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Über dieses Buch

This book is both a review and a look to the future, highlighting challenges for better predicting quantitatively the impact of diagenesis on reservoir rocks. Classical diagenesis studies make use of a wide range of descriptive analytical techniques to explain specific, relatively time-framed fluid-rock interaction processes, and deduce their impacts on reservoir rocks. Future operational workflows will consist of constructing a conceptual diagenesis model, quantifying the related diagenetic phases, and modelling the diagenetic processes. Innovative approaches are emerging for applied quantitative diagenesis, providing numerical data that can be used by reservoir engineers as entry (input) data, and for validating results of numerical simulations. Geometry-based, geostatistical and geochemical modelling do not necessarily mimic natural processes, they rather provide reasonable solutions to specific problems.



Chapter 1. Introduction

Through this contribution, the actual state of the art for characterizing diagenetic processes and concepts is presented. Then, a variety of tools and approaches for quantitative assessments of diagenesis at various scales are discussed. This is followed by the illustrations of several numerical modelling techniques and a proposed workflow for integrated basin and reservoir modelling, aiming to further assess the impacts of multi-scale diagenesis on the heterogeneity of carbonate reservoir rocks.
Fadi Henri Nader

Chapter 2. Characterization of Diagenesis

Several inter-related factors lead to complicated heterogeneities in sedimentary rocks, including the depositional settings, diagenetic processes, as well as tectonics and burial/thermal evolution of the basin. In order to characterize properly such heterogeneities, studies of diagenetic phases (products) have to be combined to classical sedimentological investigations and basin analyses (e.g. burial history). By ‘characterization’, description and classification are invoked. The diagenetic phases, which are produced by certain processes under specific conditions, are precisely described and then ascribed to carbonate diagenetic realms. Accordingly, predictive deductions could be applied concerning the extent of such phases and their impacts on the host-rocks at various scales. They are commonly investigated with a variety of tools, somehow specific to the type of phases at hand, which make the state of the art of today’s characterization workflows for diagenesis.
Fadi Henri Nader

Chapter 3. Quantifying Diagenesis

Classical diagenesis characterization methods and conceptual models are qualitative and do not yield quantitative data to be directly used by reservoir engineers for rock-typing and geological modelling. ‘Quantitative diagenesis’ is a rising field of research on its own as it combines new developments in analytical equipment and creative workflows and techniques. If the objective of characterization of diagenetic processes is to link the processes to the resulted phases (and vice versa), here the main goal is to be able to assign numerical values for such phases.
Fadi Henri Nader

Chapter 4. Numerical Modelling of Diagenesis

Numerical modelling of the fluid-rock interactions (diagenesis) is actually an expanding discipline in geosciences. Three distinct approaches for modelling diagenetic features and effects of diagenesis on host-rocks (i.e. geometry-based, geostatistical, and geocgemical), are presented here and remain under development; they will provide further advancement in the years to come. Numerical tools have to cope with further complicated algorithms and workflows in order to produce workable solutions that take into account key diagenetic processes which affect reservoir properties. This is not only needed for the hydrocarbon industry—today expressed by the development and application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques and the like—but also for the better use of the underground, such as water, gas, and oil storage (e.g. CCS), and geothermal energy production.
Fadi Henri Nader

Chapter 5. Conclusions

Understanding and predicting subsurface heterogeneities remain of paramount importance for petroleum exploration and production as well as geothermal energy production, underground storage, and environmental remediation. Numerical modelling of quantitative diagenesis and its impact on carbonate reservoir properties will be even more developed in the near future. Therefore, the way forward with respect to carbonate diagenesis scientific research seems evident to me as the integration of a variety of numerical workflows at different scales: from a basin-scale (using seismic data, outcrop-analogues, well cores, etc.) to a reservoir-scale, and eventually the plug-scale.
Fadi Henri Nader


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