Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Composites provide advantages over conventional structural upgrade systems by offering up to 50% first-cost savings and lower life-cycle costs, often with additional benefits such as easier installation and improved safety. Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are finding increasing applications as primary structural components in aerospace and automotive applications, bridges, building repair, and the oil and gas pipeline industry. These composites are typically exposed to a variety of aggressive environments, such as extreme temperature cycles, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, moisture, alkaline/salt environments, etc. However, no capability currently exists for reliably projecting the future state and conditions of composites used in various environments. The accurate determination of diffusivity and moisture uptake in a polymer composite is a key step in the accurate prediction of moisture-induced degradation. With this in mind, the chapter is subdivided into three sections: (1) the combined influence of damage and stress on moisture diffusion within the (bulk) polymer matrix in a polymer composite, (2) the combined influence of strain gradient, relative humidity, and temperature on moisture diffusion at the fiber–matrix and/or interlaminar interface, and (3) a simple mechanism-based model to predict strength degradation in a composite due to moisture ingress. The discussions presented in this chapter are primarily directed toward thermoset resins, such as epoxy.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Shen, C. H. and G.S. Springer (1981) “Effects of Moisture and Temperature on the Tensile Strength of Composite Materials,” Environmental Effects on Composite Materials, G. S. Springer, ed., Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., pp. 79–93.
Gurtin, M.E., and Yatomi, C. (1979) “On a model for Two Phase Diffusion in Composite Materials,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 13, pp. 126–130. CrossRef
Carter, H.G., and Kibler, K.G. (1978) “Langmuir-Type Model for Anomalous Diffusion in Composite Resins,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 12, pp. 118–130. CrossRef
Shirrell, C. D., Leisler, W. H. and Sandow, F. A. (1979) “Moisture-Induced Surface Damage in T300/5208 Graphite/Epoxy Laminates,” Nondestructive Evaluation and Flaw Criticality for Composite Materials, ASTM STP 696, R. B. Pipes, ed., American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 209–222.
Weitsman, Y. (1991) “Moisture in Composites: Sorption and Damage,”, Fatigue of Composite Materials, K. L. Reifsnider, ed., Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., pp. 385–429.
Frisch, H.J. (1966) “Irreversible Thermodynamics of Internally relaxing Systems in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition,” In “ Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, Variational Techniques, and Stability”, Edited by R.J. Dennelly, R. Herman, and I. Prigogine. University of Chicago Press, pp. 277–280.
Crank, J. (1975) The Mathematics of Diffusion, Oxford University Press.
Weitsman, Y. (1987) “Stress Assisted Diffusion in Elastic and Viscoelastic Materials,” Journal of Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 35(1):73–93. CrossRef
Biot, M.A. (1956) “Thermoelasticity and Irreversible Thermodynamics,” Journal of Applied Physics, 27(3): 240–253. CrossRef
Schapery, R.A. (1969) “Further Development of a Thermodynamic Constitutive Theory: Stress Formulation,” A&S Report No. 69–2, Purdue University, West Lafayette.
Weitsman, Y. (1990) “A Continuum Diffusion Model for Viscoelastic Materials,” Journal of Physical Chemistry, 94(2): 961–968. CrossRef
Weitsman, Y. (1987) “Coupled Damage and Moisture Transport in Fiber- Reinforced, Polymeric Composites,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, 23(7):1003–1025. CrossRef
Kumar, Bhavesh G., Singh, Raman P., and Nakamura, Toshio. (2002) “Degradation of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Epoxy Composites by Ultraviolet Radiation and Condensation”, Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 36, No. 24. CrossRef
Weitsman,, Y.J. and Elahi, M., (2000) Mechanics of Time dependent Materials, 3, 107–126. CrossRef
Roy S., and Xu W., (2001). "Modeling of Diffusion in the Presence of Damage in Polymer Matrix Composites,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, 38, pp. 115–125 . CrossRef
Talreja, R., (1994) “Damage Characterization by Internal Variables,” Damage Mechanics of Composite Materials, Edited by R. Talreja, Elsevier Science, pp. 53–78.
Adkins, J.E., (1959) “Symmetry Relations for Orthotropic and Transversely Isotropic Materials,” Arch. Rational Mech. Anal., Vol. 4, pp. 193–213. CrossRef
Roy, S. and Bandorawalla T., (1999) " Modeling of Diffusion in a Micro-cracked Composite Laminate using Approximate Solutions,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 33, No.10, pp. 872–905. CrossRef
Roy, S., Lefebvre, D. R., Dillard, D. A. and Reddy, J. N. (1989) "A Model for the Diffusion of Moisture in Adhesive Joints. Part III: Numerical Simulations," Journal of Adhesion, Vol. 27, pp. 41–62. CrossRef
Sancaktar, E., and Baechtle, D., (1993)” The Effect of Stress Whitening on Moisture Diffusion in Thermosetting Polymers,” J. Adhesion, Vol. 42, pp. 65–85. CrossRef
Wong, T., and Broutman, L., (1985a.) “Moisture Diffusion in Epoxy Resins Part I: Non-Fickian Sorption Processes,” Polymer Eng. & Sci., Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 521–528. CrossRef
Wong, T., and Broutman, L., (1985b.) “Water in Epoxy Resins Part II: Diffusion Mechanisms,” Polymer Eng. & Sci., Vol. 25, No. 9, pp. 529–534. CrossRef
Roy, S., (1999) “Modeling of Anomalous Diffusion in Polymer Composites: A Finite Element Approach,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 33, No. 14, pp. 1318–1343. CrossRef
Fahmy, A. A., and Hurt, J. C. (1980) “Stress dependence of water diffusion in epoxy resin,” Polymer Composites, 1, pp. 77–80. CrossRef
Roy, S., W. Xu, S.J. Park, and K.M. Liechti (2000) "Anomalous Moisture Diffusion in Viscoelastic Polymers: Modeling and Testing”, Journal of Applied Mechanics, Vol. 67, pp. 391–396. CrossRef
Roy, S., W. Xu, S. Patel, and S. Case, (2001) "Modeling of Moisture Diffusion in the Presence of Bi-axial Damage in Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 38, issue 42–43, pp. 7627 – 7641. CrossRef
Roy S. and Shiue, F.W., (2003) “A Coupled Hygrothermal Cohesive-Layer Constitutive Model for Simulating Debond Growth”, Polymer and Polymer Composites, Vol. 11, No. 8, pp. 633–647.
Gere, J. and Timoshenko, S. (1984) “Mechanics of Materials,” PWS-Kent Publishing Company.
Tsai, C. Cheng, M., Hwang, S., Tsai, Y., (2004) “Characterizing the Hygric Behavior of Composites by Suspending Method,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 38, No. 9. CrossRef
Xiao, G.Z., and M.E.R. Shanahan, (1997) "Water Absorption and Desorption in an Epoxy Resin with Degradation," J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys., 35, pp. 2659–2670. CrossRef
Goruganthu, S., Jason Elwell, Arun Ramasetty, Abilash R. Nair, Samit Roy, Anwarul Haque, Piyush K. Dutta and Ashok Kumar, (2008) “Characterization and Modeling of the Effect of Environmental Degradation on Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon/Epoxy Composites ,” Polymer and Polymer Composites, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 165–179.
- Moisture-Induced Degradation
- Springer US
- Chapter 6
in-adhesives, MKVS, Hellmich GmbH/© Hellmich GmbH, Zühlke/© Zühlke, Neuer Inhalt/© momius | stock.adobe.com