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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-workshop proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems, MESAS 2017, held in Rome, Italy, , in October 2017.

The 33 revised full papers included in the volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 38 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: M&S of Intelligent Systems – AI, R&D and Applications; Autonomous Systems in Context of Future Warfare and Security – Concepts, Applications, Standards and Legislation; Future Challenges and Opportunities of Advanced M&S Technology.



M&S of Intelligent Systems - AI, R&D and Applications

An Integrated Approach to Autonomous Environment Modeling

In this paper, we present an integrated solution to memory-efficient environment modeling by an autonomous mobile robot equipped with a laser range-finder.Majority of nowadays approaches to autonomous environment modelling, called exploration, employs occupancy grids as environment representation where the working space is divided into small cells each storing information about the corresponding piece of the environment in the form of a probabilistic estimate of its state. In contrast, the presented approach uses a polygonal representation of the explored environment which consumes much less memory, enables fast planning and decision-making algorithms and it is thus reliable for large-scale environments.Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has been integrated into the presented framework to correct odometry errors and to provide accurate position estimates. This involves also refinement of the already generated environment model in case of loop closure, i.e. when the robot detects that it revisited an already explored place.The framework has been implemented in Robot Operating System (ROS) and tested with a real robot in various environments. The experiments show that the polygonal representation with SLAM integrated can be used in the real world as it is fast, memory efficient and accurate. Moreover, the refinement can be executed in real-time during the exploration process.

Miroslav Kulich, Viktor Kozák, Libor Přeučil

Autonomous 3D Exploration of Large Areas: A Cooperative Frontier-Based Approach

In this article a coordinated approach to 3D exploration of large uncluttered areas with a team of flying robots with constrained payload is proposed. Coordination is used as trump card for an effective exploration in feasible time and to overcome problems related to the limited computational power and autonomy of the robot platform. In particular, a 3D exploration strategy based on a combination of local and global information and a 4D motion planning are used for achieving 3D coverage of completely unknown environments.

Anna Mannucci, Simone Nardi, Lucia Pallottino

Modelling of a Group of Social Agents Monitored by UAVs

Robotics cooperation in service environments, i.e. environments shared with other non-robotic agents, is becoming more and more popular in industrial, agriculture, environmental monitoring and social applications. In this paper we propose a team of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that has to control the trajectories of a group of agents having an internal behavioural logic, such as a group of human beings moving in a shared environment or an animal flocking. The controlling UAVs are assumed to generate a force on the group members, modelled as a repulsive force and representing some sort of “fear” of the flying robot. To this end, this paper proposes both an effective model for the group of agents, which is inspired by the Social Force Model, and a distributed estimation and control algorithm for the controlling UAVs. By means of simulations, the validity of the modelling and the control parts is shown and promising results are derived.

Federico Morelli, Davide Vignotto, Daniele Fontanelli

Path Planning for a Formation of Mobile Robots with Split and Merge

A novel multi-robot path planning approach is presented in this paper. Based on the standard Dijkstra, the algorithm looks for the optimal paths for a formation of robots, taking into account the possibility of split and merge. The algorithm explores a graph representation of the environment, computing for each node the cost of moving a number of robots and their corresponding paths. In every node where the formation can split, all the new possible formation subdivisions are taken into account accordingly to their individual costs. In the same way, in every node where the formation can merge, the algorithm verifies whether the combination is possible and, if possible, computes the new cost. In order to manage split and merge situations, a set of constrains is applied. The proposed algorithm is thus deterministic, complete and finds an optimal solution from a source node to all other nodes in the graph. The presented solution is general enough to be incorporated into high-level tasks as well as it can benefit from state-of-the-art formation motion planning approaches, which can be used for evaluation of edges of an input graph. The presented experimental results demonstrate ability of the method to find the optimal solution for a formation of robots in environments with various complexity.

Estefanía Pereyra, Gastón Araguás, Miroslav Kulich

AUVSIPRO – A Simulation Program for Performance Prediction of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle with Different Propulsion System Configurations

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) is a growing technology with a great potential to both military and civilian applications. Extensive developments and advanced innovations of AUV have been introduced in recent years from various research centres around the world. Among the fundamental modules of an AUV, the propulsion system strongly affects the vehicle performance. The increasing complexity in missions and operational environment require the propulsion system to offer high efficiency and excellent manoeuvrability. In this study, an AUV simulation program named AUVSIPRO is proposed in the preliminary design stage to predict and compare the AUV manoeuvrability equipped with different propulsion configurations. A series of primary manoeuvres standard for underwater vehicles are presented to investigate the system feasibility. In order to derive the mathematical model in the simulator, the propulsor models are experimentally conducted in the Towing Tank, the hull hydrodynamic coefficients are calculated using analytical, and system identification approaches. The system outputs are achieved by numerical method. The simulation program provides an effective platform to examine different the propulsion system configurations to an AUV as well as a torpedo shaped submarine.

Minh Tran, Jonathan Binns, Shuhong Chai, Alex Forrest, Hung Nguyen

Route Optimization for Cooperative Aerial Reconnaissance

This paper deals with the optimization of routes generated by the Cooperative Aerial Reconnaissance (CAR) model. This high-level model plans the optimal routes for a fleet of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in order to carry out the reconnaissance operation in the area of interest. The route for each UAS is composed of a number of waypoints to be visited in the correct order. This paper further enhances the routes by applying the smoothing algorithm to individual routes for every aerial system in the fleet. The first part of the paper presents the fundamental parameters of the smoothing algorithm. Next, the evaluation of the approach is performed via a series of experiments. The proposed modifications have been implemented into the Tactical Decision Support System (TDSS) being developed at University of Defence in Brno to support commanders in their decision making processes.

Petr Stodola

A Framework for Rapid Configuration of Collaborative Aviation System-of-Systems Simulations

We propose a model-based framework to specify, integrate, and verify heterogeneous Software Integration Lab and System of Systems (SoS) simulations that include unmanned aviation mission systems during the early development and evaluation phases. This approach would bridge the currently separated development and test/training domains. We propose a tool suite for Rapid Configuration of Collaborative Aviation SoS Simulations (RCAS3.) This will provide a seamless plug-and-play framework that is highly adaptive and configurable while providing model transformation mechanisms to easily interface with High Level Architecture or other federated simulation protocols. RCAS3 will be built around already existing technologies: Aviation Scenario Definition Language Modeling, Discrete Event System Specification, and System Entity Structure implemented in RTSync’s MS4 Me. These will be augmented with an Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL)-based configuration and behavior analysis suite. This paper presents RCAS3 framework architecture and its underlying concepts.

Shafagh Jafer, Bernard Zeigler, Doohwan D. H. Kim

Self-localization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Optical Flow in Onboard Camera Images

This paper proposes and evaluates the implementation of a self-localization system intended for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Accurate localization is necessary for UAVs for efficient stabilization, navigation and collision avoidance. Conventionally, this requirement is fulfilled using external hardware infrastructure, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) or camera-based motion capture system (VICON-like [37]). These approaches are, however, not applicable in environments where deployment of cumbersome motion capture equipment is not feasible, as well as in GNSS-denied environments. Systems based on Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) require heavy and expensive onboard equipment and high amounts of data transmissions for sharing maps between UAVs. Availability of a system without these drawbacks is crucial for deployment of tight formations of multiple fully autonomous micro UAVs for both outdoor and indoor missions. The project was inspired by the often used sensor PX4FLOW Smart Camera [12]. The aim was to develop a similar sensor, but without the multiple drawbacks observed in its use, as well as to make the operation of it more transparent and to make it independent of a specific hardware. Our proposed solution requires only a lightweight camera and a single-point range sensor. It is based on optical flow estimation from consecutive images obtained from downward-facing camera, coupled with a specialized RANSAC-inspired post-processing method that takes into account flight dynamics. This filtering makes it more robust against imperfect lighting, homogenous ground patches, random close objects and spurious errors. These features make this approach suitable even for coordinated flights through demanding forest-like environment. The system is designed mainly for horizontal velocity estimation, but specialized modifications were also made for vertical speed and yaw rotation rate estimation. These methods were tested in a simulator and subsequently in real world conditions. The tests showed, that the sensor is suitably reliable and accurate to be usable in practice.

Viktor Walter, Tomáš Novák, Martin Saska

Mobile Robot Failure Prevention by Real-Time Thermal Monitoring

The paper deals with improving the reliability of mechanical components of the mobile robot Telerescuer. This improvement is realised by monitoring thermal parameters of some selected critical points of gearboxes and drives using the principles of IoT (Internet of Things) and by transferring all measured values to the ThinksWorx servers. On-line monitoring of the locomotion subsystem with prediction and prevention of a possible mechanical failure is secured by analyses of the data. The data is also used for visualisation directly on the operator station at a model of the robot in a 3D CAD system.

Ján Babjak, Tomáš Kot, Petr Novák, Václav Krys, Zdenko Bobovský

An Exact Optimal Kinodynamic Planner Based on Homotopy Class Constraints

This paper proposes a kinodynamic planning algorithm for vehicles with bounds on actuation. The proposed approach is based on identification of homotopy classes to decompose the global obstacle avoidance problem into several simpler subproblems. We formulate the homotopic trajectory planning problem in a multiple phase trajectory optimization scheme, such that at each phase different kinematic constraints are active. This novel formulation satisfies the collision-free constraints and homotopy constraints at the same time.

Basak Sakcak, Luca Bascetta, Gianni Ferretti

Design of an Indoor Autonomous Robot Navigation System for Unknown Environments

In this work is presented a novel platform able to navigate autonomously in unknown indoor environments. The system has been designed as a framework with different interconnected modules in order to be able to apply the same navigation system to different robotic platforms. The proposed framework is a real–time system developed on board of the robot, without the need of external computing units. The entire system has been tested and evaluated on multi–rotors vehicles with different hardware configurations, evaluating the performance and the quality of the reconstructed map. Experimental results show a promising robust and highly accurate indoor navigation module.

Luca Silvestri, Lucia Pallottino, Simone Nardi

Fractional Order Sliding Mode Control System Design for Nonlinear MIMO Systems with Time-Varying Delay

This paper has aimed to design fractional-order sliding mode controller (FO-SM) for time delayed MIMO system. The proposed controller has many uncertain parameters so we used adaptive particle swarm optimization method to determine the parameters. The controller provides faster tracking and more stable structure than the integer order. The selection of the controller parameters is important for control performance so intelligent optimization can provide optimal control parameters. Simulation results show that FO-SM controller has robust control performance through change of time delay.

Ozkan Atan

Dynamic Modelling of a Streamer of Hydrophones Towed with an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

The paper addresses the dynamic modelling of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) towing a flexible cable. The considered problem arises in the framework of a H2020 European Project, named WiMUST, aimed at using a team of AUVs to perform geoseismic survey missions to study the sea-bottom and sea subsurface thorough acoustic signals. In the considered scenario, each AUV is equipped with a streamer, i.e. a flexible cable equipped with several hydrophones. For a proper elaboration of the acoustic data collected by the hydrophones, their positioning during the mission is required; however the lack of a proper hydrophones’ localization infrastructure in the WiMUST system make this not possible. Thus, we developed here the dynamic model of the AUV-streamer system with the final aim of using it in a localization algorithm. The dynamic model has been developed on the basis of the characteristics of a torpedo-shaped AUV, named Folaga, and assuming the streamer behaving as a chain of almost neutrally buoyant rigid bodies connected with unactuated spherical joints. The recursive Newton-Euler approach for industrial manipulators is adopted to develop the direct dynamic function to deal with scalability issues related to the large number of Degrees of Freedom of the system. Different simulation results are finally supplied for the model validation.

Filippo Arrichiello, Soumic Sarkar, Stefano Chiaverini, Gianluca Antonelli

Qualitative Analysis of a Robot Control Based on Sub-Riemannian Distance

We present a qualitative analysis of a snake-like robot local control models based on sub-Riemannian distance. More precisely, we compare two control models of a 4-link robotic snake with respect to the sub-Riemannian length of a curve in the phase space corresponding to a given motion. We evaluate a particular example of a local motion planning algorithm realized in a general and approximated model.

Ludmila Bartoňová

Control Algorithms for Rescue Robot RUDA

The paper concerns about approaches and algorithms used for high-level control of robot called RUDA. The RUDA robot was designed for operations in hard and dangerous environments including damaged buildings, areas polluted with chemicals and also rough outdoor terrain. The robot compounds of base platform - hull with tracks and set of additional modules.The paper compounds of two parts. In the first part the RUDA robot is introduced and internal structure of the robot is described including algorithms for localization in indoor and outdoor environments. The second part describes novel approach of interaction with human operator using wearable devices. In both parts the special emphasis is placed on ongoing research and most recent results.

Radim Luža, Jana Vyroubalová, Martin Apjar, Martin Drahanský

Application of Augmented Reality in Mobile Robot Teleoperation

The paper deals with the utilisation of augmented reality on the operator control panel of a teleoperated mobile robot. The work is a continuation of the previous research, which resulted in the creation and successful practical implementation of a virtual operator station based on the virtual reality head-mounted display (HMD) Oculus Rift. The new approach suggests using the new Microsoft Hololens augmented reality headset to add the virtual control elements directly to the real world, which has some very important benefits – especially the fact that the operator is not visually isolated from his surroundings. The device is introduced in the beginning of the article and then follows the description of all tasks required to create the augmented reality operator station. Mentioned are also other possible ways of using augmented reality to assist the operator of a mobile robot.

Tomáš Kot, Petr Novák, Ján Babjak

Accuracy Evaluation Method of Multispectral Data Fusion for Robotic Systems

The aim of the paper is to describe method for accuracy evaluation of optical multispectral data-fusion systems. The method was primarily developed for evaluation of robotics systems formed in our laboratory, but its usage is without doubt much wider. Described method of evaluation consists of multispectral target design, pattern extraction and computation of criteria for data fusion evaluation.Two completely different robotic systems have been evaluated in this paper. The first one is mobile robot Orpheus-X4 with its advanced visual system that uses data fusion for automatic environment mapping and visual telepresence. The fusion is realized by means of spatial data from Swissranger TOF camera; the thermal and CCD camera data are comprised in one multispectral 3D model for mapping purposes or stereo image presented in real-time to a monitor or a binocular head-mounted display. The second system is scanning robotic system RoScan with industrial manipulator that can be used for many different applications in medical domain, such as “diabetic foot” necrotic tissue detection, inflammation diagnosis, or monitoring of tissue recovery process. Fusion is realized by means of spatial data from triangulation line scanner; the thermal and CCD camera data are comprised in one multispectral 3D model for medical purposes.

Petra Kalvodova, Ludek Zalud

Autonomous Systems in Context of Future Warfare and Security - Concepts, Applications, Standards and Legislation


Operational Scenario Modelling Supporting Unmanned Autonomous Systems Concept Development

There exists a connection between a growing number of Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAxS) and a number of possible security challenges. The likelihood that swarms of UAxS will be employed in high populated mega-city environments in the long and mid-term exacerbates these future challenges. The problem is two-fold: UAxS are likely to be used as additional capability for friendly forces, but they are also to be considered as possible threat. The challenges that an autonomous system poses depend not only on their physical vulnerability or the security of the networks and data, but also on the interaction with traditional troops and operating procedures to be followed, their levels of autonomy and Command and Control (C2) chain behind their employment. An extensive experimentation is necessary to address some of these challenges in a Concept Development and Experimentation (CD&E) process aimed to envision solutions. Modelling and Simulation (M&S) tools and architecture are essential to speed up this process in a cost effective way. This paper presents how the development of a particular air operational scenario in an urban environment, according to the Simulation Interoperability Standard Organization (SISO) guide using M&S tools, can support the capability development process for future UAxS as well as their countermeasures.In particular, the M&S architecture was made of a federation of simulators interacting with real C2 systems. Several technologies were exploited, such as High Level Architecture (HLA), for simulation Run-Time Infrastructure; Artificial Intelligence (AI) ad-hoc developed modules, for robotic behavior; C2 – Simulation Interoperability (C2SIMI) language, for interoperation between simulators and C2 systems. The scenario was designed for addressing the challenges and countermeasures in the air domain operations concerning specifically facing an hostile swarm of Unmanned Autonomous Aerial Vehicles (UAaVs) attacking a critical infrastructure in a highly populated city.

Marco Biagini, Fabio Corona, Josef Casar

Modelling and Simulation to Support the Counter Drone Operations (NMSG-154)

The proliferation of Low, Slow and Small (LSS) flying platforms brings with it a new and rapidly increasing threat for national defence and security agencies. Thus, defence systems must be designed to face such threats. Modern operational readiness bases on proper personnel training that is performed on high fidelity simulators. The aim of the MSG.154 is to take into account the variety of the commercially available LSS aerial vehicles and to define LSS models from different points of view. This is carried out in order to make such models available for analysis and design aspects that are applied to Counter LSS systems, for both detection and neutralization, and for operational training. Moreover, their ability to cross correlate friendly nation LSS capabilities among member nations and to extend LSS to existing categorizations is useful beneficial.

Paolo Proietti, Brian Goldiez, Jan Farlik, Bruno Di Marco

Advanced Military Robots Supporting Engineer Reconnaissance in Military Operations

The paper deals with possible use of advanced military robots within key military engineering task – the engineer reconnaissance. Firstly, paper aims at the description of engineer reconnaissance and defines its key tasks. Then it focuses on military robots, their characteristics, use in military operations and current role in supporting of engineer reconnaissance. Paper also mentions their possible use in manned-unmanned teaming. Next part of the paper deals with proposal of assignment of certain types of military robots to defined key engineer reconnaissance tasks according to their specific features. The last part of the paper focuses on the future trends in research, development and implementation of these systems into engineer reconnaissance. Main goal of this paper is to identify possible use of advanced robotic technologies within key engineer reconnaissance tasks, to propose assignment of certain types of military robots to these tasks and to predict in general their possible future trends in research, development and application. Scientific methods of analysis, synthesis and structured interviews were used to achieve main goal. Variety of military and scientific publications and structured interviews with military engineer experts provided main source of the information.

Michal Kopuletý, Tibor Palasiewicz

Decision Support for Wide Area Search in a Radiological Threat Scenario

For Intelligent Reachback Using Complex DSS Architectures

In the stressful scenario of a terrorist threat that involves a radiological dispersion device, an effective search strategy must be prepared. This problem is highly complex, especially when multiple platforms are deployed. Besides the automated suggestions for an effective search strategy, a remote advice and assist cell can benefit from visual aid in the form of a heat map overlay on a geographical map, which evolves according to both the expected target movements and the observations made by the sensors. Such decision support software can be equipped with optimization algorithms that provide search strategies. However, the algorithms are only as good as the accuracy of the parameter configuration, such as the estimation of the target motion and the search effectiveness of the sensor. In this paper, we focus on the estimation of the latter parameter for two sensors and two types of targets. The first step in this process consists of field experiments to approximate the target dependent sensor ranges. We then describe a fictive but realistic scenario in which a suspect carrying radiological material must be detected to prevent a terrorist attack in the center of a big city. We show how to estimate the parameters for the search effectiveness in this scenario. Finally, in a proof of concept, we compare two algorithms for optimization of a search strategy for multiple searchers. Here, the algorithms are configured using the mentioned parameter estimations. Computational experiments show that the search effectiveness significantly influences the probability of detection throughout the search.

Manon Raap, Stefan Pickl, Maximilian Moll, Alexander Bordetsky

A Verification, Validation and Accreditation Process for Autonomous Interoperable Systems

Navies, Industries and Research are investigating how to move to future mine counter measure operations where of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles work collaboratively with minimal human interaction. Modelling and simulation is proving to be a capable support to test autonomy by the adoption, in particular, on interoperable environments that may comprise of models, hardware and software-in-the-loop. Industry and NATO standards exist for federated simulation but the standards do not provide detailed guidance to carry out lean, comprehensive and consistent design, development and testing of distributed simulation for autonomy.This paper presents a methodological framework and identifies process steps that support users in the design and development and allow development teams to carry out efficient verification, validation and accreditation activities on distributed simulation systems. The framework has been designed to be lean and efficient while producing outputs that comply fully with existing industry standard approaches.The presented framework has been demonstrated on a distributed modelling and simulation system in a representative underwater environment.

Alberto Tremori, Pilar Caamaño Sobrino, Arnau Carrera Viñas, Giovanni Luca Maglione, David Solarna, Robert Been, Thomas Mansfield

Aspects of the Surface-to-Air Missile Systems Modelling and Simulation

Simulation and modelling of surface-to-air missile defense (or surface based air defense – SBAD) is demanding process if we want to encompass most important capabilities of the force. There are certain aspects that need to be taken into account to create realistic models and simulation of SBAD forces exploitable not only in simulators, but also in the future SBAD weapon platforms with autonomous modes of operation. For example, most of today’s simulators do not provide realistic simulation of surfaced-to-air missile (SAM) systems in the matter of implemented guidance methods mathematic models, effective engagement envelope calculation, cluster tactics algorithms, etc. That is the reason why e.g. tactical simulators for jets pilots training provide just simple SAM models with low-level artificial intelligence and pilots are not prepared for real SAM systems behavior. These simulators do not have any sophisticated artificial intelligence and do not use advanced autonomous modes to challenge the trained pilots’ skills. This paper deals with these aspects and offers ways, how to model key SBAD capabilities to train jet pilots effectively against this type of threat.

Jan Farlik, Ferdinand Tesar

Experiments with the UAS Reconnaissance Model in the Real Environment

This paper presents experiments with the model of aerial reconnaissance in the real environment. The model has been integrated into the Tactical Decision Support System (TDSS) which supports commanders of the Czech Army in their decision-making. The model is focused on planning the optimal reconnaissance operation of the area of interest by a fleet of unmanned aerial systems (UASs). A set of experiments on various scenarios has been proposed to verify the model in the real environment. The key part of this article defines parameters of the experiments, evaluates the results and confirms the purpose of the model in support of the decision making process of a commander. The paper also deals with other possibilities of using the model in the area of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear defense (CBRN).

Jan Drozd, Petr Stodola, Dana Křišťálová, Jaroslav Kozůbek

First Responders Robotic Network for Disaster Management

Disaster management is one of the fields which more can benefit from robotic systems, hence an increasing effort is nowadays employed in designing heterogeneous teams of robots for these scenarios, including human-robot coordination. Communication is the key factor in any search and rescue mission, both for coordinating operations and for interacting with people in danger. However, catastrophic events frequently cause the failure of telecommunication infrastructure, particularly for large disaster areas. We propose a temporary deployable ad-hoc network, whose nodes are robotic agents, covering a set of critical areas selected in a pre-planning phase, called intervention areas, and a set of physical paths connecting them. We developed a suitable algorithm providing the high level topological structure of the network and a coordination strategy for its construction in a distributed framework. The ensuing system is able to serve as a communication infrastructure, to operate as a wireless sensor network and to be integrated with multiple search and rescue teams.

Giuseppe Seminara, Daniele Fontanelli

Aspects of Technical Requirements for the Future Autonomy of Military Vehicles

One of the currently developed technologies for vehicle autonomy is also the autonomy of military vehicles. In the case of a request to rebuild a military vehicle on an Autonomous Vehicle, it is advantageous to use the technical prerequisites for easier application of robotic technologies. The article deals with the possibilities and advantages of determining the technical requirements for a new vehicle with a future ability to meet the needs of technologies such as convoying and (robotizing) vehicle driving autonomy or remote control of the special vehicles.

Tomas Turo, Vlastimil Neumann, Zdenek Krobot

Future Challenges and Opportunities of Advanced M&S Technology

Training with and of Autonomous System – Modelling and Simulation Approach

Having in place a new era of operationalization of systems with certain level of autonomy has implication in the whole spectrum of military activities. Training in the military domain as one of the key pillars of preparedness of Armed Forces must adequately reflect this phenomena. The article deals with all aspects of training related to Autonomous Systems (AS) and human being (HB). Firstly terminology of trainee and trainer in the AS and HB perspective is explained. Secondly factors that influence the effectiveness of the training when AS employed are elaborated. Special focus is put on the formalization of effectiveness of collective training with and of AS in the form of differential equation and model using the level of preparedness state variable. System dynamic is employed to design a model. The model is executed in the time in three different scenarios - Human in the Loop, Human on the Loop and Human out of the Loop; in all scenarios ASs with defined level of autonomy are employed. One of the finding is that collective training of AS with Human out of the Loop is less influenced by defined factors of effectiveness then in the case of collective training of AS with the Human in the Loop and Human on the Loop and requires less time to repeat collective training cycles to maintain the required level of preparedness.

Jan Hodicky, Dalibor Prochazka, Josef Prochazka

Using Telemetry for Maintenance of Special Military Vehicles

This article suggests using telemetry during the diagnostics of a technical state and the maintenance of combat and special vehicles including autonomous vehicles and UGV. The aim of this article is to show different possibilities of performing a predictive and later a proactive maintenance in the military environment. When performing an on-line diagnostics, combat and special vehicles have to be equipped with diagnostic and sensor networks. When it comes to harmonizing vehicle networks, it is important for the diagnostic protocols of military vehicles to comply with relevant standards. If the inner vehicle communication and relating diagnostics possibilities are perfectly in line with relevant standards, and a logistic personnel is equipped with a suitable off-line diagnostics, sufficient conditions will be created for implementing a predictive or a proactive maintenance. In this paper the authors describe the possibilities of on-board diagnostics followed by data processing and transferring to create a convenient maintenance system. This system is expected to provide a high level of dependability (availability) and reduce overall maintenance costs. When implementing higher preventive maintenance systems it is essential to train a technical personnel and apply relevant hardware and software equipment.

Jan Furch, Tomas Turo, Zdenek Krobot, Jiri Stastny

Possibilities of Modelling and Simulation in Military Engineering

The contemporary battlefield is a complex environment that places great demands on an exact performance of tasks and an efficient use of resources. Corps of Engineers performs a wide scope of technical tasks and provides a significant range of information in contemporary operations. Capabilities of modelling and simulation in the military environment can be very useful tools for planning and carrying out of operational and tactical tasks. Therefore, modelling and simulation and automated data processing are for Military Engineering present themes. This paper discusses modelling and simulation possibilities in the field of Military Engineering. The introductory part describes engineer roles and tasks according to NATO demands. The following part defines requirements for information (geographical and geological data, map model, reconnaissance of terrain) needed to model engineering tasks. The closing section presents an illustrative example and the possible approach to the issue. Modelling and simulation suggestions and the illustrative example present real possibilities of implementation in the military environment.

Pavel Skalický, Tibor Palasiewicz, Jan Kyjovský, Jaroslav Zelený

Discrete Event Simulation in Future Military Logistics Applications and Aspects

The article deals with application of Discrete Event Simulation in professional training which focuses on analysis, planning, management and decision making support during military operations characterized by high complexity, dynamics, large number of influencing factors and utilization of advanced technologies. One of the key areas of the planning process and subsequent implementation of the logistical support to deployed units, especially during the first phase of the operation, is the Reception, Staging and Onward Movement (RSOM) process. Logistics planners seek a compromise option, i.e. optimum between time available, cost and quality of implementation when planning and subsequently implementing optimal solutions. The paper deals with the possibility of using simulation in the field of training and logistics planning by implementing a specific technology, possible future aspects, operating conditions and tactical entities – such as Autonomous Systems.

Pavel Foltin, Martin Vlkovský, Jan Mazal, Jan Husák, Martin Brunclík

Possibilities of Nanotechnologies for Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles

The article deals with the impact of nanotechnology on military capabilities and operations in the specific context of unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAV). The results established that nanotechnology will be particularly important in enabling the development and successful deployment of UAVs and platforms in respect to: (a) Surveillance for indoor and outdoor urban terrain; specifically with regards to enhanced survivability due to increased material robustness, enhanced sensing systems both in terms of range and sensitivity as well as the potential for novel power generation and storage techniques and (b) Persistent surveillance of extended outdoor facilities; particularly with regards to the development of novel power generation and storage techniques. In addition, nanotechnology will provide novel data processing concepts which are orders of magnitude faster than is current state of the art, enabling enhanced levels of autonomous operation as would be necessary for such specific scenarios.

Jiří Stodola, Petr Stodola

Measurement and Modelling of the Behavior of Military Pilots

A military pilot fulfilling his mission can often be caught in precarious situations and put under extreme strain. The aim of this article is to describe the current development of systems and methods for measuring and modelling military pilot’s behavior. The first part of this paper outlines the systems and methods for measuring and evaluation of physical and medical data needed to describe the condition and behavior of military pilots quantitatively. The second part focuses on an expert system approach to modelling military pilot behavior. The authors demonstrate, how the modules of the system were created and how measurements and tests were performed. The research findings outline the new expert system modelling military pilot’s behavior. Moreover, subsystems and sensors applied in the cockpit so that the system as a whole can support the pilot, are described. The complete system is able to determine the pilot’s stress load, along with physical and visual load levels. Based on this knowledge, it is possible to determine whether the pilot needs the support of the automatic flight control system. This system can be also be used in the flight control system and can increase battle effectiveness of the deployed aircrafts.

Jiri Kacer, Patrik Kutilek, Vaclav Krivanek, Radek Doskocil, Pavel Smrcka, Zdenek Krupka


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