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Über dieses Buch

The Handbook of Environmental Engineering series is an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. This exciting new addition to the series, Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering , has been designed to serve as a water resources engineering reference book as well as a supplemental textbook. We hope and expect it will prove of equal high value to advanced undergraduate and graduate students, to designers of water resources systems, and to scientists and researchers. A critical volume in the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, chapters employ methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, include pertinent cost data whenever possible, and explore in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 15: Modern Water Resources Engineering, provides information on some of the most innovative and ground-breaking advances in the field today from a panel of esteemed experts.



1. Introduction to Hydrology

Hydrology deals with the occurrence, movement, and storage of water in the earth system. Hydrologic science comprises understanding the underlying physical and stochastic processes involved and estimating the quantity and quality of water in the various phases and stores. The study of hydrology also includes quantifying the effects of such human interventions on the natural system at watershed, river basin, regional, country, continental, and global scales. The process of water circulating from precipitation in the atmosphere falling to the ground, traveling through a river basin (or through the entire earth system), and then evaporating back to the atmosphere is known as the hydrologic cycle. This introductory chapter includes seven subjects, namely, hydroclimatology, surface water hydrology, soil hydrology, glacier hydrology, watershed and river basin modeling, risk and uncertainty analysis, and data acquisition and information systems. The emphasis is on recent developments particularly on the role that atmospheric and climatic processes play in hydrology, the advances in hydrologic modeling of watersheds, the experiences in applying statistical concepts and laws for dealing with risk and uncertainty and the challenges encountered in dealing with nonstationarity, and the use of newer technology (particularly spaceborne sensors) for detecting and estimating the various components of the hydrologic cycle such as precipitation, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration.
Jose D. Salas, Rao S. Govindaraju, Michael Anderson, Mazdak Arabi, Félix Francés, Wilson Suarez, Waldo S. Lavado-Casimiro, Timothy R. Green

2. Open-Channel Hydraulics: From Then to Now and Beyond

As a subdiscipline of water resources engineering, open-channel hydraulics is of critical importance to human history. This chapter starts with a brief history of open-channel hydraulics. Then the fundamental concepts in open-channel hydraulics (specific energy, momentum, and resistance) are introduced. The new development on the subject of open-channel flow modeling is discussed at some length. A general introduction on 1D, 2D, and 3D computer modeling and examples will be given. Despite the tremendous progress made in the past, modern and future challenges include revisiting past projects which were designed using less than ideal standards, effect of climate variability, and natural open channels in the arid environment. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential future directions.
Xiaofeng Liu

3. River Ecology

Rivers have many service functions such as water supply, food production, sightseeing, and shipping, hence playing an important role in people’s living and agricultural production. During the last decades, intensive human activities have been threatening river ecosystem. A better understanding of ecological stresses and assessments of river ecosystem is of great significance to river conservation and management. This chapter discusses river ecology, disturbances to the ecology, and assessments of river ecosystem.
Zhao-Yin Wang, Bao-Zhu Pan

4. River Restoration

River restoration is to regain the ecological integrity and enhance the human well-being by reestablishing the natural hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological processes, in a self-sustainable manner by possibly, but not necessarily, referring to a pre-disturbance state. This chapter starts with an introductory part of the basic concepts and definitions of river restoration. Following, this chapter introduces an overview of a river in terms of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics in conjunction with river restoration. Disturbances affecting the river and problems caused by such are briefly explained. For river restoration planning, the goals and objectives of river restoration, planning process, site assessment, and investigations are explained. For river restoration design, channel design, in-stream habitat structures, riverbank restoration, channel–floodplain connectivity, and riparian restoration are explained. Finally, the restoration implementation, monitoring, and adaptive management are then explained. This chapter mainly focuses on an ecological river restoration, excluding enhancements of the amenities or the aesthetic values of such a restoration. It also does not relate to the restoration of the river water quality, which is equally as important as the restoration of river itself.
Hyoseop Woo

5. Sediment Management and Sustainable Use of Reservoirs

Reservoirs have traditionally been designed to operate for periods of 50–100 years without impairment by sedimentation. However, aging reservoirs are now experiencing sedimentation problems that were ignored by the original designers, and to sustain their utilization, it is now necessary to redefine operations and modify structures to manage sediment. This chapter outlines the basic concepts and strategies to consider in predicting and evaluating reservoir sedimentation, in determining the time frame and severity of the problem, and in selecting an appropriate course of action. Strategies from the watershed to the dam are described which can contribute to the achievement of long-term sustainable use.
Gregory L. Morris

6. Sediment Transport, River Morphology, and River Engineering

Unit stream power is the most important and dominant parameter for the determination of transport rate of sand, gravel, and hyper-concentrated sediment with wash load. The unit stream power theory can also be applied to the study of surface erosion. The unit stream power theory can be derived from the basic theories in turbulence and fluid mechanics. Minimum energy dissipation rate theory, or its simplified minimum unit stream power and minimum stream power theories, can be derived from the basic thermodynamic law based on the analogy between a thermo system and a river system. It can also be derived directly from mathematical argument for a dissipative system under dynamic equilibrium condition. The minimum energy dissipation rate theory and its simplified theories of minimum unit stream power and minimum stream power can provide engineers the needed theoretical basis for river morphology and hydraulic engineering studies. The Generalized Sediment Transport model for Alluvial River Simulation computer model series have been developed based on the above theories. The computer model series have been successfully applied in many countries for solving hydraulic engineering and reservoir sedimentation problems. Examples will be used to illustrate the applications of the computer models to solving a wide range of river morphology, river engineering, and reservoir sedimentation problems.
Chih Ted Yang

7. GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in Modern Water Resources Engineering

Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) concepts and technologies are used extensively in modern water resources engineering planning, design, and operations practice and are changing the way these activities are accomplished. GIS has become an increasingly important means for understanding and dealing with the pressing problems of water and related resources management in our world. GIS concepts and technologies help us collect and organize the data about such problems and understand their spatial relationships. GIS analysis capabilities provide ways for modeling and synthesizing information that contribute to supporting decisions for resource management across a large range of scales, from local to global. And GIS provides a means for visualizing resource characteristics and thereby enhancing understanding in support of decision-making. This chapter introduces GIS and RS and their application to water resources systems. A general overview of GIS is presented which is followed by summary review of GIS applications for modern water resources engineering.
Lynn E. Johnson

8. Decision Making Under Uncertainty: A New Paradigm for Water Resources Planning and Management

Climate change challenges water managers to make decisions about future infrastructure and the adequacy of current supplies before the uncertainties of the climate models and their hydrological impacts are resolved. Water managers thus face the classic problem of decision making under uncertainty (DMUU). The aim of DMUU is not to be paralyzed by uncertainty, but to highlight and use it to better manage risk. Strategies for DMUU include scenario planning, exploratory simulation modeling, robust decision making, and anticipatory planning and governance. These tools imply a new role for social scientists in the fields of water science and engineering and a new relationship between water science and the practitioner community. Examples are drawn from Phoenix, Arizona, and the US Southwest for DMUU support tools and strategies for science-policy engagement. Simulation experiments for Phoenix reveal challenging, but feasible, strategies for climate adaptation in the water sector for all but the most dire future climate conditions.
Patricia Gober

9. Upland Erosion Modeling

Significant advances in upland erosion modeling have been achieved in the past decade. The TREX (Two-dimensional Runoff, Erosion, and Export) watershed model has been developed at Colorado State University for the simulation of surface runoff from spatially and temporally distributed rainstorms on watersheds. The model has been applied in several countries with different climatic conditions. TREX can calculate surface infiltration, surface runoff, sediment transport, and the partition of metals in dissolved, adsorbed, and particulate form. The focus of this chapter is on the calculation of surface flows and total suspended solids at the watershed scale. The chapter is comprised of three parts: (a) a description of the main processes and governing equations, (b) a description of the model components and algorithms, and (c) an application example on a large watershed. The application example for Naesung Stream in South Korea provides powerful visual evidence of upland erosion processes at the watershed scale during large rainstorms (300 mm of rainfall). Model calibration was successful and overall model performance is acceptable. Hydrologic simulation results were in good to very good agreement with measured flow volume, peak flow, and time to peak at the watershed outlet as well as several stations within the watershed. Sediment transport simulation results were also in reasonable agreement with the measured suspended solids concentration.
Pierre Y. Julien, Mark L. Velleux, Un Ji, Jaehoon Kim

10. Advances in Water Resources Systems Engineering: Applications of Machine Learning

There has long existed a dichotomy in the field of water resources systems engineering between simulation and optimization modeling, with each approach having its own advantages and disadvantages. Simulation models provide a means of accurately representing the complex physiochemical, socioeconomic, and legal-administrative behavior of complex water resources systems, but lack the capability of systematically determining optimal water planning and management decisions. Optimization models, on the other hand, excel at automatic determination of optima, while often sacrificing the accurate representation of the underlying water system behavior. Various means of effectively establishing a synergy between simulation and optimization models that accentuates their advantages while minimizing their shortcomings have evolved from the field of artificial intelligence within the province of computer science. Artificial intelligence was defined by John McCarthy in 1955 as “the science and engineering of making intelligent decisions.” Machine learning, as a branch of artificial intelligence, focuses on the development of specific algorithms that allow computerized agents to learn optimal behaviors through interaction with a real or simulated environment. Although there are many aspects of machine learning, the focus here is on agent-based modeling tools for learning optimal decisions and management rule structures for water resources systems under conflicting goals and complex stochastic environments. A wide variety of machine learning tools such as reinforcement learning, artificial neural networks, fuzzy rule-based systems, and evolutionary algorithms are applied herein to complex decision problems in integrated management of multipurpose river-reservoir systems, real-time control of combined sewer systems for pollution reduction, and integrated design and operation of stormwater control systems for sustaining and remediating coastal aquatic ecosystems damaged by intensified urbanization and development.
John W. Labadie

11. Climate Change and Its Impact on Water Resources

Recent years have witnessed an increase in global average air temperatures as well as ocean temperatures, as documented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The rise in temperature is considered irrefutable evidence of climate change, and this has already started to have serious consequences for water resources and will have even more dire consequences in the future. Compounding these consequences are population growth, land-use changes and urbanization, increasing demands for water and energy, rising standards of living, changing dietary habits, changing agricultural practices, increasing industrial activities, increased pollution, and changing economic activities. All these will likely have adverse effects on water resources. This article briefly discusses climate change and its causes and impacts on water resources.
Vijay P. Singh, Ashok K. Mishra, H. Chowdhary, C. Prakash Khedun

12. Engineering Management of Agricultural Land Application for Watershed Protection

The controlled application of biosolids to cropland by subsurface injection or surface spreading is introduced in this chapter. Specifically, the land application process operation, design criteria, performance, biosolids application rates, staffing requirements, process monitoring, sensory observation, normal operating procedures, process control considerations, emergency operating procedures, safety considerations, application and design examples, costs, and troubleshooting guide are presented and discussed in detail. Proper land application for watershed protection is discussed.
Lawrence K. Wang, Nazih K. Shammas, Gregory K. Evanylo, Mu-Hao Sung Wang

13. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Water Reuse

This chapter discusses the use of natural and constructed wetlands for treatment of wastewaters. Mechanisms of treatment processes for wetlands were described. Function, roles, types, and selection of wetland plants were discussed. The chapter also covers design, monitoring, and maintenance of wetland treatment systems for wastewater. Case studies in the United States, Malaysia, and the United Kingdom were discussed. Pollution control and water reuse for watershed protection and environmental conservation are emphasized.
Azni Idris, Abdul Ghani Liew Abdullah, Yung-Tse Hung, Lawrence K. Wang

14. Living Machines for Bioremediation, Wastewater Treatment, and Water Conservation

This chapter describes the application of Living Machines, which are advanced ecologically engineered systems (AEES), which use natural abilities of living organisms to break down macromolecules and metabolize organic nutrients typically found in wastewater and polluted water bodies. The choice of any natural bioremediation strategy depends upon the nature and characteristics of the environment polluted, the nature of the pollutants, and the availability of the biological agents. This chapter focuses on the application of bioremediation approaches in the remediation of polluted water ecosystems, i.e., rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Fourteen case histories are presented for introduction of practical applications of Living Machine in bioremediation, wastewater treatment, and water reuse. The technology provides opportunities for environmental and water resources education, showcasing its water reuse advantages with broad applications in water shortage areas, such as California, Nevada, and New Mexico.
Yung-Tse Hung, Joseph F. Hawumba, Lawrence K. Wang

15. Aquaculture System Management and Water Conservation

Aquaculture or aquafarming is the cultivation of aquatic populations, including both aquatic animals and plants, under controlled environments. This chapter describes the environmental issues and regulations regarding aquaculture. Aquaculture water management, water supply, waste management, waste characterization and water quality related to aquaculture operation, and design of aquaculture system are emphasized. The use of three aquaculture systems (water hyacinth system, natural wetland system, and man-made Living Machine) for wastewater treatment and water conservation are presented.
Yung-Tse Hung, Hamidi A. Aziz, Mohd Erwan Sanik, Mohd Suffian Yusoff, Lawrence K. Wang

16. Glossary and Conversion Factors for Water Resources Engineers

Technical and legal terms commonly used by water resources engineers are introduced in this chapter. With the current trend toward metrication, the question of using a consistent system of units has been a problem. Wherever possible, the authors of this Handbook of Environmental Engineering series have used the US customary system (fps) along with the metric equivalent (SIU) or vice versa. For the convenience of the readers around the world, this book provides detailed conversion factors and glossary terms for water resources engineers. In addition, the basic and supplementary units, the derived units and quantities, important physical constants, the properties of water, and the periodic table of the elements are also presented in this chapter [1–3].
Mu-Hao Sung Wang, Lawrence K. Wang


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