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01.09.2014 | Original Article | Ausgabe 5/2014

Environmental Earth Sciences 5/2014

Monitoring above-zone temperature variations associated with CO2 and brine leakage from a storage aquifer

Zeitschrift:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Ausgabe 5/2014
Autoren:
Mehdi Zeidouni, Jean-Philippe Nicot, Susan D. Hovorka
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s12665-014-3077-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

CO2 injection in saline aquifers induces temperature changes owing to processes such as Joule–Thomson cooling, endothermic water vaporization, exothermic CO2 dissolution besides the temperature discrepancy between injected and native fluids. CO2 leaking from the injection zone, in addition to initial temperature contrast due to the geothermal gradient, undergoes similar processes, causing temperature changes in the above zone. Numerical simulation tools were used to evaluate temperature changes associated with CO2 leakage from the storage aquifer to an above-zone monitoring interval and to assess the monitorability of CO2 leakage on the basis of temperature data. The impact of both CO2 and brine leakage on temperature response is considered for three cases (1) a leaky well co-located with the injection well, (2) a leaky well distant from the injector, and (3) a leaky fault. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine key operational and reservoir parameters that control the temperature signal in the above zone. Throughout the analysis injection-zone parameters remain unchanged. Significant pressure drop upon leakage causes expansion of CO2 associated with Joule–Thomson cooling. However, brine may begin leaking before CO2 breakthrough at the leakage pathway, causing heating in the above zone. Thus, unlike the pressure which increases in response to both CO2 and brine leakage, the temperature signal may differentiate between the leaking fluids. In addition, the strength of the temperature signal correlates with leakage velocity unlike pressure signal whose strength depends on leakage rate. Increasing leakage conduit cross-sectional area increases leakage rate and thus increases pressure change in the above zone. However, it decreases leakage velocity, and therefore, reduces temperature cooling and signal. It is also shown that the leakage-induced temperature change covers a small area around the leakage pathway. Thus, temperature data will be most useful if collected along potential leaky wells and/or wells intersecting potential leaky faults.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 670 kb)
12665_2014_3077_MOESM1_ESM.docx
Literatur
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