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This book shows how transit assignment models can be used to describe and predict the patterns of network patronage in public transport systems. It provides a fundamental technical tool that can be employed in the process of designing, implementing and evaluating measures and/or policies to improve the current state of transport systems within given financial, technical and social constraints. The book offers a unique methodological contribution to the field of transit assignment because, moving beyond “traditional” models, it describes more evolved variants that can reproduce:• intermodal networks with high- and low-frequency services;• realistic behavioural hypotheses underpinning route choice;• time dependency in frequency-based models; and• assumptions about the knowledge that users have of network conditionsthat are consistent with the present and future level of information that intelligent transport systems (ITS) can provide. The book also considers the practical perspective of practitioners and public transport operators who need to model and manage transit systems; for example, the role of ITS is explained with regard to their potential in data collection for modelling purposes and validation techniques, as well as with regard to the additional data on network patronage and passengers’ preferences that influences the network-management and control strategies implemented. In addition, it explains how the different aspects of network operations can be incorporated in traditional models and identifies the advantages and disadvantages of doing so. Lastly, the book provides practical information on state-of-the-art implementations of the different models and the commercial packages that are currently available for transit modelling. Showcasing original work done under the aegis of the COST Action TU1004 (TransITS), the book provides a broad readership, ranging from Master and PhD students to researchers and from policy makers to practitioners, with a comprehensive tool for understanding transit assignment models.



Public Transport in the Era of ITS


Chapter 1. Public Transport in the Era of ITS: The Role of Public Transport in Sustainable Cities and Regions

Transportation is one of the most pervasive activities in any society or economy, since it enables the movement of people and goods from where they are to where they wish or they are planned to be. Among other transportation services, public transport systems contribute to a large share of the movement of people and therefore have an extremely important socio-economic role. Having a paramount importance for the quality and the stability of any socio-economic system, public transport planning, design and operations contribute to the equilibrium and the sustainable evolution of any region.
Xavier Roselló, Anders Langeland, Francesco Viti

Chapter 2. Public Transport in the Era of ITS: Forms of Public Transport

This chapter describes the characteristics of public transport systems, seen as a system. With public transport system, we mean mainly the technical system of different modes of transport including vehicles and infrastructure as well as their characteristics, such as capacity in various traffic concepts.
Kjell Jansson, Ingmar Andreasson, Karl Kottenhoff

Chapter 3. Public Transport in the Era of ITS: ITS Technologies for Public Transport

Mobility started to grow continuously from mid-nineteenth century thanks mainly to the development of rail transport services, and this trend increased even more rapidly with the growing fleet of cars and buses. The potential of those mechanised transport means made us more mobile. Getting around from place to place is essential to human engagement and endeavour.
Andrés Monzón, Sara Hernandez, Andrés García Martínez, Ioannis Kaparias, Francesco Viti

From Transit Systems to Models


Chapter 4. From Transit Systems to Models: Purpose of Modelling

From Part I of the book, it will be obvious that public transport plays an essential role in providing mobility to people, especially in dense urban areas. The social welfare generated by good public transport comes at a price, however. Almost all forms require large investments into infrastructure, vehicles and operation. With limited finance, ideal public transport remains a distant goal, and a lot of effort goes into finding an optimal allocation of budget to investment options. The key question for these decisions is: How big is the total benefit of a proposed investment? To answer it, one needs to predict how the potential users will make use of the hypothetical improved public transport. For responsible decision-making, this prediction should be rational, transparent and accountable. It is no surprise therefore that models are typically used to produce the predictions. These models span the whole range of mobility decisions made by individuals, from long term to short term. Passenger route choice, the focus of Part III, accounts for only a part of the complex decision hierarchy. Before zooming into route choice models, this chapter looks at the planning process as a whole, explains the role of models in decision-making and gives an overview of the whole decision hierarchy. The last two sections introduce the general mathematical framework, in which decision models are formulated and set the stage for the description of specific models.
Markus Friedrich, Fabien Leurent, Irina Jackiva, Valentina Fini, Sebastián Raveau

Chapter 5. From Transit Systems to Models: Data Representation and Collection

This chapter deals with the data that form input and output of passenger route choice models. All information about supply and demand that is relevant to passenger route choice must be captured in a formal way in order to be accessible to mathematical choice models. Over time standard conventions for this formalisation have emerged. In order to avoid repetition in Part III, they are presented once in Sect. 5.1.
Klaus Noekel, Guido Gentile, Efthia Nathanail, Achille Fonzone

The Theory of Transit Assignment


Chapter 6. The Theory of Transit Assignment: Basic Modelling Frameworks

In this chapter, the different basic assumptions for the development of assignment models to transit networks (frequency-based, schedule-based) are presented together with the possible approaches to the simulation of the dynamic system (steady state, macroscopic flows, agent-based).
Guido Gentile, Michael Florian, Younes Hamdouch, Oded Cats, Agostino Nuzzolo

Chapter 7. The Theory of Transit Assignment: Demand and Supply Phenomena

This chapter addresses the modelling of various demand and supply phenomena emerging on public transport networks: passenger information, congestion at stops and on board, and service regularity.
Guido Gentile, Klaus Noekel, Jan-Dirk Schmöcker, Valentina Trozzi, Ektoras Chandakas

Applications and Future Developments


Chapter 8. Applications and Future Developments: Modelling the Diversity and Integration of Transit Modes

Passenger transit modes typical of the urban setting, including bus, tram, metro, and train, have been described in Chap. 2, along with less conventional modes such as BRT and cable. Then, Chaps. 6 and 7 have provided network assignment models that address primarily the passenger side, dealing with route choice situations and behaviour, the individual exposure to traffic conditions, and the contribution of individual users to local flows. In these models, the transit mode is represented as a set of lines, each of which is abstracted into its topology (nodes and links) and some features of traffic operations: run time, dwell time, and some capacity parameters. In such an abstract setting, no distinction has been made between, for instance, bus and railway services, apart from their respective parameter values.
Ingmar Andreasson, Fabien Leurent, Francesco Corman, Luigi dell’Olio

Chapter 9. Applications and Future Developments: Modeling Software and Advanced Applications

Situation. Part III and Chap. 8 are targeted to the theoretical modeling of transit systems. The challenge is to match the model’s scope and contents to the real-world features that are relevant to the simulation purposes. As the theoretical development of models is oriented toward the development of scientific knowledge, it takes place mostly in the research arena—research teams, academic network, and scientific reviews.
Ektoras Chandakas, Fabien Leurent, Oded Cats

Chapter 10. Applications and Future Developments: Future Developments and Research Topics

This final chapter explores the potential of traffic assignment models for development, beyond traditional or advanced applications. The modeling of public transportation systems is a fertile terrain for research, especially as the digital era is seeing a proliferation of innovations: in the operation of existing systems and above all in the design of original, flexible, demand-responsive mobility services, which rely on different forms of resource pooling. The principle of pooling, fundamental in mass transit for the sharing of infrastructures by vehicles and the sharing of vehicles by passengers, has now found a very wide range of applications, thanks to the presence of information everywhere in the mobility system, which includes the transportation system and its users. The body of the chapter is structured into three sections. First, we consider the new deal in public urban passenger transport that stems from the new order in the field of information: Ongoing or future innovations pertain to the management of line networks, to the provision of more flexible intermediate services, and to the sharing of vehicles, drivers, and parking spaces, together with the potential associated with autonomous (automated self-driving) vehicles. Second, we identify a whole range of research topics on traffic assignment models and their inputs to their potential applications for system regulation, passing by (i) passenger behaviors and their statistical structures, (ii) the physics and control of traffic—both passengers and vehicles, (iii) the spatial features and their flow-oriented layout, and (iv) the organization and operations of specific travel modes. Third and last, we open up a broad perspective onto the relation between mobility systems and simulation models: Models are becoming more and more modular, and they constitute a toolbox that is more and more powerful; a number of tools are implemented to bring augmented reality to the transit systems for all of its stakeholders (users, operators, regulators, general public); arguably, an Urban Mobility Living Lab should be an ideal framework to study system conditions, to design user-oriented innovations, and to test system’s responses to them on the field.
Ingmar Andreasson, Fabien Leurent, Rosaldo Rossetti
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