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Über dieses Buch

Developing usable, useful, and appealing solutions for the customer or user experience requires customization according to specific users' needs amidst frequently changing physical and social environments. Complex design problems like these require interdisciplinary perspectives that cover software functionality, human interaction and communication experiences, and perceived value.

After defining and summarizing current research and development, this book focuses on Mobile TV experience in everyday life, innovative conceptual and participatory design methods, contextual analysis methods, social context for interactive multimedia systems, advanced interaction with mobile digital content, and future trends for the wide range of products and services that will be offered in the decade to come.

The Editors have carefully balanced the theoretical and empirical approaches providing a valuable insight into principles and methods, as well as actionable guidelines and recommendations for all those interested in exploring how to achieve the core objectives of usability, usefulness, and social appeal of this new mobile-video technology. The book answers many questions, and raises some new ones that only future technology development and deployment in mobile human-computer interaction and communication can answer.



What It All Means: Six Perspectives on Mobile TV


Mobile TV: Customizing Content and Experience

This book showcases new mobile TV systems that require customization according to specific users’ needs in changing physical environments. These projects and studies, carried out in academia and in industry, promote the awareness of interdisciplinary methods and tools for designing novel solutions. Their objective is to enhance the value of the information they convey while improving the users’ enjoyment of it on the move.
Aaron Marcus, Anxo Cereijo-Roibas, Riccardo Sala

Mobile TV’s Time to Shine Has Arrived

MoFilm, the first mobile film festival, achieved some legitimacy when multiple Academy Award-winning actor Kevin Spacey hosted the show in 2009. Spacey commented: “[I]n some countries, this might be the first time they [people] ever see a movie. … They won’t see it on that big screen; they’ll see it on a small one.”1 According to a 2007 Gartner report, sales of cell phones skyrocketed for the first time to more than 1 billion.2 In 2008, the number of worldwide subscribers topped 4 billion, covering 60% of the world population.3 There are more mobile phones than TVs (there are 1.4 billion TVs worldwide4). Spacey concluded: “The quality of work and the simple ability at storytelling, the thing that ignites someone and inspires them to tell a story, can really come from anywhere.”5
Fred Kitson

Saddlebags, Paperbacks and Mobile Media

Information is shaped by its format. The printing press with its repeatable layout laid ground for footnotes and references from other sources, and thus can be seen as the technology that initially generated the concept of hyperlinks. In the fifteenth century, printed matter quickly developed other formats like the paperback book or the flyer. These formats changed the content in almost every aspect significantly: books that fit in a saddlebag are mobile media and thus not as precious as the gigantic and prestigious folio placed on a lectern stand in a monastery. So books became a widespread, “ordinary” mobile medium and developed a multitude of purposes, aimed at different audiences, and generated a wide range of ideas for adequate content. The flyer in its limited size and public nature generated other forms of organizing and designing content: in order to fit the format and draw attention it uses a condensed form of messaging and an exaggerated typography.
Carola Zwick

The Path Tells a Story

Stories have been shared in every culture because they are a powerful means to entertain, educate, and preserve traditions or instill values. In the history of storytelling technological evolution has changed the tools available to storytellers, from primarily oral representations that have been enriched with gestures and expressions to the sophisticated forms we enjoy today, such as film or complex layered hypermedia environments. Despite these developments the traditional linear presentation of a story is still the most dominant. Yet, the first decade of the twenty-first century established a technology that finally, after many attempts, can challenge the dogma of passive linearity. It is mobile technology that makes people aware that a digital environment opens opportunities to everybody to freely socialize through and with stories relevant for the current spatial, temporal, and social context.
Frank Nack

Introduction to Social TV

Mobile TV typically involves accessing television content from handheld devices. The most ubiquitous of these devices, mobile phones, are primarily designed for communication. It is therefore natural to look at how those communication features can be integrated with television viewing. Issues of sociability are also relevant to Mobile TV in other ways, such as in analyzing how watching video in public spaces affects and is affected by the social context, and in the case of communication by video messages and video conferencing.
Gunnar Harboe

The Sociability of Mobile TV

Both mobile phones and television are known for the social practices they enable. Television has been a social medium since its introduction in households all over the world. Although its main aim is entertaining and informing its viewers, people often watch television together with close relatives or good friends, talk about what is going on while watching television or even structure their social activities around a television show (e.g., eating dinner while watching the news) (Lull 1980). But television programs are also part of social interactions away from the television set, when discussing favorite television programs around the water cooler at work, or recommending shows to watch to good friends. The main function of mobile phones on the other hand has always been social from the start: communicating with other people, when and wherever you want, first using voice communication and later also with text messages and video communication. So what happens when these two social media are combined? It is clear that mobile TV cannot be successful without taking social practices when watching TV on a mobile device into account. Although one approach could be to let the users appropriate the device in their social environment, as happened with text messaging, the risk that it does not match their current practices is too big. A better approach is to design mobile TV applications that take direct advantage of the social aspects of each medium, which means adding interactive features that will enable and support social interaction between users on different levels. In order to get an idea of the possibilities, it is interesting to look at recent research in the closely related domain of interactive television.
David Geerts

Interactive TV Narrativity

Looking back over the past 25 years, the impressive developments in information and communication technologies generated a booming popularity of the new forms of media consumption that allow for interactivity and mobility, such as Web information and entertainment and games. This was and still is particularly evident within the younger generation, who are the most avid adopters of both new technologies and new forms of media consumption (Schadler 2006; KPMG 2007). When asked, in 2006, which device they could not live without, 37% mentioned their PC, 26% their mobile phone, whereas only 17% mentioned their TVs (Schadler 2006); and all these were before the launch of products such as the iPhone, which offer increasing flexibility and mobility of the media experiences.
Marian F. Ursu

User Experience and Design of Mobile TV in Everyday Life


Culture, Interface Design, and Design Methods for Mobile Devices

Aesthetic differences and similarities among cultures are obviously one of the very important issues in cultural design. However, ever since products became knowledge-supporting tools, the visible elements of products have become more universal so that the invisible parts of products such as interface and interaction are getting more important. Therefore, the cultural design should be extended to the invisible elements of culture like people’s conceptual models beyond material and phenomenal culture. This chapter aims to explain how we address the invisible cultural elements in interface design and design methods by exploring the users’ cognitive styles and communication patterns in different cultures. Regarding cultural interface design, we examined users’ conceptual models while interacting with mobile phone and website interfaces, and observed cultural difference in performing tasks and viewing patterns, which appeared to agree with cultural cognitive styles known as Holistic thoughts vs. Analytic thoughts. Regarding design methods for culture, we explored how to localize design methods such as focus group interview and generative session for specific cultural groups, and the results of comparative experiments revealed cultural difference on participants’ behaviors and performance in each design method and led us to suggest how to conduct them in East Asian culture. Mobile Observation Analyzer and Wi-Pro, user research tools we invented to capture user behaviors and needs especially in their mobile context, were also introduced.
Kun-pyo Lee

Mobile Video in Everyday Social Interactions

Video recording has become a spontaneous everyday activity for many people, thanks to the video capabilities of modern mobile phones. Internet connectivity of mobile phones enables fluent sharing of captured material even real-time, which makes video an up-and-coming everyday interaction medium. In this article we discuss the effect of the video camera in the social environment, everyday life situations, mainly based on a study where four groups of people used digital video cameras in their normal settings. We also reflect on another study of ours, relating to real-time mobile video communication and discuss future views. The aim of our research is to understand the possibilities in the domain of mobile video. Live and delayed sharing seem to have their special characteristics, live video being used as a virtual window between places whereas delayed video usage has more scope for good-quality content. While this novel way of interacting via mobile video enables new social patterns, it also raises new concerns for privacy and trust between participating persons in all roles, largely due to the widely spreading possibilities of videos. Video in a social situation affects cameramen (who record), targets (who are recorded), passers-by (who are unintentionally in the situation), and the audience (who follow the videos or recording situations) but also the other way around, the participants affect the video by their varying and evolving personal and communicational motivations for recording.
Erika Reponen, Jaakko Lehikoinen, Jussi Impiö

Does Mobile Television Enhance a New Television Experience?

Television has become a common – and often a dominant – practice in the everyday life of people. A transition to a mobile environment seems natural – as industries like to believe. But is this really so? To what extent will mobile television have the same position as well as the same practices as the traditional television set? Our research has identified that the affordances of mobile television are quite different. In this chapter we will first identify those affordances and then we will investigate whether these also lead to a new practice of watching television.
Bram Lievens, Eva Vanhengel, Jo Pierson, An Jacobs

Innovation Through Conceptual and Participatory Design for Mobile Multimedia Systems


An Ambient Intelligence Framework for the Provision of Geographically Distributed Multimedia Content to Mobility Impaired Users

This chapter presents an ambient intelligence framework whose goal is to facilitate the information needs of mobility impaired users on the move. This framework couples users with geographically distributed services and the corresponding multimedia content, enabling access to context-sensitive information based on user geographic location and the use case under consideration. It provides a multi-modal facility that is realized through a set of mobile devices and user interfaces that address the needs of ten different types of user impairments. The overall ambient intelligence framework enables users who are equipped with mobile devices to access multimedia content in order to undertake activities relevant to one or more of the following domains: transportation, tourism and leisure, personal support services, work, business, education, social relations and community building. User experience is being explored against those activities through a specific usage scenario.
Dionysios D Kehagias, Dimitris Giakoumis, Dimitrios Tzovaras, Evangelos Bekiaris, Marion Wiethoff

Creativity in Interactive TV: Personalize, Share, and Invent Interfaces

This chapter tries to induce changes in the way we think about interfaces and currently interact with television today. Either in the comfort of our home, in public shared spaces, or on the go via personal mobile devices, interaction should be intuitive, simple, and undemanding. This chapter is a quest for creativity and invention, it is about bringing new ideas into current interaction paradigms as well as shifting the way we see TV interfaces today. Technology has been available for quite a while now providing mechanisms that allow us to play, record, store, archive, and stream TV-related information, but the way we interface such complex systems and mechanisms is still bound to dozens of buttons on one or more remote controls. When groups of people need to interact simultaneously with today’s TV set, the interface barrier immediately appears with all its inherent frustrations: lack of control at the desired time and no immediate availability of the interface; single-viewer and single-task interfacing; and limited or burdensome options for viewing, archiving, and sharing. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to encourage creativity in TV interface design with focus on today’s available and affordable technologies such as video cameras and computer vision, computer graphics, and projection equipment all under the same principle: keep the interaction as simple and intuitive as possible and add just a bit of fun to it to make it really captivating.
Radu-Daniel Vatavu

Understanding the Context: Data Gathering, Requirements and Evaluation Methodologies


Content for Mobile Television: Issues Regarding a New Mass Medium Within Today’s ICT Environment

The industries of mobile and television technologies are heading toward convergence in the shape of mobile television. Content is assumed to be a main key factor for the success of this ICT innovation as a possible new mass medium. As most trials to date tend to be sponsored by strategic stakeholders and have a technology-driven approach, we aimed for a more user-centric research methodology within MADUF, Flanders’ mobile TV trial. To this end, a meta-analysis on mobile TV user studies was carried out, a panel of 35 experts was surveyed and a user study with 405 respondents was conducted. Within this chapter, we present a SWOT-analysis for possible content on mobile TV, based on all previous research results.
Dimitri Schuurman, Lieven De Marez, Tom Evens

Different Attitudes Concerning the Usage of Live Mobile TV and Mobile Video

The usage of live mobile TV and mobile video devices is increasing in Japan as well as in other countries. We conducted a user study in the summer of 2007, in the Tokyo area of Japan, with 11 participants, in order to understand through qualitative interviews when, how, and why people were using such devices. In this chapter, we present several findings from this user study, which reveals the different attitudes concerning the usage of live mobile TV compared with that of mobile video. These findings consider the following points. (1) Usage on commuter buses or trains, (2) usage at home, (3) usage related to experience sharing, and (4) interest of live mobile TV users in mobile video, and interest of mobile video users in live mobile TV. This chapter also proposes some ideas to improve user experience with mobile TV and video, and compares the results of our user study with those conducted in Finland, Korea, the USA, and the UK.
Koji Miyauchi, Taro Sugahara, Hiromi Oda

User Experience Evaluation in the Mobile Context

Multimedia services on mobile devices are becoming increasingly popular. Whereas the mobile phone is the most likely platform for mobile TV, PDAs, portable game consoles, and music players are attractive alternatives. Mobile TV consumption on mobile phones allows new kinds of user experiences, but it also puts designers and researchers in front of new challenges. On the one hand, designers have to take these novel experience potentials into account. On the other hand, the right methods to collect user feedback to further improve services for the mobile context have to be applied. In this chapter the importance of user experience research for mobile TV within the mobile context is highlighted. We present how different experience levels can be evaluated taking different mobile context categories into account. In particular, we discuss the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), which seems to be a fruitful approach for investigating user TV experiences.
Marianna Obrist, Alexander Meschtscherjakov, Manfred Tscheligi

Context and Sociability in Mobile Interactive Multimedia Systems


Social Properties of Mobile Video

Mobile video is now an everyday possibility with a wide array of commercially available devices, services, and content. These new technologies have created dramatic shifts in the way video-based media can be produced, consumed, and delivered by people beyond the familiar behaviors associated with fixed TV and video technologies. Such technology revolutions change the way users behave and change their expectations in regards to their mobile video experiences. Building upon earlier studies of mobile video, this paper reports on a study using diary techniques and ethnographic interviews to better understand how people are using commercially available mobile video technologies in their everyday lives. Drawing on reported episodes of mobile video behavior, the study identifies the social motivations and values underpinning these behaviors that help characterize mobile video consumption beyond the simplistic notion of viewing video only to kill time. This paper also discusses the significance of user-generated content and the usage of video in social communities through the description of two mobile video technology services that allow users to create and share content. Implications for adoption and design of mobile video technologies and services are discussed as well.
April Slayden Mitchell, Kenton O’Hara, Alex Vorbau

m-YouTube Mobile UI: Video Selection Based on Social Influence

The ease-of-use of Web-based video-publishing services provided by applications like YouTube has encouraged a new means of asynchronous communication, in which users can post videos not only to make them public for review and criticism, but also as a way to express moods, feelings, or intentions to an ever-growing network of friends. Following the current trend of porting Web applications onto mobile platforms, the authors sought to explore user-interface design issues of a mobile-device-based YouTube, which they call m-YouTube. They first analyzed the elements of success of the current YouTube Web site and observed its functionality. Then, they looked for unsolved issues that could give benefit through information-visualization design for small screens on mobile phones to explore a mobile version of such a product/service. The biggest challenge was to reduce the number of functions and amount information to fit into a mobile phone screen, but still be usable, useful, and appealing within the YouTube context of use and user experience. Borrowing ideas from social research in the area of social influence processes, they made design decisions aiming to help YouTube users to make the decision of what video content to watch and to increase the chances of YouTube authors being evaluated and observed by peers. The paper proposes a means to visualize large amounts of video relevant to YouTube users by using their friendship network as a relevance indicator to help in the decision-making process.
Aaron Marcus, Angel Perez

Scenarios of Use for Sociable Mobile TV

Mobile TVs have been available for many years, without ever becoming very popular. Moreover, the first wave of research has been mostly concerned with technology and standards, which are necessary to ensure interoperability and market acceptance. Although, there has been a significant body of computer-supported co-operative work (CSCW) and mobile human–computer interaction (HCI) research findings, there is limited investigation in the context of leisure activities, such as TV. In this article, we propose three concepts that drive the main paths for research and practice in mobile and social TV: (1) Mobile TV as a content format, (2) Mobile TV as user behavior, and (3) Mobile TV as interaction terminal. Finally, we provide particular directions to be considered in further research in social and mobile TV.
Konstantinos Chorianopoulos

“What Are You Viewing?” Exploring the Pervasive Social TV Experience

The vision of pervasive TV foresees users engaging with interactive video services across a variety of contexts and user interfaces. Following this idea, this chapter extends traditional Social TV toward the notion of pervasive Social TV (PSTV) by including mobile viewing scenarios. We discuss social interaction enablers that integrate TV content consumption and communication in the context of two case studies that evaluate Social TV on mobile smartphones as well as the traditional set-top-box-based setup. We report on the impact of social features such as text-chat, audio-chat, and synchronized channel-choice on the end-user’s media experience. By analyzing the commonalities and the differences between mobile and living-room Social TV that we found, we provide guidance on the design of pervasive Social TV systems as well as on future research issues.
Raimund Schatz, Lynne Baillie, Peter Fröhlich, Sebastian Egger, Thomas Grechenig

Advanced Interaction Modalities with Mobile Digital Content


m-LoCoS UI: A Universal Visible Language for Global Mobile Communication

The LoCoS universal visible language developed by the graphic/sign designer Yukio Ota in Japan in 1964 may serve as a usable, useful, and appealing basis for a mobile phone application that can provide capabilities for communication and storytelling among people who do not share a spoken language. User-interface design issues including display and input are discussed in conjunction with prototype screens showing the use of LoCoS for a mobile phone.
Aaron Marcus

The Future of Mobile TV: When Mobile TV Meets the Internet and Social Networking

First-generation mobile TV has involved delivering content to cell phones. But as mobile TV evolves, it will find greater significance as part of a multifaceted video offering that combines multiple screens, devices, networks, and content types. Content, or a particular viewing session, moves with the user, across devices and across networks. Furthermore, in addition to providing an alternate screen, a mobile device may provide complementary functions like programming TiVo remotely, streaming video from the cell phone to the TV set, or creating video content for distribution on the Web and uploading it directly over wireless networks. In the new TV ecosystem, all end-user devices collaborate across the whole video value chain, from content creation to distribution to consumption. Finally, as mobile devices become integral components of the new video ecosystem, their personal nature will drive the development of social TV, defined as a new way of delivering TV based on users sharing all aspects of the experience within the context of social networks. This chapter presents our view of mobile social TV: a shared TV experience that uses the power of the Internet and social networks to “move” from screen to screen and network to network to unite family and friends.
Marie-José Montpetit, Natalie Klym, Emmanuel Blain

From One to Many Boxes: Mobile Devices as Primary and Secondary Screens

This chapter looks at the current changing habits on audiovisual content consumption at home, with special focus on potential uses of mobile devices. Standard television plus a remote control impose a use that is too coarse to support the various personal needs of people, while mobile devices open new possibilities from engagement and immersion into content and deliberately controlled disengagement with others to providing a screen that can be offered to include others in sharing experiences in a huddled setting.
Pablo Cesar, Hendrik Knoche, Dick C. A. Bulterman

Watch-and-Comment as an Approach to Collaboratively Annotate Points of Interest in Video and Interactive-TV Programs

In earlier work we proposed the Watch-and-Comment (WaC) paradigm as the seamless capture of multimodal comments made by one or more users while watching a video, resulting in the automatic generation of multimedia documents specifying annotated interactive videos. The aim is to allow services to be offered by applying document engineering techniques to the multimedia document generated automatically. The WaC paradigm was demonstrated with a WaCTool prototype application which supports multimodal annotation over video frames and segments, producing a corresponding interactive video. In this chapter, we extend the WaC paradigm to consider contexts in which several viewers may use their own mobile devices while watching and commenting on an interactive-TV program. We first review our previous work. Next, we discuss scenarios in which mobile users can collaborate via the WaC paradigm. We then present a new prototype application which allows users to employ their mobile devices to collaboratively annotate points of interest in video and interactive-TV programs. We also detail the current software infrastructure which supports our new prototype; the infrastructure extends the Ginga middleware for the Brazilian Digital TV with an implementation of the UPnP protocol – the aim is to provide the seamless integration of the users’ mobile devices into the TV environment. As a result, the work reported in this chapter defines the WaC paradigm for the mobile-user as an approach to allow the collaborative annotation of the points of interest in video and interactive-TV programs.
Maria da Graça C. Pimentel, Renan G. Cattelan, Erick L. Melo, Giliard B. Freitas, Cesar A. Teixeira

Conclusion (The Mobile Future)

There are a couple of fundamental beliefs that I hold about the future of technology and media. First, I believe that, absolutely, most, if not all, media will be delivered, at least intermittently in its lifecycle, over an IP network. It is an efficient carrier, it is scalable, and it can be organically evolved. Whether this is IPV6 or some other technology is inconsequential, it will just work.
Secondly, I believe that, despite certain commercial business efforts and the occasional spell in the middle of the film where the villain appears to be winning, the audience ALWAYS gets what they want. History is littered with the corpses of those who attempted to thwart consumer desire through legislation, technology, or social manipulation. In the long-run, these never work. The Audience always get what they want at the end.
Aaron Marcus, Riccardo Sala, Anxo Cereijo Roibás


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