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Über dieses Buch

This book originated from a course which I developed for the Master's degree course in Molecular Engineering in Kyoto University. Most of the students had degrees in Chemistry and a limited experience of Physics and Mathematics. Since research in Molecular Engineering requires knowledge of some applications of solid state physics which are not treated in conventional physics texts it was necessary to devise a course which would build on their chemical background and enable them to read the contemporary literature of relevance to their research. I hope that this book will be found useful as a text for other advanced courses on material science for chemists. Molecular Engineering is concerned with the design and construction, at the molecular level, of materials which can fulfil specific functions. Thus the study of the forces between molecules and the influence of molecular shapes and electrostatic features on molecular properties are important. The mechanisms whereby, in the solid state, these produce cooperative effects, catalytic effects and abnormal electrical effects must be understood, at least qualitatively. The aim of this book has been to give insight into the mechanisms whereby molecules influence one another when they are close together.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Close-Packed Crystals

Abstract
There are many factors which combine to determine the structure of a solid. In this chapter we shall consider one of the factors simplest to understand, namely the size and shape of the molecules composing a molecular solid. Crystals often achieve a packing of their molecules into the smallest possible volume. This geometrical factor determines completely the structure of some solids and packing considerations are always an important factor in fixing the shapes of all solids.
George G. Hall

Chapter 2. Ionic Crystals

Abstract
The crystal of rock salt was one of the first to have its structure determined using X-rays. It has a relatively simple geometrical form as have all the alkali halides. Salts which involve three or more different ions have more complicated structures. In this chapter we consider the forces which determine these structures and explore some crystal properties.
George G. Hall

Chapter 3. Molecular Crystals

Abstract
In Chapter 1 we have considered the structure of solids whose atoms interact through van der Waals and repulsive forces alone and, in Chapter 2, the complication of introducing strong electrostatic forces has been added. In this Chapter we return to the simpler situation and consider the crystals of molecules which carry no net charge and have relatively small, or zero, dipole moments. Their binding is largely determined by the packing together of the molecules but some electrostatic effects may enter to complicate the discussion.
George G. Hall

Chapter 4. Valence Crystals

Abstract
In this Chapter we turn to a type of solid structure whose bonding is very different from those already discussed. A valence crystal is essentially one large molecule with valence forces alone acting to determine its structure.
George G. Hall

Chapter 5. Metals

Abstract
In the past, the interest of physicists in metals has focused on the properties of their relatively free electrons, including electrical and thermal conductivity, and their magnetic properties. More recently, it has appeared that the properties of small clusters of metal atoms could be even more interesting to chemists since they can be powerful catalysts.
George G. Hall

Chapter 6. Surfaces

Abstract
In earlier Chapters the energies of formation of some surfaces have been considered and certain aspects of surface structure and formation have been discussed. Since there are many important applications of our subject which depend critically on the details of the surfaces involved we now develop a more careful approach to surface properties. We begin by looking at the possible symmetries of a surface. The interesting possibility of surface structures which have local five-fold symmetry is also examined briefly.
George G. Hall

Chapter 7. Cooperative effects

Abstract
There are several properties of crystals which can exhibit cooperative effects under certain circumstances. Ferromagnetism is one familiar example, where the magnetic moment in one cell helps to induce a parallel moment in its neighbours and, hence, throughout the crystal. Ferroelectricity has a similar origin in the local dipole moments. It is less obvious that the structural properties of alloys are another example but they can also be included.
George G. Hall

Backmatter

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