Electric vehicles (EV) can become integral part of a smart grid because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. To integrate EVs smoothly into the power systems, a multi-agents system (MAS) with hierarchical organization structure is proposed in this paper. The proposed MAS system consists of three types of agents: distribution system operator agent (DSO agent), electric vehicle fleet operator agent (EV FO agent or alternatively called virtual power plant agent) and EV agent. A DSO agent belongs to the top level of the hierarchy and its role is to manage the distribution network safely by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy schedule of VPPs. VPP agents belong to the middle level and their roles are to manage the charge periods of the EVs. EV agents sit in the bottom level and they represent EV owners and operate the charging behaviour of EVs. To simulate this collaborative (all agents contribute to achieving an optimized global performance) but also competitive environment (each agent will try to increase its utilities or reduce its costs), a multi-agent platform was developed to demonstrate the coordination between the interacting agents.
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- Multi-agents Based Modelling for Distribution Network Operation with Electric Vehicle Integration
Henrik W. Bindner
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg