Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Spatial datasets including elevation, land cover, and population of urban areas provide a basis for modeling and animating sea-level rise and surges resulting from storms and other catastrophic events. With a geographic information system (GIS), elevation data can be used to determine urban areas with large population numbers and densities in low-lying areas subject to inundation from rising water. This chapter provides details of the analysis and modeling procedure, as well as animations for specific areas of the world that are at risk from inundation from moderate rises or surges of sea level. The work is not an attempt to predict sea-level rise, but rather a methodological study of how to use GIS data layers to create the models and animations. Whereas global sea level rise is currently measured by millimeters per year, this work examines theoretical rise measured in meters as well as coastal threats posed by tsunamis, such as occurred in the Indian Ocean in 2004. Global, regional, and local animations can be created using widely available elevation, land cover, and population data. The models and animations provide a basis for determining areas with large population numbers in relatively low-lying areas and potentially subject to inundation risk, as was the case when Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans. This determination can provide a basis for more detailed modeling and policy planning such as development and evacuation.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. (2005). Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1042.
Arendt, A.A., Echelmeyer, K.A., Harrison, W.D., Lingle, C.S., and Valentine, V.B. (2002). Rapid wastage of Alaska glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level. Science, Volume 297. no. 5580, 382–386. CrossRef
Beckley, B.D., Lemoine, F.G., Luthecke, S.B., Ray, R.D., and Zelensky, N.P. (2007). A reassessment of global and regional mean sea level trends from TOPEX and Jason-1 altimetry based on revised reference frame and orbits. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 34, L14608. CrossRef
Butler, R. (2005). Hurricane could hit San Diego. Web document. mongabay.com. http://news.mongabay.com/2005/0908-san_diego.html.
Cazenave, A., and Nerem, R.S. (2004). Present-day sea level change: Observations and causes. Reviews of Geophysics, Volume 42, RG3001. CrossRef
Chambers, D. (2008). Causes and effects of sea-level rise. Presentation to the National Research Council Mapping Sciences Committee, April 24, 2008.
Chambers, D.P. (2006). Observing seasonal steric sea level variations with GRACE and satellite altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 111, C03010. CrossRef
Chao, B.F., Wu, Y.H., and Li, Y.S. (2008). Impact of artificial reservoir water impoundment on global sea level. Science, Volume 320, 212–214, 11 April. CrossRef
Church, J.A., and White, N.J. (2006). A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 33, L01602. CrossRef
Comiso, J.C., Parkinson, C.L., Gersten, R., and Stock, L. (2008). Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 35, L01703. CrossRef
Das, S.B., Joughin, I., Hehn, M.D., Howat, I.M., King, M.A., Lizarralde, D., and Bhatia, M.P. (2008). Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland ice sheet during Supraglacial Lake drainage. Science, Volume 320, 778–781, 9 May. CrossRef
Demark, T. (2005). Before and after images of areas affected by the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Web document. http://homepage.mac.com/demark/tsunami/9.html.
Douglas, B.C., Kearney, M.S., and Leatherman, S.P. (2001). Sea-level rise: History and consequences. New York: Academic Press.
FEMA. (2007). About Louisiana Katrina flood recovery maps. Web document. FEMA. http://fema.gov/hazard/flood/recoverydata/katrina/katrina_la_index.shtm.
Fricker, H.A., Scambos, T., Bindschadler, R., and Padman, L. (2007). An active subglacial water system in West Antarctica mapped from space. Science, Volume 315, 1544–1548, 16 March. CrossRef
Gehrels, W.R., Hayward, B.W., Newnham, R.M., and Southall, K.E. (2008). A 20th century acceleration of sea-level rise in New Zealand. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 35, L02717. CrossRef
Holgate, S.J. (2007). On the decadal rates of sea level change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 34, L01602. CrossRef
Horton, R., Herweijer, C., Rozenzweig, C., Liu, J., Gormitz, V., and Ruane, A.C. (2008). Sea-level rise predictions for current generation CGCMd based on the semi-empirical method. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 35, L02715. CrossRef
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007). Climate change 2007: The physical science basis. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, M. Marquis, K. Averyt, M. Tignor, H.L. Miller, Jr., and Z. Chen (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Web document. http://ipcc-wg1.ucar.edu/wg1/wg1-report.html. Accessed 10 May 2008.
Jenkins, A., and Holland, D. (2007). Melting of floating ice and sea-level rise. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 34, L16609. CrossRef
Joughin, I., Abdalati, W., and Fahnestock, M. (2004). Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland’s Jakobshavn Isbræ glacier. Nature, Volume 432, 608–610, 2 December 2004. CrossRef
Joughin, I., Das, S.B., King, M.A., Smith, D.E., Howat, I.M., and Moon, T. (2008). Seasonal speedup along the western flank of the Greenland ice sheet. Science, Volume 320, 781–783, 9 May. CrossRef
Kolker, A.S., and Hameed, S. (2007). Meteorological driven trends in sea level rise. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 34, L23616. CrossRef
Landscan. (2005). 2005 Global Population Database Release, Web document. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/landscan/landscanCommon/landscan05_release.html. Accessed 8 December 2008.
Marcos, M., and M. N. Tsimplis (2007). Forcing of coastal sea level rise patterns in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 34, L18604. CrossRef
McGee, W.J. (1900). The lessons of Galveston. National Geographic, October, 377–378.
Miller, L., and Douglas, B.C. (2004). Mass and volume contributions to twentieth-century global sea-level rise. Nature, Volume 428, 406–409, 25 March. CrossRef
NOAA. (2007). Hurricane Katrina—Most destructive hurricane ever to strike the US Web document, NOAA. http://www.katrina.noaa.gov.
Poore, R.Z., Williams, R.S., Jr., and Tracey, C. (2000). Sea level and climate. USGS Fact Sheet 002– 00.
Rignot, E., and Kanagaratnam, P. (2006). Changes in the velocity structure of the Greenland ice sheet. Science, Volume 311, 986–990, 17 February. CrossRef
Schiefer, E., Menous, B., and Wheate, R. (2007). Recent volume loss of British Columbian glaciers, Canada. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 34, L16503. CrossRef
Seong, J.C., and Usery, E.L. (2001). Modeling raster representation accuracy using a scale factor model. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, Volume. 67, no. 10, 1185–1191.
Seong, J.C., Mulcahy, K.A., and Usery, E.L. (2002). The Sinusoidal Projection: A new meaning for Global Image Data. The Professional Geographer, Volume 54, no. 2, 218–225. CrossRef
Shepherd, A., and Wingham, D. (2007). Recent sea-level contributions of Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Science, Volume 315, 1529–1532, 16 March. CrossRef
Steinwand, D. (2003). A new approach to categorical resampling, Proceedings. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Annual Convention, Phoenix, AZ. Web document. http://www.acsm.net/sessions03/NewMethodologies41.pdf. Accessed April 2007.
Thomas, R.H. (1993). Ice Sheets. In R.J. Gurney, J.L. Foster, C.L., and Parkinson (Eds.), Atlas of Satellite Observations Related to Global Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 385–400.
Truffer, Martin and Mark Fahnestock. (2007). Rethinking ice sheet time scales. Science, Volume 315, 1508–1510, 16 March. CrossRef
Usery, E.L., and Seong, J.C. (2001). All equal area map projections are created equal, but some are more equal than others. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Volume 28, no. 3, 183–193. CrossRef
Usery, E.L., Finn, M.P., Cox, J.D., Beard, T., Ruhl, S., and Bearden, M. (2003). Projecting global datasets to achieve equal areas. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, Volume 30, no. 1, 69–79. CrossRef
USGS. (2008a). Products related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Web document. http://store.usgs.gov/mod/HurricaneAreas.html.
USGS. (2008b). Decision support system for map projections of small scale data. US Geological Survey. Web document. http://mcmcweb.er.usgs.gov/DSS/, Accessed May.
Vaughan, D.C., and Arthern, R. (2007). Why is it hard to predict the future of ice sheets? Science, Volume 315, 503–1504, 16 March. CrossRef
Wadhams, P., and Munk, W. (2004). Ocean freshening, sea level rising, sea ice melting. Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 31, L11311. CrossRef
Weaver, A.J., Saenko, O.A., Clark, P.U., and Mitrovica, J.X. (2003). Meltwater pulse 1A from Antarctica as a trigger of the Bølling-Allerød warm interval. Science, Volume 299, no. 5613, 1709–1713. CrossRef
Zebrowski, E., Jr. (1999). Perils of a Restless Planet: Scientific Perspectives on Natural Disasters. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (First paperback edition).
Zwally, H.J., Brenner, A.C., and DiMarzio, J.P. (1998). Growth of the southern Greenland Ice Sheet. Science, Volume 281, 1251a, 28 August. CrossRef
- Modeling Sea-Level Rise and Surge in Low-Lying Urban Areas Using Spatial Data, Geographic Information Systems, and Animation Methods
E. Lynn Usery
Michael P. Finn
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 2
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Product Lifecycle Management/© Eisenhans | vege | Fotolia