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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the post-proceedings of the 5th International ICST Conference on Mobile Networks and Management, MONAMI 2013, held in Cork, Ireland, in September 2013. The 18 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The volume is organized thematically in five parts, covering: TCP, multi-path and coding and content-centric networking; mobile networks; wireless sensor and vehicular networks; wireless communications and traffic; future research directions, including cloud connectivity, orchestration and SDN.



TCP, Multi-path, Coding and Content-Centric Networking

Trade-Off between Cost and Goodput in Wireless: Replacing Transmitters with Coding

We study the cost of improving the goodput, or the useful data rate, to user in a wireless network. We measure the cost in terms of number of base stations, which is highly correlated to the energy cost as well as capital and operational costs of a network provider. We show that increasing the available bandwidth, or throughput, may not necessarily lead to increase in goodput, particularly in lossy wireless networks in which TCP does not perform well. As a result, much of the resources dedicated to the user may not translate to high goodput, resulting in an inefficient use of the network resources. We show that using protocols such as TCP/NC, which are more resilient to erasures and failures in the network, may lead to a goodput commensurate with the throughput dedicated to each user. By increasing goodput, users’ transactions are completed faster; thus, the resources dedicated to these users can be released to serve other requests or transactions. Consequently, we show that translating efficiently throughput to goodput may bring forth better connection to users while reducing the cost for the network providers.
MinJi Kim, Thierry Klein, Emina Soljanin, João Barros, Muriel Médard

Multipath Algorithms and Strategies to Improve TCP Performance over Wireless Mesh Networks

The remarkable growth at the worldwide wireless device sales, together with the cost reduction of the subjacent technologies, has lead to a situation in which most of this type of terminals carry more than one interface to access the network, through potentially different radio access technologies. This fact has fostered the interest of the research community to address new solutions to exploit the possibility of launching multiple simultaneous transmissions through multiple interfaces. In this work we evaluate three different routing algorithms (link, node and zone disjoint) that aim to discover the optimal route configuration of disjoint paths over a wireless mesh network. We use the obtained results to evaluate, by means of simulation, the performance of the MultiPath TCP (MPTCP) protocol, which allows the simultaneous delivery of traffic across multiple paths, showing that the aggregated performance is significatively higher than the one achieved by the traditional single-path and single-flow TCP.
David Gómez, Carlos Rabadán, Pablo Garrido, Ramón Agüero

Adaptation and Evaluation of Widely Used TCP Flavours in CCN

Content Centric Networking (CCN) is a paradigm shift from the way how networks of today work. The focus of networking in CCN is on the content and not on the hosts that are involved in a communication. One of the key cornerstones of today’s communication model is the use of flow and congestion control to pipeline data and take appropriate action when congestion is perceived to exist in a network. TCP of the Internet protocol suite has shown us how application performance is enhanced in different communication situations. An interesting area of research is how TCP-like flow and congestion control can be adapted for CCN. The work presented here adapts the most widely used TCP flavours of NewReno, Compound and Cubic to operate in CCN. Due to the architectural differences that CCN has over IP based networks, this work identifies a number of additional algorithms to cater to the issues associated with these differences. Finally, the performance of these adapted TCP flavours and the algorithms are evaluated in an OPNET based simulator.
Asanga Udugama, Jinglu Cai, Carmelita Göerg

Multipath Transmission in Content Centric Networking Using a Probabilistic Ant-Routing Mechanism

Content Centric Networking (CCN) is a new networking paradigm that names pieces of content rather than network nodes. It promises more efficient transmissions due to in-network caching and easier realization of mobile and multihomed devices. However, in order to leverage multipath transmission for multihomed devices, routing and forwarding mechanisms are needed that support this functionality. In this paper, we present a probabilistic ant-routing mechanism that enables multipath transmissions for CCN nodes. Using an OMNeT++ based simulation model, we show that our routing mechanism can support transmissions of data streams over multiple links to achieve higher throughput than any single link could provide.
Jonas Eymann, Andreas Timm-Giel

Mobile Networks

Learning Based Proactive Handovers in Heterogeneous Networks

Today, the number of versatile real-time mobile applications is vast, each requiring different data rate, Quality of Service (QoS) and connection availability requirements. There have been strong demands for pervasive communication with advances in wireless technologies. Real-time applications experience significant performance bottlenecks in heterogeneous networks. A critical time for a real-time application is when a vertical handover is done between different radio access technologies. It requires a lot of signalling causing unwanted interruptions to real-time applications. This work presents a utilization of learning algorithms to give time for applications to prepare itself for vertical handovers in the heterogeneous network environment. A testbed has been implemented, which collects PHY (Physical layer), application level QoS and users context information from a terminal and combines these Key Performance Indicators (KPI) with network planning information in order to anticipate vertical handovers by taking into account the preparation time required by a specific real-time application.
Seppo Horsmanheimo, Niwas Maskey, Heli Kokkoniemi-Tarkkanen, Lotta Tuomimäki, Pekka Savolainen

Enhancing Path Selection in Multihomed Nodes

Path selection in multihomed nodes can be enhanced by optimization techniques that consider multiple criteria. With NP-Hard problems, MADM techniques have the flexibility of including any number of benefits or costs criteria and are open regarding the functions that can be employed to normalize data or to determine distances. TOPSIS uses the Euclidean distance (straight line) while DiA employs the Manhattan distance (grid-based) to determine the distance of each path to ideal values. MADM techniques have been employed in distinct areas, as well. Such openness and flexibility may lead to sub-optimal path selection, as their optimality is associated with functions that determine distance as a straight line or as grid path, and not inside an ideal range determined by the type of criteria. In this paper we propose the MeTH distance which considers the type of criteria, whether benefits or costs. In addition, we establish a MADM evaluation methodology based on statistical analysis that enables an objective comparison between MADM mechanisms and respective functions for path selection. With the proposed MADM evaluation methodology, we demonstrate that our MeTH distance is more efficient for the path selection problem than Euclidean and Manhattan distances.
Bruno Sousa, Kostas Pentikousis, Marilia Curado

Correlation-Based Cell Degradation Detection for Operational Fault Detection in Cellular Wireless Base-Stations

The management and troubleshooting of faults in mobile radio networks are challenging as the complexity of radio networks is increasing. A proactive approach to system failures is needed to reduce the number of outages and to reduce the duration of outages in the operational network in order to meet operator’s requirements on network availability, robustness, coverage, capacity and service quality. Automation is needed to protect the operational expenses of t he network. Through a good performance of the network element and a low failure probability the network can operate more efficiently reducing the necessity for equipment investments. We present a new method that utilizes the correlation between two cells as a means to detect degradations in cells. Reducing false alarms is also an important objective of fault management systems as false alarms result in distractions that eventually lead to additional cost. Our algorithm is on the one hand capable to identify degraded cells and on the other hand able to reduce the possibility of false alarms.
Muhammad Zeeshan Asghar, Richard Fehlmann, Tapani Ristaniemi

Cloudifying Mobile Network Management: Performance Tests of Event Distribution and Rule Processing

With the ever increasing number of devices, nodes and the events they create, scalability and performance become important aspects for Operation Support Systems (OSS). One solution is to distribute the work load, i.e. ‘cloudify’ the formerly centralized monitoring and decision functions. This requires remodeling Complex Event Processing (monitoring) and Policies (decision making) towards a distributed yet coordinated system. This paper describes an extended architecture, implementation and performance tests for a policy-based event processing system. The main advantage of our approach is that we use policies for event pattern matching (an advanced form of Complex Event Processing) and for the selection of corrective actions (called Distributed Governance). Policies are (a) distributed (over multiple components) and (b) coordinated (using centralized authoring). The resulting system can deal with large numbers of incoming events, as is required in a telecommunication environment. Peak load will be well above 1 million events per second, combining different data sources of a mobile network. This paper presents the motivation for such a system, along with a comprehensive presentation of its design, implementation and evaluation.
Sumit Dawar, Sven van der Meer, John Keeney, Enda Fallon, Tom Bennet

Wireless Sensor and Vehicular Networks

A Distributed Control Plane for the Internet of Things Based on a Distributed Hash Table

As any other communication system, the Internet of Things (IoT) requires a functional control plane. However developing such control plane in a centralized way presents a number of challenges given the multiple stakeholders, the huge number of devices distributed worldwide, their limited connectivity, and specially that most IoT devices are battery-powered and thus must be sleeping most of the time. This paper explores the possibility of employing a distributed control plane for the IoT that leverages the intrinsic scalability and flexibility of peer-to-peer Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs). In particular, it proposes using a so-called “command mailbox” resource to remotely control sleeping sensors and actuators in an asynchronous way, while also solving important issues such as device bootstrapping and security.
Jaime Jiménez Bolonio, Manuel Urueña, Gonzalo Camarillo

Route-Over Forwarding Techniques in a 6LoWPAN

6LoWPAN plays a major role within the protocol stack for the future Internet of Things. Its fragmentation mechanism enables transport of IPv6 datagrams with the required minimum MTU of 1280 bytes over 802.15.4-based wireless sensor networks. With the envisioned goal of a fully standardized WSN protocol stack currently necessitating a route-over approach, i.e. routing at the IP-layer, there are two main choices for any 6LoWPAN implementation with regard to datagram fragmentation: Hop-by-hop assembly or a cross-layered direct mode, which forwards individual 6LoWPAN fragments before the whole datagram has arrived. In addition to these two straightforward approaches, we propose enhancements based on adaptive rate-restriction for the direct forwarding and a retry control for both modes to reduce the number of losses of larger datagrams. Our evaluation of the basic and enhanced forwarding modes within simulations and a hardware testbed indicate that the proposed enhancements can considerably improve packet reception rate and latency within 6LoWPAN networks.
Andreas Weigel, Martin Ringwelski, Volker Turau, Andreas Timm-Giel

An Adaptive Algorithm to Optimize the Dynamics of IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

IEEE 802.15.4 standard is becoming one of the most popular technologies for the deployment of low rate Wireless Personal Area Networks with strong power constraints. In order to reduce the energy consumption, beacon-enabled networks with long network inactive periods can be employed. However, the duration of these inactivity periods, as some other configuration parameters, are conventionally set to default values and remain fixed during the whole network operation. This implies that if they are misconfigured the network will not adapt to changes in the conditions of the environment, particularly to the most determining one, i.e. the traffic load. This paper proposes a simple procedure for the dynamic adaptation of several key parameters of IEEE 802.15.4 networks. Under this procedure, the 802.15.4 parameters are modified as a function of the existing traffic conditions.
Javier Hurtado-López, Eduardo Casilari

A Novel Machine-to-Machine Traffic Multiplexing in LTE-A System Using Wireless In-Band Relaying

In Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-A) several new features have been added to deal with the ever-increasing demands for higher data rates and spectral efficiency. One of the key features that the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) has introduced is the Relay Node (RN), a low power low cost device used to increase the spectral efficiency, especially at the cell edge. In this paper, we propose to use RNs to address a challenging new problem emerging on the horizon: the expected tsunami of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) traffic in cellular and mobile networks (in LTE, and LTE-A). By taking advantage of RN’s low cost, low power, and small size we outline the challenges of and one possible design for using RNs to integrate M2M traffic in LTE-A. To the best of our knowledge, this is a novel idea that has not yet been proposed and may give RNs more longevity and therefore greater value.
Safdar Nawaz Khan Marwat, Yasir Zaki, Jay Chen, Andreas Timm-Giel, Carmelita Göerg

Service and Communication Management in Cooperative Vehicular Networks

With the increasing demand for traffic safety and efficiency and constant search for innovative solutions within the automotive market coupled with supporting initiatives from regulatory domains, the potential of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is immense. Basic vehicle and roadside infrastructure collaboration allows an increase in efficiency and safety and acts as the foundation for an extensive application set to achieve the ITS goals of cleaner, safer and more efficient travel. There are some important considerations however. Taking into account the wide array of communication technologies and plethora of proposed applications, this paper aims to address one of the major and largely unexplored challenges facing the ITS research community in relation to service and communication management (SCM), whereby the underlying communications capability is sufficiently exploited to assure satisfactory operation of deployed ITS applications. A complete SCM solution is proposed under an “Always Satisfactorily Connected” (ASC) objective; two probing techniques are examined to assess the performance of the candidate communication networks and simple policy and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) based selection policies are considered. In addition, a standard indicative measure to analyse the effectiveness of the SCM scheme is introduced. The performance of the proposed SCM schemes is evaluated using CALMNet, a comprehensive network-centric simulation environment for CALM-based cooperative vehicular systems. Results highlight the effect of different techniques on system performance and user satisfaction.
Olivia Brickley, Dirk Pesch

Wireless Communications and Traffic

Investigation of Different Approaches for QoE-Oriented Scheduling in OFDMA Networks

QoE- and application-aware scheduling is a new paradigm for mobile communication networks. It aims at making better use of network resources with respect to the perceived quality of the users. To achieve this, it specifies an interaction between application and networking layers. Previous work has shown that such a resource management is possible by the weighting of applications and the definition of key quality indicators. However, quantification of the benefits and the impact on the application itself is hardly studied, since it requires precise modeling of both the data transmission in the mobile network as well as the application itself. In this paper the influence of different cross-layer scheduling heuristics on the application is examined for the air interface of LTE mobile networks. For this, not only the physical data transmission but also the application behavior is simulated in detail for Skype, YouTube, web browsing, and downloads. For each application quality indicators are defined that provide information on the current performance of the application. The investigated scheduling approaches take into account detailed application information of different levels like the application type, the current status of the application, or the ability of an application to adapt to the network situation.
Florian Wamser, Sebastian Deschner, Thomas Zinner, Phuoc Tran-Gia

Model-Free Adaptive Rate Selection in Cognitive Radio Links

In this work we address the rate adaptation problem of a cognitive radio (CR) link in time-variant fading channels. Every time the primary users (PU) liberate the channel, the secondary user (SU) selects a transmission rate (from a finite number of available rates) and begins the transmission of fixed sized packets until a licensed user reclaims the channel back. After each transmission episode the number of successfully transmitted packets is used by the SU to update its optimal rate selection ahead of the next episode. The problem is formulated as an n-armed bandit problem and it is solved by means of a Monte Carlo control algorithm.
Álvaro Gonzalo-Ayuso, Jesús Pérez

Enhancing Quality of Experience (QoE) Assessment Models for Web Traffic

Web applications are becoming the key services in today’s networks (both fixed networks and mobile networks). Consideration of web service quality has become essential to provide the end users with satisfying Quality of Experience (QoE). In order to evaluate and manage the web quality, methods for QoE assessment are desired to estimate the service quality perceived by the end users. In this paper, we study a number of existing objective quality assessment models for assessing the QoE of web applications, and compare their performance with simulations to find out their individual advantages and limitations to use in practice. Simulation results show that the proposed QoE model can be applied for evaluating the quality of different web sources in the Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks, considering the lossy property of mobile networks. A fitting model is presented to describe the correlation between network Quality of Service and User QoE obtained in subjective lab test. To overcome the shortcomings of the existing models, this paper also proposes an enhanced QoE model which considers the effects of parameters such as page download size and content, browser cache setting as well as the packet losses and connection throughput in quality assessment e.g., page response time. To study other user related aspects in the evaluation of QoE, subjective tests in real systems and environments are planned as the next step.
Amanpreet Singh, Ahmed Mahmoud, Andreas Koensgen, Xi Li, Carmelita Göerg, Mehmet Kus, Muhsin Kayralci, Jasmin Grigutsch

Network Planning for Stochastic Traffic Demands

Traffic in communication networks is not constant but fluctuates heavily, which makes the network planning task very challenging. Overestimating the traffic volume results in an expensive solution, while underestimating it leads to a poor Quality of Service (QoS) in the network.
In this paper, we propose a new approach to address the network planning problem under stochastic traffic demands. We first formulate the problem as a chance-constrained programming problem, in which the capacity constraints need to be satisfied in probabilistic sense. Since we do not assume a normal distribution for the traffic demands, the problem does not have deterministic equivalent and hence cannot be solved by the well-known techniques. A heuristic approach based on genetic algorithm is therefore proposed. The experiment results show that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the network costs compared to the peak-load-based approach, while still maintaining the robustness of the solution. This approach can be applied to different network types with different QoS requirements.
Phuong Nga Tran, Bharata Dwi Cahyanto, Andreas Timm-Giel

Future Research Directions

Software Enabled Future Internet – Challenges in Orchestrating the Future Internet

This position paper presents SoftINTERNET an initiative for a service-aware and management-aware network control infrastructure for heterogeneous networks (i.e., wired and wireless) that uses software driven features for the elaboration, development, and validation of networking concepts. The proposed infrastructure aims to optimally integrate the connectivity and management layers. It operates across multiple network environments and on top of private and public network clouds utilising fixed and mobile virtual resources, OpenFlow enabled network devices like switches and routers, and networks of Smart Objects. In this position paper, we discuss the motivation, architecture and research challenges for such a promising concept.
Alex Galis, Javier Rubio-Loyola, Stuart Clayman, Lefteris Mamatas, Sławomir Kukliński, Joan Serrat, Theodore Zahariadis

Enabling Cloud Connectivity Using SDN and NFV Technologies

Cloud environments play an important role for network and service providers. Cloud network providers require ubiquitous, broadband and minimum-delay connectivity from network providers. There are different realizations of cloud connectivity based on the Software Defined Networking (SDN) and the Network Function Virtualization (NFV) paradigm. In this paper we introduce a new concept based on the OConS architecture developed within the SAIL FP7 project. Our advanced connectivity concept focuses on interdomain connectivity.
Fariborz Derakhshan, Heidrun Grob-Lipski, Horst Roessler, Peter Schefczik, Michael Soellner

Information Model for Managing Autonomic Functions in Future Networks

Future Internet (FI), a dynamic and complex environment, imposes management requirements, complexity and volume of data which can hardly be handled by traditional management schemes. Autonomic network and service management can be a powerful vision; a promising solution paving the way towards fully autonomic systems provides a three-level management approach and develops Information Modelling extensions for semantic continuity. This paper aims at proposing an Information Model for abstracting autonomic mechanisms for network management tasks and convincing on the relevance of using/extending standardized information models for system specification.
Makis Stamatelatos, Imen Grida Ben Yahia, Pierre Peloso, Beatriz Fuentes, Kostas Tsagkaris, Alex Kaloxylos

DICE: A Novel Platform to Support Massively Distributed Clouds

Massively distributed clouds (MDC) have a huge potential in serving novel applications and services in many situations. Mainly, they are able to provide communication without the use of an infrastructure and to guarantee full data and user anonymity. However, their implementation is not trivial and requires innovation in many different fields, such as opportunistic communications, big data management and security. In this paper, we present our first design of a MDC supporting architecture, called DICE: Distributed Infrastructureless Cloud sErvices. We present our main application scenario and focus on implementation challenges and early results.
Anna Förster, Koojana Kuladinithi, Andreas Timm-Giel, Carmelita Görg, Silvia Giordano


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