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Über dieses Buch

Assisting Oxidative Protein Folding: How Do Protein Disulphide-Isomerases Couple Conformational and Chemical Processes in Protein Folding?, by A. Katrine Wallis and Robert B. Freedman Peptide Bond cis/trans Isomerases: A Biocatalysis Perspective of Conformational Dynamics in Proteins, by Cordelia Schiene-Fischer, Tobias Aumüller and Gunter Fischer Small Heat-Shock Proteins: Paramedics of the Cell, by Gillian R. Hilton, Hadi Lioe, Florian Stengel, Andrew J. Baldwin und Justin L. P. Benesch Allostery in the Hsp70 Chaperone Proteins, by Erik R. P. Zuiderweg, Eric B. Bertelsen, Aikaterini Rousaki, Matthias P. Mayer, Jason E. Gestwicki and Atta Ahmad Hsp90: Structure and Function, by Sophie E. Jackson Extracellular Chaperones, by Rebecca A. Dabbs, Amy R. Wyatt, Justin J. Yerbury, Heath Ecroyd and Mark R. Wilson

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Assisting Oxidative Protein Folding: How Do Protein Disulphide-Isomerases Couple Conformational and Chemical Processes in Protein Folding?

Abstract
Oxidative folding is the simultaneous process of forming disulphide bonds and native structure in proteins. Pathways of oxidative folding are highly diverse and in eukaryotes are catalysed by protein disulphide isomerases (PDIs). PDI consists of four thioredoxin-like domains, two of which contain active sites responsible for disulphide interchange reactions. The four domains are arranged in a horseshoe shape with the two active sites facing each other at the opening of the horseshoe. An extended hydrophobic surface at the bottom of the horseshoe is responsible for non-covalent, hydrophobic interactions with the folding protein. This binding site is capable of distinguishing between fully-folded and partially- or un-folded proteins. PDI is not only a catalyst of the formation of disulphide bonds, but also catalyses folding steps which involve significant conformational change in the folding protein. This review brings together the latest catalytic and structural data aimed at understanding how this is achieved.
A. Katrine Wallis, Robert B. Freedman

Peptide Bond cis/trans Isomerases: A Biocatalysis Perspective of Conformational Dynamics in Proteins

Abstract
Peptide bond cis/trans isomerases (PCTIases) catalyze an intrinsically slow rotational motion taking part in the conformational dynamics of a protein backbone in all of its folding states. In this way, PCTIases assist other proteins to shape their functionally active structure. They have been associated with viral, bacterial, and parasitic infection, signal transduction, cell differentiation, altered metabolic activity, apoptosis, and many other physiological and pathophysiological processes. The need to understand, characterize, and control biochemical steps which contribute to the folding of proteins is a problem being addressed in many laboratories today. This review discusses the biochemical basis that the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) family of PCTIases uses for the control of bioactivity. Special emphasis is given to recent developments in the field of biocatalytic features of PPIases, the mechanism of catalysis, and enzyme inhibition.
Cordelia Schiene-Fischer, Tobias Aumüller, Gunter Fischer

Small Heat-Shock Proteins: Paramedics of the Cell

Abstract
The small heat-shock proteins (sHSPs) comprise a family of molecular chaperones which are widespread but poorly understood. Despite considerable effort, comparatively few high-resolution structures have been determined for the sHSPs, a likely consequence of their tendency to populate ensembles of inter-converting conformational and oligomeric states at equilibrium. This dynamic structure appears to underpin the sHSPs’ ability to bind and sequester target proteins rapidly, and renders them the first line of defence against protein aggregation during disease and cellular stress. Here we describe recent studies on the sHSPs, with a particular focus on those which have provided insight into the structure and dynamics of these proteins. The combined literature reveals a picture of a remarkable family of molecular chaperones whose thermodynamic and kinetic properties are exquisitely balanced to allow functional regulation by subtle changes in cellular conditions.
Gillian R. Hilton, Hadi Lioe, Florian Stengel, Andrew J. Baldwin, Justin L. P. Benesch

Allostery in the Hsp70 Chaperone Proteins

Abstract
Heat shock 70-kDa (Hsp70) chaperones are essential to in vivo protein folding, protein transport, and protein re-folding. They carry out these activities using repeated cycles of binding and release of client proteins. This process is under allosteric control of nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and other biophysical techniques have contributed much to the understanding of the allosteric mechanism linking these activities and the effect of co-chaperones on this mechanism. In this chapter these findings are critically reviewed. Studies on the allosteric mechanisms of Hsp70 have gained enhanced urgency, as recent studies have implicated this chaperone as a potential drug target in diseases such as Alzheimer’s and cancer. Recent approaches to combat these diseases through interference with the Hsp70 allosteric mechanism are discussed.
Erik R. P. Zuiderweg, Eric B. Bertelsen, Aikaterini Rousaki, Matthias P. Mayer, Jason E. Gestwicki, Atta Ahmad

Hsp90: Structure and Function

Abstract
Hsp90 is a highly abundant and ubiquitous molecular chaperone which plays an essential role in many cellular processes including cell cycle control, cell survival, hormone and other signalling pathways. It is important for the cell’s response to stress and is a key player in maintaining cellular homeostasis. In the last ten years, it has become a major therapeutic target for cancer, and there has also been increasing interest in it as a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative disorders, and in the development of anti-virals and anti-protozoan infections. The focus of this review is the structural and mechanistic studies which have been performed in order to understand how this important chaperone acts on a wide variety of different proteins (its client proteins) and cellular processes. As with many of the other classes of molecular chaperone, Hsp90 has a critical ATPase activity, and ATP binding and hydrolysis known to modulate the conformational dynamics of the protein. It also uses a host of cochaperones which not only regulate the ATPase activity and conformational dynamics but which also mediate interactions with Hsp90 client proteins. The system is also regulated by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and acetylation. This review discusses all these aspects of Hsp90 structure and function.
Sophie E. Jackson

Extracellular Chaperones

Abstract
The maintenance of the levels and correct folding state of proteins (proteostasis) is a fundamental prerequisite for life. Life has evolved complex mechanisms to maintain proteostasis and many of these that operate inside cells are now well understood. The same cannot yet be said of corresponding processes in extracellular fluids of the human body, where inappropriate protein aggregation is known to underpin many serious diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, type II diabetes and prion diseases. Recent research has uncovered a growing family of abundant extracellular chaperones in body fluids which appear to selectively bind to exposed regions of hydrophobicity on misfolded proteins to inhibit their toxicity and prevent them from aggregating to form insoluble deposits. These extracellular chaperones are also implicated in clearing the soluble, stabilized misfolded proteins from body fluids via receptor-mediated endocytosis for subsequent lysosomal degradation. Recent work also raises the possibility that extracellular chaperones may play roles in modulating the immune response. Future work will better define the in vivo functions of extracellular chaperones in proteostasis and immunology and pave the way for the development of new treatments for serious diseases.
Rebecca A. Dabbs, Amy R. Wyatt, Justin J. Yerbury, Heath Ecroyd, Mark R. Wilson

Backmatter

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