the vulnerabilities of operating system. In this research work, we have proposed a method to prevent the ransomware attack at its early stages through its delivery channels like Exploit Kits. We have analyzed the crawling patterns (listing of file path, dropped file, network activity, ransom note etc.) of victim’s computer. These patterns have been used to extract the features for classification of malicious samples. We have used supervised machine learning algorithms for classification of malwares. Experimental results shows that accuracy of 94% is achieved in tightly bound mode by using random forest algorithm. While, accuracy of 91% is achieved in moderate bound mode by using random forest classification algorithm.

Keertika Gangwar, Subhranshu Mohanty, A. K. Mohapatra

Digitalization: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow

The rapid development of digital technologies is making organizations rethink their business models and processes. This is resulting in a massive digital transformation of the economy and society. New trends are emerging at a fast pace and some of them might vanish soon. In order to investigate the opportunities and challenges behind these trends and make a sound prediction of their further development, it is necessary to understand the evolution of information and communication technology, which was and still is intended to provide support in the management of personal and business tasks. For this purpose, we present our model “Digitalization: Yesterday, today and tomorrow”, which provides a brief summary of the development and rise of computational technology, resulting in changes in the interaction both of humans with computers and between humans and computers, and shows how individuals, business and the government have been adapting to these changes. We identified four streams of development: Early Information Systems, the E-Business Applications, the Web 2.0 Revolution and the renaissance of the Artificial Intelligence; a fifth stream remains unnamed, as we do not yet know where these fast-paced developments will lead us.

Rolf Dornberger, Terry Inglese, Safak Korkut, Vivienne Jia Zhong

Big DataBig Data and Predictive AnalyticsPredictive Analytics : A Facilitator for Talent ManagementTalent Management

Big data has become a business buzz word. This paper explores the role and significance of big data in talent management. It also delineates various challenges faced in using big data for HR professionals. Convergence of talent and technology is bringing paradigm shift in trends pertaining to management of human resources. The emergence of big data and predictive analytics is reverberating the human resource domain. Today workforce in organizations is multigenerational, multicultural, and multilingual. Arrival of Gen Y and Gen Z has posed diverse challenges to the HR professionals. Customization of policies and opportunities to cater to the needs of diverse workforce has created the need to integrate technology as an indispensable part of HRM strategy. The data-driven, changing business environment requires correct analytics for business survival and sustainability. Human resource professionals are ready to embrace this revolution of big data in HR areas. Towers Watson survey conducted on more than 1,000 organizations last year found that human resource data and analytics are among the top three areas of HR technology. Analytics can be adopted as a strategic tool for enrichment, empowerment, and engagement of employees. Recruitment and retention of employees can also be improved to win the war for talent. Business strategy realizations are based on the available pool of talent. Human capital brings business strategies to life. Role of human capital professionals is transforming as strategic business partners and changes drivers. Talent management insights based on big data can be a big business differentiator. Right human capital management can prove as competitive advantage for organizations. Manpower analytics provides agility to organizations which results in their survival and growth. This paper attempts to throw light on application of big data and predictive analytics tools for human resource management. Inclusion of big data analytics can be a big deal for human capital management. Big data along with predictive analytics can bring lot of opportunities for human capital management. Discussion in international conferences and seminars has helped in developing the content of the paper. Insights from various articles on the said topic have also been incorporated. In order to develop this paper, key learning is also derived from white papers of reputed organizations.

Neetu Jain, Maitri

Exploring Factors Affecting Mobile Services Adoption by Young Consumers in Cameroon

With the advancement of mobile devices and sophisticated mobile data transmission technologies nurtured by telecommunication providers of 4G services, m-commerce has become an important platform for easier consumer interactions. It’s in this light that researchers have been paying much attention to how businesses, can reach specific consumer segments such as teens and young adults. This research aims to investigate factors predicting the consumer’s intention to adopt m-commerce in Cameroon, but also the moderating effects of demographic variables on such prediction. Data were collected from 262 Cameroonian respondents aged less than 45, as the category of unconditional IT users in Cameroon. A quantitative approach based on the PLS-SEM algorithm was used. Results showed no significant moderating effect of age and gender for the hypothesis: Behavioural intention positively influences consumer intention to adopt m-commerce. Findings are expected to help companies dealing with m-commerce to better formulate marketing strategies to attract more users.

Frank Wilson Ntsafack, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug, Samuel Fosso Wamba

Phishing Detection Research Based on PSO-BP Neural Network

In order to effectively detect phishing attacks, this paper proposes a method of combining Particle Swarm Optimization with BP neural network to build a new phishing website detection system. PSO optimizes neural network parameters to improve the convergence performance of neural network detection model. Experimental results show that this algorithm can improve the prediction speed and the accuracy of detecting phishing websites by 3.7% compared with the conventional BP neural network algorithm.

Wenwu Chen, Xu An Wang, Wei Zhang, Chunfen Xu

Chapter 15. Key Digital Project Management Scenarios

Digital project managers encounter a variety of challenging scenarios during the execution of a digital project. Based on our experience with a variety of digital projects with varied degrees of complexity across various industry domains, this chapter lists the important digital project management scenarios. It includes the background of each scenario to set the context and common challenges and common root causes of each scenario. This chapter also provides the proven best practices to handle these scenario and address any gaps.

Shailesh Kumar Shivakumar

A Simply Way for Chronic Disease Prediction and Detection Result Visualization

Disease data provide an abundant source for chronic disease research. Hundreds of applications have been developed to deliver healthcare based on this big data. However, very few applications provide efficient chronic disease data visualization methods to better understand the results. This paper introduces a simple and practical way for visualizing the results of chronic disease detection and prediction. A model called IVIS4BigData has been used to implement the visualization procedure. This model not only demonstrates the historical data but also provides state-of-the-art visualization techniques. An exemplary set of scenarios corresponding to system design as well as visualization evaluation are given at last. Also we consulted several domain experts and common users about our visualization experimental results which satisfied their understanding about our systems. Finally conclusion and overlook of future work complete the paper.

Dingkun Li, Hyun Woo Park, Erdenebileg Batbaatar, Keun Ho Ryu

Lauterkeitsrechtliche Analyse

Das Wettbewerbsrecht befasst sich im weiteren Sinne mit der Existenz und der Fairness des Wettbewerbs, es umfasst das Kartell- und das Lauterkeitsrecht. Zunächst sollen die Apps und die App-Stores einer lauterkeitsrechtlichen Analyse unterzogen werden. Das Lauterkeitsrecht schützt die Verbraucher und die sonstigen Markteilnehmer vor unzulässigen geschäftlichen Handlungen und darüber hinaus das Interesse der Allgemeinheit an der Unverfälschtheit des Wettbewerbs, § 1 UWG.

Jörn Lenz

Zivilrechtliche Analyse

Die zivilrechtliche Analyse bildet das Fundament dieser Arbeit. Zunächst muss bestimmt werden, wer gegenüber wem auftritt und zwischen welchen Parteien was für Beziehungen herrschen. Neben den Vertragsparteien muss die Stellung des App-Stores bzw. der App-Anbieter als etwaige Dritte eingeordnet werden, damit ihr wirtschaftliches Handeln einem entsprechenden Markt im kartellrechtlichen Sinne zugeordnet werden kann. Über die Stellung der Parteien hinaus kann anschließend eine Typisierung der (Vertrags-) Beziehungen vorgenommen werden.

Jörn Lenz

7. System Processes in Sport Entrepreneurship

This chapter focuses on the role of process in sport entrepreneurship. The importance of entrepreneurship in the sport industry given the increased interest in sport business is discussed. Next, the current state of research about sports entrepreneurship in terms of the evolution and development of innovation processes is stated. There is then a examination of how sport and entrepreneurship processes work together to show how they are inextricably linked. This means that the newness of sport entrepreneurship in academia is the result of increased interest of its important in society. Therefore, there is a clear gap in the literature about sport entrepreneurship and its processes, which is the main objective of this chapter.

Vanessa Ratten

9. Sport Entrepreneurship Education and Policy

Sport is taught at a range of educational levels from primary and high school to post-graduate university level. Most of the existing educational programs about sport focus on the fitness or physical activity component rather than the business perspective. There has been a tendency to stay with the established curriculum rather than try new and innovation sport management subjects. Due to the increased interest in sport business there needs to be a change in sport education to include more emphasis on entrepreneurship education. In addition, there has been an increase in the number of students who will be self-employed in the sport sector. These students are entering different kinds of careers than in the past that require entrepreneurial thinking. The goal of this chapter is to discuss why there needs to be a new field of sport entrepreneurship education taught in educational institutions. This will help teach students about business principles that are needed for their future careers. This chapter addresses the concept of sports entrepreneurship education as well as some aspects related to the role of education in sport. The chapter concludes by discussing how the view of entrepreneurship education has changed in the last decade with the realization that more practical experience is necessary in sport.

Vanessa Ratten

10. The Future for Sport Entrepreneurship

Sport entrepreneurship is a rapidly emerging new research field that combines sport management with entrepreneurship and innovation research. The aim of this chapter is to discuss the reasons for interest in sport entrepreneurship by explaining its definition and application in the business management area. The objectives of the book in terms of theory development and practical implication for those interested in sport as an entrepreneurial endeavor are discussed. This includes an overview of the future for sports entrepreneurship in terms of how to include more innovation and competitiveness. The chapter concludes by suggesting future research paths in terms of interesting ways to approve this interdisciplinary field by engaging in creative studies that have a practical implication.

Vanessa Ratten

Chapter 4. Visual Information Interfaces

Advances in technology have brought faster processors, more memory, and faster communications. These have enabled users to operate with larger and more complex data sets such as those corresponding to Big Data. This has placed greater pressure on the traditional methods by which the user interacts with both 2D and 3D environments in the computer. In addition, increased power and functionality along with the reduction in physical size of many electronic components has increased the trend toward mobile working. This could involve “hot-desking” with a laptop, or using a fully mobile, handheld device such as a tablet or mobile phone. This again increases the importance of a good visual interface to the user as it has to cater for user interaction requests in a relatively small screen space on a small device compared to more traditional ways of working (e.g., using a PC or workstation with a large screen). These latter configurations are more appropriate for CAD where users need to see large amounts of detail at any one time such as that corresponding to the architectural plans for a building. Using virtual reality technology (e.g., a CAVE system) it is now possible to also offer the user a walk-in environment where they are able to see this kind of detail in a simulated 3D environment and do a walk-through to see how the designed environment actually appears to the designer when it is being used. This helps to identify areas which need to be changed because they are not having the effect in real world that the user intended in the initial design. This is a means of avoiding expensive mistakes in the design and planning of major 3D buildings and other similar environments, and ensuring that they are able to optimally fulfill their original purpose.

Rae Earnshaw

Chapter 5. The Value of Disruptive Innovations

The exceptional characteristics of disruptive innovations (the Internet, Social media, Internet of Things and Autonomous driving) are discussed. The transformative impact of these radical innovations is assessed. The consumer surplus generated by the ubiquitous mobile phones and the role of social media in the ‘socialized’ world is discussed. The staggering impact of IOT to connect all inanimate things and the truly disruptive nature of autonomous vehicles will be watershed moments.

Vijay Kumar, R. P. Sundarraj

Kapitel 9. Strategien für einen erfolgreichen Markenaufbau in den wichtigen Märkten der Schwellenländer

Die folgenden Abschnitte dieses Strategie-Kapitels werden 25 zentrale Überlegungen, Strategien und Rahmenkonzepte darlegen, die von ausschlaggebender Bedeutung sind, wenn es darum geht, eine erfolgreiche Markenentwicklung in den großen Schwellenmärkten sowohl in einem B2C- als auch in einem B2B-Umfeld zu erreichen. Sie gründen sich auf konkrete und unmittelbare Erfahrungen bei der Beratung einiger der erfolgreichsten global agierenden Unternehmen in den vergangenen 15 Jahren sowie auf wissenschaftliche Forschungen. Diese allgemeinen Strategien werden durch zahlreiche aufschlussreiche Beispiele und Fallstudien aus den BRIC-Ländern veranschaulicht, die ihre jeweilige praktische Bedeutung hervorheben.

Niklas Schaffmeister, Florian Haller

Kapitel 3. Digitalisierung im Baugewerbe

Das Baugewerbe gilt als „Bricks & Mortar“-Geschäft, das von den Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung wegen seines analogen und materiellen Charakters scheinbar kaum betroffen sein dürfte. Diese Annahme ist falsch. Besonders in den Bereichen der Bauplanung und Bauvorbereitung, der Logistik an verschiedenen Stellen im Bauprozess und des Managements von Kundenbeziehungen manifestiert sich die digitale Transformation am deutlichsten. Unternehmen der Baubranchen müssen sich darauf einstellen, wenn sie am Markt bestehen und das Feld nicht allein den großen Baukonzernen überlassen wollen. Dieses Kapitel stellt die unterschiedlichen Trends und Entwicklungen der Digitalisierung im Baugewerbe dar, ordnet sie analytisch ein und gibt praxisrelevante Empfehlungen zum erfolgreichen Umgang mit den genannten Herausforderungen.

Andreas Moring, Lukas Maiwald, Timo Kewitz

Mobile Commerce Business Model for Customer Oriented Business Transactions

Mobile commerce environment pertains to multiple transactions with the purpose of providing goods and services to customers. The customers are using wireless devices like smartphone, mobile phone and PDA to shop for a broad range of products and information related services. The success of commercial business models for mobile commerce environment depends on the method of providing value to the customers. Modeling the specific characteristics of each business participant is a challenging task in dynamic business environment. In this paper, we propose a formal description of business model by identifying the specific characteristics of mobile participant and illustrate with examples in a trading scenario. The proposed analytical concepts assist in developing innovative user friendly interfaces and also to model e-business domain.

P. V. Pushpa

The Mechanism that Links the Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Continuance of Information Technology: Evidence from the Use of Mobile Apps to Make Hotel Reservations

Consumers are increasingly adopting mobile apps to make hotel reservations. Apart from attracting new users, hoteliers and Online Travel Agents (OTAs) devote great efforts to motivate customers’ continuous use of the apps. This study introduces Implicit Theories of Intelligence (ITI) as an antecedent of the intention to continue the use of apps and explores the underlying mechanism. This study draws from an online survey administered to 459 Chinese respondents to link ITI with continuance intention (CI). The findings show that incremental theorists of intelligence exhibited higher hedonic motivation (HM) and lower perceived risk (PR) in the use of apps than entity theorists of intelligence. HM positively predicted CI, whereas PR negatively predicted CI. Contrary to our expectation, the mediating role of effort expectancy was not supported. These findings offer meaningful implications to hoteliers and OTAs.

Lawrence Hoc Nang Fong, Irene Cheng Chu Chan, Rob Law, Tuan Phong Ly

Kapitel 4. Geschäftssysteme und Benchmarks im E-Commerce

Der Ausgestaltung des Geschäftssystems kommt eine Schlüsselrolle im Online-Handel zu. Sie ist auch Basis für Kanalexzellenz, die erfolgreiche Online-Händler auszeichnet. Diese sind in der Lage, mit ihren Leistungen im E-Commerce den Benchmark zu setzen, und nutzen alle Möglichkeiten der modernen Interaktion. Insgesamt sind acht zentrale Erfolgsfaktoren für das Vorliegen von Web-Exzellenz im B2C zu beachten. Eine große Herausforderung spielt jedoch zunehmend die Nachhaltigkeit der Erfolgsfaktoren, da der Wettbewerb sich immer schneller anpasst.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 5. Best Practices für Web-Exzellenz im Online-Handel

Best Practices für Web-Exzellenz ergeben sich aus der bestmöglichen Umsetzung der Erfolgsfaktoren, die sie auf der anderen Seite aber auch maßgeblich mit bestimmt haben. Die folgenden Best Practices wurden durch Online-Recherchen identifiziert. Die Daten, Zahlen und Fakten dazu wurden größtenteils den aktuellen Geschäftsberichten aus 2016/2017 oder Informationen auf den Websites und aus der Presse entnommen.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 1. Neues Meta-Targeting im Online-Handel

Mit der weiter zunehmenden Internetnutzung in Hinblick auf die Nutzerzahlen sowie die Nutzungsintensitäten steigen die Umsätze im Online-Handel nach wie vor rasant an. Dabei wird das digitale Universum immer mehr durch mobile Internetnutzung geprägt, die auch die Kundenorientierung erheblich verändert. Diese ändert sich ohnehin fortwährend durch neue Trends, die wiederum durch neue Kundenerwartungen genährt werden. Zugleich beschleunigt sich der Konzentrationsprozess weiter, wodurch der Abstand zwischen dem Marktführer Amazon sowie dem Verfolgerfeld und dabei vor allem den Traditionsunternehmen immer größer wird. Deswegen kommt der Beschleunigung digitaler Reifegrade und dem Abbau digitaler Barrieren ein hoher Stellenwert zu.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 3. Formen des Online-Handels

Die wenigsten Online-Händler kommen noch in reiner Form vor. Lediglich Start-ups oder neue Formen des interaktiven Online-Handels wie zum Beispiel Dawanda oder Farfetch verfolgen zu 100 % ein einziges Geschäftsmodell. Schon die großen Pure Plays wie Amazon oder eBay sind Mischformen. Mittlerweile hat sich hier eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Betriebstypen herauskristallisiert, die sich anhand zentraler Merkmale beschreiben lassen und sehr unterschiedlich entwickeln. Zunehmend sind neue Formen des Online-Handels zu beobachten, zu denen auch der weiterhin stark wachsende Mobile Commerce zählt. Daneben entwickelt sich B2B-Online-Handel, also E-Commerce von Business für Business, zum „next big thing“.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 2. Geschäftsmodell des Online-Handels

Die Kundenzentriertheit muss Basis für das Geschäftsmodell eines jeden Online-Händlers sein. Losgelöst von der funktional orientierten Marketinglehre rücken Leidenschaft und Glaubwürdigkeit der gesamten Unternehmensführung und ein bedingungslos am Kundenwunsch ausgerichtetes Unternehmen in das Zentrum der geschäftlichen Aktivitäten. Diese Art der „neuen Kundenorientierung“ durchdringt das komplette Geschäftssystem des Unternehmens und gibt Mitarbeitern zugleich einen Orientierungsrahmen für ihre täglichen Entscheidungen vor.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 4. Instrumente des Online-Marketings

Fähigkeit,die unterschiedlichen Ausprägungen der Online-Instrumente und ihre jeweiligen Ziele zu erfassenPush- und Pull-Kommunikation im Online-Marketing zu unterscheidendie Verbreitung von Cross-Media-Kampagnen zu verstehenverschiedene Multi-/Omni-Channel-Engagements zu unterscheiden

Ralf T. Kreutzer

Kapitel 5. E-Commerce

Fähigkeit,die Möglichkeiten von E-, S- und M-Commerce zu erkennenPhasen beim Aufbau eines E-Commerce zu unterscheidendie Anforderungen an die Waren-, Informations- und Finanzlogistik eines E-Commerce-Engagements zu benennendie unterschiedlichen Möglichkeiten der Online-Präsenz für Einzelhändler zielorientiert auszugestaltendie Relevanz einer überzeugenden Angebots-Positionierung vor der Entwicklung eines Online-Shops zu erfassen

Ralf T. Kreutzer

The Potential Benefits of Offering Suitable Mobile Commerce Experience to Your Customers: An Abstract

Mobile devices have become increasingly popular in recent decades: It is estimated that there are more mobile devices than individuals around the world. Individuals spend considerably more time on their smartphones than on their computers; however, m-commerce (i.e. purchase of goods or services through a mobile device) represents only 11.6% of the total e-commerce market in the USA. To design more effective m-commerce environments, marketers must fully understand which consumer motivations drive value perceptions. This study investigates the role of consumers’ hedonic (e.g. fun and enjoyment) and utilitarian (e.g. instrumental and functional) motivations on perceived trust and value. In line with the regulatory fit theory, promotion-oriented consumers (e.g. eager and aspirational) appear more likely to use m-commerce because of hedonic motivations, whereas prevention-oriented consumers (e.g. vigilant and risk-averse) appear more likely to use m-commerce because of utilitarian motivations. This effect is the result of the fit experience (i.e. enhanced engagement and a ‘feels right’ sentiment) that leads to increased perceptions of trust and value. These results offer invaluable insights to marketers, who, due to mobile devices’ reduced screen sizes, must carefully select which content and design elements to use in their m-commerce environments to deliver valuable, trustworthy and engaging solutions.

Narongsak (Tek) Thongpapanl, Abdul R. Ashraf, Luciano Lapa

The Role of Consumer Innovativeness in Mobile Commerce Usage: A Comparison of Two Emerging Countries: An Abstract

Mobile commerce has not only seen remarkable growth in recent years but also shows promising trends for the future. Research has, however, not paid enough attention to understand the factors that determine the perceived value of m-commerce for consumers. This study advances the literature by providing a framework of the drivers and barriers to m-commerce value, in India and Pakistan, countries with immense m-commerce potential. This context also provides an opportunity to observe how consumers’ m-commerce behavior differs across different countries, as determinants like perceived risk and cost are likely to have a more pronounced effect in these relatively nascent markets. The proposed framework connects m-commerce value, and in turn the actual usage to their key determinants including ubiquity, risk, and cost, while investigating the moderating effects of personal innovativeness. The results reveal that ubiquity has a positive impact on perceived m-commerce value, while risk and cost have a negative influence. We also find a significant moderating effect of innovativeness on all three drivers of value. The results further show that perceived value positively affects m-commerce usage and is strengthened by consumer innovativeness. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications of the results, discussing how retailers can enhance their marketing strategies, particularly in emerging m-commerce markets.

Abdul R. Ashraf, Narongsak (Tek) Thongpapanl, Ali Anwar

Akzeptanz von dynamischen Zertifizierungen: Eine multiperspektivische Untersuchung

Das Konzept der dynamischen Zertifizierung wurde im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes NGCert grundlegend erforscht und in ausgewählten Anwendungsfällen prototypisch erprobt. Eine nachhaltige Verbreitung und Anwendung des dynamischen Zertifizierungsverfahrens ist notwendig, um die vielen Vorteile und Potenziale einer dynamischen Zertifizierung realisieren zu können. Merkmale einer dynamischen Zertifizierung haben positive aber auch negative Einflüsse auf die Akzeptanz von verschiedenen Stakeholder. Zu den Innovationsmerkmalen, die eine Adoption der Innovation fördern oder auch verhindern können zählen der relative Vorteil, die Kompatibilität, die Komplexität, die Erprobbarkeit und die Beobachtbarkeit. In diesem Kapitel wird das Ausmaß der beeinflussenden Merkmale auf Basis von bestehender Literatur und durchgeführten Interviews mit Cloud-Service-Experten ermittelt und analysiert. Hierbei wird Bezug auf die drei Stakeholder Cloud-Service-Provider, -Auditoren und -Kunden genommen.The concept of a dynamic certification was developed during the research project NGCert, and exemplarily tested in defined use cases. A widespread diffusion of a dynamic certification is required to achieve expected advantages. Several attributes of a dynamic certification have a positive or negative impact on the acceptance of different stakeholders, including the relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability of a dynamic certification. In this chapter, we discuss the influence of each innovation attribute based on a literature review and interviews with cloud experts. In particular, we focus on the perspective of cloud service providers, auditors and customers.

Sebastian Lins, Heiner Teigeler, Ali Sunyaev

Analysis of Impulsiveness in M-Commerce: A Study of “On-The-Go Shoppers” Behavior: An Abstract

Digital technologies have transformed the consumers’ decision-making process providing new approaches to understand consumers. Mobile commerce—m-commerce—is the ability to perform transactions using any wireless device with no time or space constraints (Balasubramanian et al. 2002). Internet penetration reached 38.1 percent of global population in 2013 (Internet Society 2015), and the number of connected devices within OECD area is expected to increase to 14 billion by 2022 (OECD 2014). This paper proposes a conceptual model on consumer impulsiveness in m-commerce.

Natasha Patricia Bojorges Moctezuma, Pável Reyes-Mercado

Using Personalization Technologies for Political Purposes: Privacy Implications

A growing body of literature has recently focused on the adoption of personalization methods and tools traditionally used in e-commerce, in the area of political marketing and communication. However, the impact of adopting personalization applications for political purposes has not been studied yet. This paper contributes to filling this gap, by analyzing privacy threats stemming from the use of personalization tools for political purposes and identifying their impact on individuals and society. This paper also identifies issues that need further research, as big data, individual targeting, the development of behavioral science and sophisticated personalization techniques are reshaping political communication and pose new privacy risks.

Paola Mavriki, Maria Karyda

Reshaping Competition in the Age of Platforms: The Winners of the Sharing Economy

Since the beginning of industrialization, the pipeline business model has dominated world economies: products were created by a producer, be it a person or a company, then customers were informed that they could buy those products, and the cycle closed with the proper selling of those goods to customers. In recent years, this linear mode of doing business has started to be replaced by platforms. While platforms are not a new way of doing business—fairs are the classic platform prototype—the use of ITC in creating, managing, and accessing platforms stimulated the appearance of a different approach to this business model, providing benefits for all of the economic actors participating in the digital economy. This chapter presents some of the particularities of digital platform business models and argues in favor of their benefits by referring to a number of worldwide famous businesses, in fields from education to transportation and commerce, constructed according to these models.

Florina Magdalena Pȋnzaru, Andreea Mitan, Alina Daniela Mihalcea

Impact of Consumer Gender on Expenditure Done in Mobile Shopping Using Test of Independence

In India, a number of mobile users have grown exponentially in the last decade. Now people spend more time with smartphones rather than personal meeting. Mobile commerce is the growing area of research nowadays. Most of the companies provide better pricing in mobile applications so they involve customer in mobile shopping. In this paper, the authors conduct an online survey on smartphone users in India. They try to find out that the gender of customer is dependent on the amount spent in mobile shopping. The authors analyze 258 data sets and perform test of intendance both parametric and nonparametric. The result of survey gives p value = 0.373 for parametric test and p value = 0.386 for nonparametric test. These results show that customer gender and expenditure done in mobile shopping are related to each other.

Shanti Verma, Kalyani Patel

When Your App is Under the Spotlight

Due to the nature of apps as experience goods and the vast product space, new product discovery in the mobile app market has become a very salient problem for developers and consumers. Our paper investigates developers’ best response to the platform’s recommendation, where the featured apps enjoy a reduction in search cost and an endorsement of quality for a limited period of time. Specifically, we consider three response options available to the developers: releasing a version update, increasing price, and decreasing price. We find that only the price decrease strategy has a positive effect on sales during the featuring window, while the effect of the price increase and version update strategy is not significant.

Chen Liang, Zhan (Michael) Shi, T. S. Raghu

Continuous User Authentication on Touch-Screen Mobile Phones: Toward More Secure and Usable M-Commerce

Recent advances in sensing and wireless communication technologies have led to an explosion in the use of touch-screen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets in mobile commerce and other daily work and life activities. These activities have resulted in more and more private and sensitive information stored on those devices. Therefore, improving the security of mobile devices by effective user authentication to prevent unauthorized information access becomes an imminent task. Mobile user authentication refers to the process of checking a user’s identity and verifying whether he/she is authorized to access a device. Due to the increasing incidence of mobile phones getting lost, stolen, or snatched while being used by the owner, continuous user authentication (CUA) after logging in a mobile device has attracted increasing attention. Prior research has shown that traditional password authentication is insufficient or ineffective for CUA. Despite the recent research progress in CUA, many existing methods are explicit by nature in that they require users to perform specific operations, which can cause interruptions to users’ ongoing activities or may be easily learned from observation by others. In this research, we propose a new touch dynamics based approach to CUA on touch screen mobile devices that authenticates users while they are interacting with mobile devices. Touch dynamics, which is rich in cognitive quality and unique to individuals, has yet to be explored for implicit CUA. We conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate the proposed mobile CUA approach. The results demonstrate that our method can improve the security of CUA for touch screen mobile devices. The findings have significant implications for the security and adoption of m-commerce.

Dongsong Zhang, Yin Kang, Lina Zhou, Jianwei Lai

23. Home Entertainment: TCL

Chinese manufacturers are now going through a transformation process challenged by their current market position and encouraged by national policy to rejuvenate and upgrade manufacturing. China’s leading home electronics company, TCL, is strategically focused on converging its traditional entertainment devices with content or services, all in an effort to be customer centric and to evolve as a solution provider rather than remaining as an equipment manufacturer. This chapter also describes the complexity and competition companies face in this evolution.

Christian Nothhaft

9. Reaching More Households, Offering More Products: Suning

For the last 30 years, electrical retailers in China have built large networks and extensive consumer data resources across the market. The current focus is on evolving their business model and building online and offline customer experience ecosystems as well as logistics and microfinance options—all in a race to reach more consumers. This is the story of Suning, China’s No. 1 electrical retailer, extending its reach into households and transcending the boundaries of its current business, its suppliers, and products.

Christian Nothhaft

Security in Cloud Computing-Based Mobile Commerce

Cloud computing is a burgeoning technology shift impact in gall industries. Due to rapid development in Internet and wireless technology, electronic business transaction has exploded around the world. In brief Mobile commerce or M-commerce means accessing the Internet for business transaction using handheld devices. Cloud integrated mobile application provides the functions for building and consuming the future of M-commerce applications. Nowa ays explosive growth has been taken place in M-commerce due to drastic use of handheld devices like mobile, smartphone, tablet, etc., as it provides user mobility, portability. But some important challenge faced by M-commerce is security, limited storage and processing power, complex device configuration, low network band width, etc. By incorporating cloud computing in mobile commerce will give lots of advantage for business industry as well as the user with lower cost and high benefits, security, flexibility, scalability, mobility, and efficiency.

Ferdousi Khatun, Md. Ruhul Islam

Kapitel 2. Dreiklang der Innovationen und Bedeutung der Games Industry für andere Branchen

Die Terminologien Gamification, Digitalisierung und Industrie 4.0 beschreiben Prozesse der Entwicklung von Innovationen und eröffnen die Möglichkeit, relativ aggregiert Zugang zu an sich komplexen Themengebieten zu erhalten. Gamification und Innovation – kaum ein Thema beschäftigt Games-Branchen-Fremde mehr, wenn sie sich professionell oder halbprofessionell mit der Games-Branche auseinandersetzen.

Lutz Anderie

8. Social Commerce: Foundations, Social Marketing, and Advertising

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Define social commerce and describe its roots and evolution.2.Describe the scope, drivers, and content of the social commerce field.3.Summarize the benefits and limitations of social commerce.4.Describe the major models of social shopping.5.Explain how advertising and promotions are conducted in social networking environments.6.Describe how social networking can facilitate customer service, customer support, and CRM.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

9. Social Enterprise and Other Social Commerce Topics

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Understand the concept of the social enterprise and its variants.2.Describe business-oriented public social networks, their characteristics, and benefits.3.Describe the major social commerce activities that can be conducted within and by enterprises and the characteristics of such private social networks.4.Review the social commerce activities and their relationship with e-entertainment and gaming.5.Describe social gaming and gamification.6.Define crowdsourcing and describe its use in social commerce.7.Describe social collaboration and its benefits.8.Comment of the future of social commerce.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

11. E-Commerce Security and Fraud Issues and Protections

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Understand the importance and scope of security of information systems for EC.2.Describe the major concepts and terminology of EC security.3.Understand about the major EC security threats, vulnerabilities, and technical attacks.4.Understand Internet fraud, phishing, and spam.5.Describe the information assurance security principles.6.Describe the major technologies for protection of EC networks, including access control.7.Describe various types of controls and special defense mechanisms.8.Describe consumer and seller protection from fraud.9.Discuss enterprisewide implementation issues for EC security.10.Understand why it is so difficult to stop computer crimes.11.Discuss the future of EC.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

12. Electronic Commerce Payment Systems

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Describe cross-border EC and the issues that arise in EC payments.2.Describe the major changes in retail and their impacts on EC payments.3.Discuss the different payment cards used online and processing methods.4.Discuss the different categories and potential uses of smart cards.5.Describe the issues with and solutions to online micropayments.6.Understand PayPal and third-party payment gateways.7.Understand the major types and methods of mobile payments.8.Describe the differences and key characteristics of digital and virtual currencies.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

10. Marketing and Advertising in E-Commerce

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Describe factors that influence online consumer behavior.2.Explain how consumer behavior can be analyzed for creating personalized services.3.Understand consumer market research in e-commerce.4.Describe the objectives and characteristics of Web advertising.5.Describe the major advertising methods used on the Web.6.Learn mobile marketing concepts and techniques.7.Describe various online advertising strategies and types of promotions.8.Understand some implementation issues.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

1. Overview of Electronic Commerce

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Define electronic commerce (EC) and describe its various categories.2.Describe and discuss the content and framework of EC.3.Describe the major types of EC transactions.4.Describe the drivers of EC.5.Discuss the benefits of EC to individuals, organizations, and society.6.Discuss social computing.7.Describe social commerce and social software.8.Understand the elements of the digital world.9.Describe some EC business models.10.List and describe the major limitations of EC.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

6. Mobile Commerce and the Internet of Things

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Discuss the value-added attributes, benefits, and fundamental drivers of m-commerce.2.Describe the mobile computing infrastructure that supports m-commerce (devices, software, and services).3.Discuss m-commerce applications in banking and financial services.4.Describe enterprise mobility applications.5.Describe consumer and personal applications of m-commerce, including entertainment.6.Explain what location-based commerce is.7.Define and describe ubiquitous computing and sensory networks.8.XXX.9.Describe wearables, Google Glass, smartwatches, and fitness trackers.10.Describe the major implementation issues from security and privacy to barriers of m-commerce.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

2. E-Commerce: Mechanisms, Platforms, and Tools

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Describe the major electronic commerce (EC) activities and processes and the mechanisms that support them.2.Define e-marketplaces and list their components.3.List the major types of e-marketplaces and describe their features.4.Describe electronic catalogs, search engines, and shopping carts.5.Describe the major types of auctions and list their characteristics.6.Discuss the benefits and limitations of e-auctions.7.Describe bartering and negotiating online.8.Describe virtual communities.9.Describe social networks as EC mechanisms.10.Describe the emerging technologies of augmented reality and crowdsourcing.11.Describe Web 3.0 and define Web 4.0 and Web 5.0.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

15. E-Commerce: Regulatory, Ethical, and Social Environments

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Understand the foundations of legal and ethical issues in EC.2.Describe intellectual property law and understand its adjudication.3.Explain privacy and free speech issues and their challenges.4.Describe types of fake content on the Web and what can be done about it.5.Describe EC-related societal issues and loss of jobs in particular.6.Describe Green EC and IT.7.Describe the future of e-commerce.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

3. Retailing in Electronic Commerce: Products and Services

Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to:1.Describe electronic retailing (e-tailing) and its characteristics.2.Classify the primary e-tailing business models.3.Describe how online travel and tourism services operate and how they influence the industry.4.Discuss the online employment market, including its participants and benefits.5.Describe online real estate services.6.Discuss online stock trading services.7.Discuss cyberbanking and online personal finance.8.Describe on-demand delivery of groceries and similar perishable products and services related to them.9.Describe the delivery of digital products such as online entertainment.10.Discuss various online consumer aids, including price comparison sites.11.Describe the impact of e-tailing on retail competition.12.Describe disintermediation and other B2C strategic issues.

Efraim Turban, Jon Outland, David King, Jae Kyu Lee, Ting-Peng Liang, Deborrah C. Turban

Kapitel 4. App-based Social Commerce

Smartphone- und App-based Social Media bieten unbestritten neue Wege der Interaktion für Nutzer und auch für Unternehmen. Die Übergänge zwischen Social Media und Social Commerce sind mehr oder weniger fließend. Die Möglichkeit für Kunden, auch aktiv und app-basiert über die Plattform zu kaufen, kann als höchste Stufe des Social Commerce angesehen werden, wobei die Steigerung des „Customer Value“ ein wesentliches Element des Social Commerce ist. Dies hat sich in mehreren Stufen entwickelt und wurde im Wesentlichen durch die technologische Entwicklung und durch social-media-induzierte Veränderungen des Konsumentenverhaltens getrieben. Dabei wird deutlich, dass sich Social Commerce von der anfänglichen Integration sozialer Tools in bestehenden Online-Shops über die weitere Implementierung von Verkaufsfunktionen in soziale Netze zu völlig neuen app-basierten Geschäftsmodellen geändert hat. In diesem Zusammenhang erscheint die Sozialisierung von Mobile-Shops ein relativ einfacher Weg zu sein, in die Welt des App-based Social Commerce einzusteigen. Allerdings werden die Kunden anspruchsvoller, weswegen alle Register sozialer Features gezogen werden sollten. Das betrifft vor allem die App-Nutzung sowie das Machine Learning, bei dem es um den intelligenten Umgang mit großen Datenmengen und deren Verwendung für Chatbots geht. Dennoch bleibt für App-based Social Commerce zweifelsohne die Social-Media-Werbung unumgänglich. Damit die Werbegelder für Social Media aber nicht sinnlos verpuffen, sollte mit den bisher gängigen Mythen aufgeräumt werden.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 3. Location-based App und Smartphone Commerce

Das Smartphone wird überwiegend außer Haus und zunehmend für lokale Zwecke genutzt. Diese betreffen sowohl die lokale Suche als auch die Kaufvorbereitung für den stationären Einkauf. Lokale Services im App und Smartphone Commerce wie unter anderem Location-based Services, Multi-Channel-Services, situationsadäquate oder auch kontextsensitive Dienste mit Lokalisierungsfunktion sind darauf ausgerichtet. Im Laden ermöglichen neue Technologien wie Near Field Communication und iBeacon sogar eine Weiterführung der lokalen Orientierung in Form des Hyperlocal Advertising und des Proximity-Marketing sowie in konsequentester Ausgestaltung als QR-Scan und AR-App Retail. Auch das Mobile Payment stellt im Grunde eine lokale App- bzw. Smartphone-Funktion dar, die in Deutschland aber noch in den Kinderschuhen steckt, vor allem im stationären Handel. Ob stationär auch immer lokal heißen muss, ist strittig. So werden zunehmend Sinn und Zweck des Local Commerce hinterfragt.

Gerrit Heinemann

Kapitel 2. Neuausrichtung des App und Smartphone Commerce

Der Wechsel von Desktop zu Mobile und die damit einhergehende Verschiebung der Besucherfrequenzen bzw. der Bestellungen in Richtung Smartphone und Tablet verändern das Nutzerverhalten der Kunden grundlegend. Zusätzlich greifen immer mehr Smartphone User auf Apps zurück, die offensichtlich zunehmend als Shopping-Kanal genutzt werden. Mittlerweile gilt die Devise „Online ist Mobile und Mobile ist App“. Was aber eine App bieten muss, um User nachhaltig zu überzeugen und zum Kauf anzuregen, ist für die meisten Anbieter immer noch unklar. Nicht nur die „App Store Optimization“ bestimmt über den Erfolg oder Misserfolg einer App, sondern vor allem auch die App Retention, also die Kundenbindung. Studien weisen nach, dass die Nutzung von Apps die Kundenbindung erhöht, zu einem höheren Umsatz per Kunde führt sowie Kauffrequenzen der Nutzer steigert. Darüber hinaus sind Apps in hohem Maße SEO-relevant und daher geeignet, die Marketingeffizienz zu steigern. Da sich die App- und Smartphone-Technologien in rasantem Tempo weiterentwickeln werden, sollten für die Umsetzung einer erfolgreichen App- und Smartphone-Strategie aktuelle Trends berücksichtigt werden Diese betreffen vor allem das Instant Shopping, Mobile Payment sowie Internet der Dinge.

Gerrit Heinemann
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