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This books is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.

This book summarizes work being undertaken within the collaborative MODAClouds research project, which aims to facilitate interoperability between heterogeneous Cloud platforms and remove the constraints of deployment, portability, and reversibility for end users of Cloud services. Experts involved in the project provide a clear overview of the MODAClouds approach and explain how it operates in a variety of applications.

While the wide spectrum of available Clouds constitutes a vibrant technical environment, many early-stage issues pose specific challenges from a software engineering perspective. MODAClouds will provide methods, a decision support system, and an open source IDE and run-time environment for the high-level design, early prototyping, semiautomatic code generation, and automatic deployment of applications on multiple Clouds. It will free developers from the need to commit to a fixed Cloud technology stack during software design and offer benefits in terms of cost savings, portability of applications and data between Clouds, reversibility (moving applications and data from Cloud to non-Cloud environments), risk management, quality assurance, and flexibility in the development process.

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Open Access

Chapter 1. Introduction

Cloud computing is a major trend in the ICT industry. The wide spectrum of available Clouds, such as those offered by Microsoft, Google, Amazon, HP, AT&T, and IBM, just to mention big players, provides a vibrant technical environment, where even small and medium enterprises (SMEs) use cheap and flexible services creating innovative solutions and evolving their existing service offer.
Elisabetta Di Nitto, Dana Petcu

Open Access

Chapter 2. Cloud Service Offer Selection

In the application economy, digital business initiatives are at the forefront of the growth strategy of many companies. Cloud based solutions offer a significant competitive advantage for both large companies and SMEs, leading to a rapid increase in the number of Cloud Service Providers (CSP). An important CSP driver is the improvement of consumers’ experience through digital platforms that allow users to access data and services from any location and through multiple channels with assured performance and availability.
Smrati Gupta, Peter Matthews, Victor Muntés-Mulero, Jacek Dominiak

Open Access

Chapter 3. The MODAClouds Model-Driven Development

The Cloud computing market encompasses an ever-growing number of providers offering a multitude of infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) and platform-as-a-service (PaaS) solutions. In order to exploit the peculiarities of each Cloud solution as well as to optimize performances, availability, and cost, an emergent need is to run and manage multi-Cloud applications [1] (i.e., applications that can execute on multiple Cloud infrastructures and platforms).
Nicolas Ferry, Marcos Almeida, Arnor Solberg

Open Access

Chapter 4. QoS Assessment and SLA Management

Verifying that a software system shows certain non-functional properties is a primary concern for Cloud applications (In this chapter non-functional properties, QoS and non-functional requirements will be used interchangeably.). Given the heterogeneous technology offer and the related pricing models currently available in the Cloud market it is extremely complex to find the deployment that fits the application requirements, and provides the best Quality of Service (QoS) and cost trade-offs.
Danilo Ardagna, Michele Ciavotta, Giovanni Paolo Gibilisco, Riccardo Benito Desantis, Giuliano Casale, Juan F Pérez, Francesco D’Andria, Román Sosa González

Open Access

Chapter 5. Monitoring in a Multi-cloud Environment

The Cloud brings velocity to the development and release process of applications, however software systems become complex, distributed on multiple clouds, dynamic and heterogeneous, leveraging both PaaS and IaaS resources. In this context, gathering feedback on the health and usage of services becomes really hard with traditional monitoring tools, since they were built for on-premise solutions offering uniform monitoring APIs and under the assumption that the application configuration evolves slowly over time.
Marco Miglierina, Elisabetta Di Nitto

Open Access

Chapter 6. Load Balancing for Multi-cloud

Load balancing is an integral part of software systems that require to serve requests with multiple concurrent computing resources such as servers, clusters, network links, central processing units or disk drives.
Gabriel Iuhasz, Pooyan Jamshidi, Weikun Wang, Giuliano Casale

Open Access

Chapter 7. Fault-Tolerant Off-line Data Migration: The Hegira4Clouds Approach

Cloud offers the potential to support high scalability of applications. An increase in the application workload is typically handled by triggering the replication of its components so as to increase the application computational capability offered to users.
Elisabetta Di Nitto, Marco Scavuzzo

Open Access

Chapter 8. Deployment of Cloud Supporting Services

The main emphasis in this chapter is on the various supporting services needed to run the application. In the MODAClouds context, all services and resources involved in running and managing an application on a given Cloud provider comprise the runtime environment.
Gabriel Iuhasz, Silviu Panica, Ciprian Crăciun, Dana Petcu

Open Access

Chapter 9. Models@Runtime for Continuous Design and Deployment

Nowadays, software systems are leveraging upon an aggregation of dedicated infrastructures and platforms, which leads to the design of large scale, distributed, and dynamic systems. The need to evolve and update such systems after delivery is often inevitable, for example, due to changes in the requirements, maintenance, or needs for advancing the quality of services such as scalability and performances.
Nicolas Ferry, Arnor Solberg

Open Access

Chapter 10. Closing the Loop Between Ops and Dev

DevOps [1] is a recent trend in software engineering that bridges the gap between software development and operations, putting the developer in greater control of the operational environment in which the application runs. To support Quality-of-Service (QoS) analysis, the developer may rely on software performance models. However, to provide reliable estimates, the input parameters must be continuously updated and accurately estimated. Accurate estimation is challenging because some parameters are not explicitly tracked by log files requiring deep monitoring instrumentation that poses large overheads, unacceptable in production environments.
Weikun Wang, Giuliano Casale, Gabriel Iuhasz

Open Access

Chapter 11. Cloud Patterns

A large number of design and architecture patterns have been identified during the last years, as the Cloud technologies were finding their path to maturity. In [1] Fehling et al., a basic pattern-oriented view on Cloud computing was exposed, together with relevant patterns, which is also applicable in the case of multi-Cloud applications.
Teodor-Florin Fortiş, Nicolas Ferry

Open Access

Chapter 12. Modelio Project Management Server Constellation

SOFTEAM is a French middle-sized company that provides the Modelio modelling tool. Modelio is an enterprise-level open source modelling solution delivering functionality for business, software and infrastructure architects.
Antonin Abhervé, Marcos Almeida

Open Access

Chapter 13. BPM in the Cloud: The BOC Case

To move an existing application to a Cloud-based operating model is a challenging task. This chapter presents a real life case in this domain. It is based on a case study from BOC which uses MODAClouds technology to enact four major use cases for the Cloud deployment of the BPM tool ADONIS. The first use case describes the provider selection in a multi-Cloud environment based on the decision support system Venues 4Clouds.
Alexander Gunka, Harald Kuehn, Stepan Seycek

Open Access

Chapter 14. Healthcare Application

This chapter presents a real life case based on a case study from Atos which uses the MODAClouds framework to manage the design, deployment and governance of a telemedicine solution in a hybrid multi-Cloud environment.
Francesco D’andria, Roi Sucasas Font

Open Access

Chapter 15. Operation Control Interfaces

An interesting commercial use-case for Flexiant of the MODAClouds solution is based upon adding extra functionality to Flexiant Cloud Orchestrator (FCO) [1] Triggers [2]. Triggers are functions that allow an action in FCO to initiate a second action, which can either be internal or even external to Flexiant Cloud Orchestrator.
Craig Sheridan, Darren Whigham

Open Access

Chapter 16. Conclusion and Future Research

The MODAClouds approach offers a set of innovative techniques for development and runtime operation management of multicloud applications. In particular it delivers an open source integrated development environment for the high-level design, cloud service selection, early prototyping, QoS assessments, semi-automatic code generation, and automatic deployment of multicloud applications, as presented in Part I Dev. Secondly it delivers a run-time environment for monitoring, dynamic adaptation, and data migration to optimize multicloud application execution with respect to quality of service concerns, as presented in Part II Ops. Thirdly it delivers DevOps enabling features supporting continuous design, deployment and QoS analysis for performance optimization, as presented in Part III DevOps. Finally to demonstrate the technology the book discusses a set of applications from various domains ranging from more classical information systems with the model management and business process modelling applications to the Internet of Things and Cyber Physical Systems domains with e-health and smart city applications. Part IV Applications discusses the demonstration of the general applicability the MODAClouds approach and the main MODAClouds techniques and features, as presented in Part IV Applications.
Arnor Solberg, Peter Matthews
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