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Über dieses Buch

This book presents a comprehensive definition of smart grids and their benefits, and compares smart and traditional grids. It also introduces a design methodology for stand-alone hybrid renewable energy system with and without applying the smart grid concepts for comparison purposes. It discusses using renewable energy power plants to feed loads in remote areas as well as in central power plants connected to electric utilities. Smart grid concepts used in the design of the hybrid renewable power systems can reduce the size of components, which can be translated to a reduction in the cost of generated energy. The proposed hybrid renewable energy system includes wind, photovoltaic, battery, and diesel, and is used initially to feed certain loads, covering the load required completely. The book introduces a novel methodology taking the smart grid concept into account by dividing the loads into high and low priority parts. The high priority part should be supplied at any generated conditions. However, the low priority loads can be shifted to the time when the generated energy from renewable energy sources is greater than the high priority loads requirements. The results show that the use of this smart grid concept reduces the component size and the cost of generated energy compared to that without dividing the loads. The book also describes the use of smart optimization techniques like particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) to optimally design the hybrid renewable energy system.

This book provides an excellent background to renewable energy sources, optimal sizing and locating of hybrid renewable energy sources, the best optimization methodologies for sizing and designing the components of hybrid renewable energy systems, and offers insights into using smart grid concepts in the system’s design and sizing.

It also helps readers understand the dispatch methodology and how to connect the system’s different components, their modeling, and the cost analysis of the system.



Chapter 1. Introduction and Literature Review

Nowadays, increasing energy demand and dependence on fossil fuel become important issues facing the whole world. Therefore, there is a big trend to use renewable energy sources (RES) to address the electricity generation. High penetration of RES and energy management impose immense challenges to the power system. With these challenges, the overall system operation requires advanced technologies in order to enhance the power system performance [1]. Smart grid is a system by which the existing power system infrastructure is being upgraded with the integration of multiple technologies such as, two-way power flow, two-way communication, distributed generation, advanced automated controls, and forecasting system [2]. Smart grid system enables interaction between the generation and the consumer which allow the optimal usage of energy based on environmental, price preferences and system technical issues. This, in turn, enables the power system to be more reliable, efficient and secure [3]. Table 1.1 shows the difference between the traditional grid and the smart grid system.
Mohamed Abdelaziz Mohamed, Ali Mohamed Eltamaly

Chapter 2. Modeling of Hybrid Renewable Energy System

RES can be connected together in a DC-bus, or AC-bus, or in a hybrid DC/AC-buses. The choice of the appropriate configuration depends on the type of output power for most generation and loads. Therefore, it is better to use DC-bus coupling if most generation and some loads are DC [51] and to use AC-bus coupling in the case of mainly AC generation and loads [52]. If the major power sources of the HRES generate a mixture of AC and DC power, then a hybrid-coupled integration scheme is preferable (i.e. hybrid DC/AC-buses) [53], which is the case considered in this book as shown in Fig. 2.1.
Mohamed Abdelaziz Mohamed, Ali Mohamed Eltamaly

Chapter 3. Sizing and Techno-Economic Analysis of Stand-Alone Hybrid Photovoltaic/Wind/Diesel/Battery Energy Systems

Most of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia depend on conventional electric energy sources such as the DG. However, these sources depend on the availability of the expensive fossil fuel. Also, these engines usually operate at low efficiency owing to their different loads. Therefore, using RES that doesn’t need fuel and doesn’t affect the environment can be considered an excellent solution for this dilemma. Using various sources of renewable energy can increase system reliability and reduce the cost of generating energy considerably.
Mohamed Abdelaziz Mohamed, Ali Mohamed Eltamaly

Chapter 4. A Novel Smart Grid Application for Optimal Sizing of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

Utilization of various RES with storage and backup units to form HRES can give more economic and reliable source of energy [84]. But, due to the non-linear response of system components and the random nature of the RES and load, the smart grid is utilized to suit and incorporate these units in order to move the power around the system as efficiently and economically as possible [85, 86]. The HRES integrated into smart grid needs an accurate and optimum design and sizing to minimize the cost of generated energy and to maximize the system reliability.
Mohamed Abdelaziz Mohamed, Ali Mohamed Eltamaly

Chapter 5. A PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Optimum Sizing of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

One of the most important issues in the recent studies is to optimally size the HRES components to meet all load requirements with possible minimum cost and highest reliability. In view of the complexity of optimization of the HRES, it was imperative to discover effective optimization methods ready to get good optimization results especially, for the complex optimization problems. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) was recommended as a standout amongst the most valuable and promising methods for optimizing the HRES because of using the global optimum to locate the best solution [87]. PSO algorithm is designed based on swarm intelligence and used to handle the complex optimization problems [88].
Mohamed Abdelaziz Mohamed, Ali Mohamed Eltamaly

Chapter 6. General Conclusion

In this book, a proposed system that includes PV, WT, DG as a conventional source of energy, and battery bank for energy storage to form a hybrid energy system has been presented. The system components have been connected through mixed AC/DC-buses in order to increase the system reliability and efficiency. This system is used to supply a certain load demand of a stand-alone system.
Mohamed Abdelaziz Mohamed, Ali Mohamed Eltamaly


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