This paper discusses basic findings on crowd movement and their application to simulation models. This includes empirical and experimental results concerning group behavior, pedestrian motion, and emergency egress. Next to a literature review, we will present own empirical investigations on walking speed distribution and the dependency of walking speed on group size.
The second part of the paper relates these findings to modelling and simulation of crowd movement. This comprises the representation of behavior, calibration and verification and the connection to many particle systems.
Finally, we will present an extension of the current microscopic theory (basically underlying all the “individual” models used for real world applications). This includes route-choice behavior and links microscopic and macroscopic behavior.