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2023 | Buch

Multidimensional Sustainability: Transitions and Convergences

Proceedings of ISPGAYA 2022


Über dieses Buch

This volume contains the proceedings of the 2022 iteration of the ISPGAYA meeting, titled “Multidimensional Sustainability: Transitions and Convergences” and held on September 29 and 30th, 2022 in Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal. The conference and resulting book intend to explore the involvement of Portugal, a country on the semi-periphery of the world system, in developments regarding the understanding of and progress toward sustainability. The conference was organized by ISPGAYA, an institution belonging to the private polytechnic higher education system in Portugal, and brought together participants from around the world. This volume intends to establish a milestone in the multidimensional approach to the theme of sustainability, affirming the concept's multi- and interdisciplinary nature and bringing together scholars across disciplines.



Accountancy & Fiscal Organization

1. Sustainability Reporting in the Portuguese Municipalities: An Empirical Analysis of the 25 Largest Municipalities

The sustainability report is recent, dating from the late 1990s, and is not yet considered a common practice among private or public entities. We intend to collect evidence about the sustainability report in Portuguese municipalities, given its importance.We analysed the information disclosed (or not) by the 25 Portuguese municipalities (largest dimension) under the theme of the sustainability report or similar. For this we look for these reports on the websites of each municipality; when we do not find such a report, contact the municipality directly to clarify the issue; also confirms this web information search.We also apply the methodology called document analysis adopting as a basis the ISO 37210 standard and the Sustainable Development Goals present in the projects and good practices for the municipalities under analysis.From the results obtained, we can conclude that only some Portuguese municipalities report sustainability, not being considered a priority one of the largest municipalities. From the analysis to the 25 largest municipalities in Portugal I concluded that there is a long way to go in Portugal. We also found that there is an association between the frequency with which sustainable development goals are included in projects and good practices and the level of education of the population and GDP per capita of municipalities.As future developments, it suggests an investigation of alternatives for the sustainability communication of municipalities, as well as their framework and standards. We also suggest the analysis of the association with other indicators, such as budget and population density.

Fernando Pinto, Cristina Couto, Dulce Gomes, Joaquim Oliveira, Ronaldo Silva, Domingos Oliveira
2. Understanding Sustainable Innovations in Malaysia’s Public Procurement Initiatives

Public procurement of goods, services or works plays a significant role in promoting sustainable development and driving global sustainable innovation. While ensuring that the nation is investing the public money in such a way that can achieve a long-term benefit, sustainable public procurement is an effort to use the buying power to procure and achieve value for money by minimizing environmental harm and benefitting the community. In developing countries, sustainability has been extended to various research areas, including public procurement. However, there is little evidence on the policy understanding that involves sustainable innovations and public procurements towards achieving Goal 12 of the nation’s Sustainable Development Goals agenda. This study addresses a more profound understanding of Malaysia’s sustainable policy, especially regarding the public procurement process, sustainability and innovation. In this study, we conduct a qualitative document review of Malaysia’s current policy and the way forward in sustainability, innovation and procurement. A few policy selection criteria were included in selecting the right policy documents. The overall commitment of Malaysia’s Government found that there are currently seven (7) active policies towards sustainable innovation in the procurement initiatives. Based on the review too, this study further proposes a policy framework to see how sustainable innovations in procurement policy have been defined and interpreted in Malaysia.

Nur Faiza Ishak, Vinesh Thiruchelvam

Electronics & Industrial Automation

3. Induction Heating System for Industrial Bearings or Common Appliances

This chapter presents a study on the implementation of a low power induction heating system for bearings used in medium/large size electric motors. Introduction: Induction heating is one of the key metal industry applications, grounded on the three basic effects: electromagnetic induction, skin effect and heat transfer. Goals; Methods: The thermal power generated from hysteresis losses and Eddy current induced in ferromagnetic materials, as in steel bearings, is maintained at the fixed value by controlling the current in the induction coil. For this purpose, an electronic power converter, an AVR microcontroller and a set of sensors to measure several necessary variables of the induction heating process in the device are used. Such system is easily transportable and can be used close to electrical machines, thus reducing the risk of adverse effects, as an improved energy efficiency compared to conventional heating systems. Results: When compared to other systems, such as resistive based heaters, open flame and oil bath, induction reduces the risks of structural damage to the bearing, eliminates oil contamination, prevents environmental damage and eliminates handling risks for users. With the proposed control method, energy consumption is optimized by proper control of the electrical power used.

Alexandre Diogo Leites da Silva, José Alberto Campos Neves, Nelson Neves
4. Magnetic Field Imaging Prototype

This chapter presents a prototype (CCMags) of a camera for electromagnetic fields (EMF) aiming to improve the measurement and comprehension of EMF, constant and variable, and behaviour.Introduction: The CCMags is a tool to better understand EMF for academic and technical purposes. Through real-time imaging of EMF, model behaviours and machine performance can be improved.Goals, Methods: The human eye as two different types of cells, that produce data, that allow the brain to understand and see regions and their limits (edges). This system, works also in two layers – one for acquisition and a second for data processing. A second layer, or the processing layer, that treats information from sensors lattice, and generates images and complemetary information about the EMF (electromagnetic field) acquired by the sensors array.The hardware plus the software is the primal element of this project that will evolve with more sensors and hardware and software layers.Results: This device creates a image (color or gray level) of static EMF, or low frequency time-varying EMF (eletromagnetic fields).Conclusions: This prototype aims to visualize EM fields, although initial data is limited in dimension, amplitude and frequency due to physical boundaries. Integrating different sensors in a unique board improves data quality and allows a better insight of the complex model of magnetic fields.

José Alberto Campos Neves, Alexandre Diogo Leites da Silva
5. Sensory Application in Intelligent Monitoring for the Sustainability of Indoor Spaces

Sensors play a crucial role in the Internet of Things (IoT) by collecting data from the physical environment and transforming it into digital information that can be processed, analyzed and used for decision making. This article aims to demonstrate some intelligent solutions with remote control and monitoring, through a Wi-Fi network, using the MQTT communication protocol. These devices are based on small sockets, which can be easily applied in any indoor space, adapted with a communication mechanism for sending sensory data, such as measuring electrical consumption and touch sensor. The measurements taken are sent through a broker that saves the respective data for statistics or sends it to a server. The work that we developed resulted in products capable of being modular and configurable, according to the needs of each space, with integrated security systems for data communications and the respective hardware power supply, without the need for invasive interventions in its application.Demonstrated were the real-time communication capabilities, the application of multiple modules, and dedicated processing capability, thanks to the integrated CPU. Future improvements were also verified, regarding user protection in assembly and battery usage, to make the product more versatile.

Tiago C. Padilha, Nelson Neves
6. The Double Benefit of Environmental Sustainability – The Case of ISPGAYA

This study shows the double benefit of the institution’s investment in environmental issues, institution-environment. As a driving force, it is intended to implement environmental certification in the institution according to ISO 14001 and to consolidate the mutual benefit with more environmentally friendly practices. By gathering data on the history of investment in environmental issues, such as solar panels, which provide electricity and hot water, the replacement of traditional light bulbs for low consumption ones, and the financial gains achieved since then to date, we intend to present numerical data demonstrating the advantages of adopting environmentally friendly practices. The investigation question posed was: are there financial as well as environmental benefits from applying environmentally friendly technology in the building under analysis? Results show gains that demonstrate from a financial point of view the advantages of making investments in environmental issues, allowing the consolidation of the Environmental Sustainability Plan of the institution, in a perspective of short-, medium-, and long-term planning of the set of measures and actions with results in the dimensions of environmental improvement and improvement of the institution.

Nelson Neves, João Lima, Luis Soveral, José Carlos Morais

Energy Efficiency

7. Energy Consumption Analysis from Main Parameters: A Dataset in the Brazilian Scenario

In this paper, some of the most important parameters obtained from the power distribution companies (PDCs) are analysed through modern data tools in order to find correlations and data-driven directives to better practices. A statistical evaluation was made to determine which parameters have the greatest impact on the bill by analysing a 24-month period consumption of an industrial and a commercial customer in the Brazilian tariff scenario and a 12-month period consumption of a Romanian Hypermarket.The analysis of these parameters showed that the largest impact is generated by lack of management of the load installed in the company in relation to the demand, which has a direct correlation with consumption and a significant link with temperature. Besides the first results, this work also provided subsidies for a well-grounded use of data-driven further analysis. So, as a next step, the same parameters will be applied to an artificial intelligence algorithm to create an adaptive energy consumption forecasting model, aiming to minimize energy consumption fines that differs from contracts with PDC’s.

Patrick de Sousa Pessoa, Victor Cesar Costa, Rodrigo Galuzzi Garcia Piva, Arianne Soares do Nascimento Pereira, Renato Camargo Giacomini
8. New Energies Framework: Hydrogen Ecosystem, Geopolitical and Economic Impacts

In the energy transition agenda, challenging goals were established in order to guide nations to seek their own solutions for the decarbonization of the economy. The strategies of implantation and technical-economic feasibility of new energies, namely clean energies, have in hydrogen a hope of exploring the endogenous capacities of production and local consumption of energy. The hydrogen business, which has been growing every year, will also be able to strengthen the circular economy with the local use of the wealth produced and assist in meeting the sustainability goals recommended by the UN. Since hydrogen production is a complex value chain, the generation of challenges and opportunities in the commercialization market is a reality and will require coordinated multidisciplinary efforts. This work aims to analyse the hydrogen ecosystem in technical, economic and geopolitical aspects facing the international efforts in sustainable decarbonization solutions and in the search for energetic independence. An overview and an in-depth study of the reality of this new technological option will be presented in order to provide data to facilitate the understanding of the challenges, of what is in fact reality and what is just a wishful thinking until the present moment of maturity of the hydrogen as a massive new energy source.

Eric Zanghi, Felipe de Brito e Cunha, Maria Mônica de Oliveira, Carlos Henrique de Oliveira

Information Technology & Cybersecurity

9. A Comparative Model for Female and Male Generation Y Individuals Regarding Their Interest and Intention to Use eBooks

The shift towards digital has increased in pace in the last decades, especially in the previous decade. The proliferation of internet access and availability of e-readers in various forms, smartphones, and digital media has made accessing, storing, and reading eBooks much easier. However, there appear to be varying attitudes towards eBooks among individuals. This disparity can also be seen in how male and female readers perceive eBooks.This study aimed to assess the intention to use eBooks among individuals using a quantitative, cross-sectional study design. The sample size of 370 provided a robust data set on which to base generalisations. This offered a snapshot into self-reported use, subjective norms, consumer innovativeness, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and interest and intention to use eBooks. A model was created to assess the correlation between these variables.The study found that despite the availability of devices and digital content, there was still hesitation in using eBooks. Moreover, respondents showed low current use of eBooks; however, they did report that they were interested and intended to use them in the future. Furthermore, female and male respondents had slight differences in correlation between variables. Thus, universities and publishers should conduct the approach in targeting female readers versus male readers slightly differently.

Johannes-Hugo van Schalkwyk
10. Gamification on Cybersecurity Literacy: Social Sustainability and Educative Projects

The recent situation of the COVID-19 pandemic has stimulated both the discussion on the use of IT-related teaching tools and the exposure of the student population to vulnerabilities linked to cybersecurity literacy as an integral part of the educational projects of educational institutions and a component of the exercise of citizenship and social sustainability of educational communities.The study presented is based on the assumption that the use of gamification as an element or tool that promotes learning within digital environments may be feasible, and more specifically may function as a teaching element on issues related to cybersecurity for students, especially for higher education students.In order to quantify the openness of students to such a tool path, quantitative methodology was used, and a survey was carried out in two Polytechnic Institutions (PI), achieving a sample of 95 students, and seeking perceptions on positive impacts resulting from the creation of a game scenario for better learning. Results show that students, regardless of their higher education course, clearly understand what gamification is and its goals, and also that students adopt good cybersecurity practices according to their higher education course. This last result goes accordingly with the supposition that gamification can and should be used in cybersecurity literacy.

Jorge Simões, Justino Lourenço, Sérgio Sargo, José Carlos Morais
11. Relevance and Characteristics of Responsible Innovation Assessment Tools

Innovation is a key driver to address the challenges of sustainability. To achieve this goal, the various entities participating in the innovation process must work together to ensure that research methodologies and results are aligned with the needs and expectations of society. Having a conceptual and practical approach that allows exploring and measuring how projects are fulfilling this expectation is key in this process. In this sense, this study aims to explore the relevance of this phenomenon for the development of innovation practices and to characterize and compare several responsible innovation assessment tools (RIATs) that can be used by research teams. A qualitative methodology is used to identify, map, and compare the characteristics of each RIAT. The main strengths and limitations of each approach are also explored. The findings reveal a total of 18 RIATs and 16 dimensions. The challenge is to get a harmonious balance between these various dimensions and to have this analysis performed in the early stages of each project. This study makes practical contributions by identifying areas that each project must assess and ensure for its innovation activities to be socially desirable and ethically acceptable.

Carla Caldeira, Diana Pereira, José Duarte Santos, Cristina Guimarães, Fernando Almeida
12. Sustainability in Erasmus+ Projects: StartIT

Sustainability can be defined as fulfilling our own needs without compromising the needs of future generations. To achieve it, economic growth should be balanced with environmental preservation and social well-being. The digital economy is growing ever more, in 2021 it was equivalent to 15.5% of global GDP. Climate change is one major visible aspect of the lack of environmental protection in the recent past. Social well-being is essentially connected to the way we relate to others and this aspect has changed dramatically in the recent past alongside the digital revolution.Start-IT is a project developed by a consortium of six European Union HEI, led by HTW Berlin, and financed by Erasmus+ under contract no.° 2021-1-DE01-KA220-HED-000023215. The main goal of the project is the promotion of digital transformation in higher education students while addressing climate change. The project promotes innovative learning and teaching methodologies, bringing together students from the six member countries to work in diverse, international, interdisciplinary teams, thus acquiring skills that will enable them higher social well-being. They will be challenged to develop a mobile app intended to mitigate climate change. At the same time, they will also have to develop an associated business plan. With this joint development, they will contribute to the promotion of the digital economy and environmental protection. Three different student mobilities will be organized within the next 3 years to achieve these objectives.This chapter intends to depict the essential aspects related to the implementation of this project.

Hiram Bollaert, Johanna Hautamäki, João C. Monteiro, Krzysztof Podlaski, Dereck O’Reilly, Katharina Simbeck
13. The Challenges of Teaching in a Context of Concern for Sustainability and Strong Technological Innovation: A Literature Review

Sustainability is a current and relevant general issue in the cutting-edge research industry. The whole new array of devices that surrounds every individual brings a new resource every day. Despite manufacturers’ concern with energy consumption – the problem is that everyday life is increasingly dependent on these fashionable devices and technologies. How does the University promote sustainability? The methodology of this study will be through the integrative review of the literature in order to develop relevant on the application of all these innovative concepts and the awareness of students more for the survival of the planet under the constant pressure of humanity. Finally, a group with higher education students and professors can be different, be different from work, and be a general need, in terms of the environment or domain of the relationship, specifically, among others. Students and teachers, both at the level of formal education or formal construction, which promotes the use of useful and usable knowledge in the context and utilities of life, allow each of them to improve reality with natural reality, providing greater motivation to education for sociability, in general, for education for sociability, collaborative work and the promotion of sustainable education, even in a context of strong technological innovation.

Justino Lourenço, Susana Sá, José Carlos Morais

Management & Administration

14. Exploring the Determinants of Social Entrepreneurship Intention

Social entrepreneurship is currently a field of research that has attracted increasing attention from various sectors of society mainly due to the difficulty of the various governments to respond to social needs. Higher education cannot remain indifferent to this challenge and must provide training programs specifically aimed at social entrepreneurship. This study intends to find out the dimensions that characterize the process of teaching social entrepreneurship in higher education and analyze the relevance of these dimensions for increasing entrepreneurial intention. This study considers a sample of 177 students and adopts a quantitative methodology based on descriptive and correlational parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. The results indicate that individual and organizational factors appear to be more integrated in the social entrepreneurship process than contextual factors. However, the social component is the only factor that shows a moderate correlation with entrepreneurial intention. The other dimensions of the model in isolation have a low and not significant correlation. Nevertheless, the contextual construct is not favorable for the emergence of new social entrepreneurship projects. The results of this study are relevant for higher education institutions to design social entrepreneurship programs in which the social component is an integral part of these programs, through outreach programs with local communities that can help identify socially relevant causes.

Fernando Almeida, José Milton de Sousa-Filho
15. Private Agricultural Insurance and Its Current Adhesion by Rural Producers: A Partial Analysis in Paraná State

Private agricultural insurance, whose importance is recognized by rural producers because it is an instrument that mitigates eventual losses in agricultural activity, especially regarding the climate, despite showing increasing adherence rates, still has a long way to go, in order to ensure more widely the investments made in crops. The objective of this study is to verify the rates of contracting agricultural insurance – whether they are in decline, stability, or rise – and the reasons that lead to such a finding, focusing on Parana State. Through bibliographic research, documentary research, and field research, it was concluded that despite the existing government subsidies on the agricultural insurance premium, which help to reduce its price, this continues to be a determining factor in contracting this product. Furthermore, it was found that climate variation is the most influential factor in the farmer’s decision to adhere or not to agricultural insurance, with a tendency to increase in the number of agricultural insurance contracts in the regions of Parana State submitted to the analysis.

Thaís Martha Welter de Moura, Fabricio Pelloso Piurcosky
16. Integrating Sustainability into Decision-Making: An Analysis of Different Types of Management Control Systems

Taking into account the environmental impact of business activities is becoming more than just a temporary trend. We hypothesize that for systematic change sustainability issues must be reflected within a firm’s management control system. The objective of our research is to examine how sustainability issues are addressed by different types of controls using Simon’s seminal levers of control framework and what might strengthen the successful integration of sustainability into business activities using Burn’s pivotal concept of transformational leadership. To reach this objective, we conducted a set of in-depth interviews with executives from different sectors and company sizes regarding the decision-making and control processes for impending investment decisions. Using analytic induction, we identify new elements in management control system design, as well as related factors, allowing firms to move from transactional management toward transformational management approaches to further promote sustainability considerations.

Anna Katharina Meyer, Barbara E. Weißenberger, Andrew Isaak
17. Sustainable Cities? Insights from Brazil and Portugal

Cities are the main form chosen by the human being to live in society, where there are more than half of the human population and by 2050 there will be 70% (UN, 2019). In cities are built the most miscellaneous economic and social relationships, demonstrating the importance cities hold for the modern world. Thus, the research question: What are the citizens from Brazil and Portugal assessments in relation to ISO 37120? To answer such a question the main goal was chosen: analyzing the ISO 37120 indicators in a city located in Brazil and Portugal, sustainable development strategies are present in public policies. This research fits in a quantitative methodology, making use of online survey. The units of analysis of this research are the municipalities of Guarapuava – Brazil, with more than 167 thousand inhabitants, and Matosinhos – Portugal with more than 175 thousand people. Through quantitative research, the citizens have presented a general perception about Education, Health, and Security indicators, sometimes in a positive or negative way. About the main objective noticed that searched the citizens were linked about yours related indicators (sectors). The results earned show the ISO 37120 indicators can assist in integrated monitoring of city governance and advise some specific goals for city improvement in many aspects. The Norm can bring benefits for the governance and effective services provisions in many areas, decision-taking support, urban planning, cities master plans and contributes to UN SDG 11.

Silvio Roberto Stefani, João Paulo Peixoto, Paula Santos, Reinaldo Ferreira, Claudio Luiz Chiusoli, Cláudia Susana Ribeiro Rodrigues


18. The Relationship Between Corporate Social Responsibility and Customer Satisfaction: Literature Review

Customer satisfaction is one of the main focuses of organizations. Simultaneously, several brands have been developing corporate social responsibility (CSR) actions to improve brand image. This chapter aims to understand the relationship pointed out in the literature between CSR and customer satisfaction, analyzing consequents and antecedents of these concepts. Main databases were researched, in order to understand CSR concepts, importance, and consequences. After a previous analysis of papers about CSR and its consequences, brand image and brand value were identified to be important to explain their relationship with customer satisfaction. Therefore, theoretical research was implemented to understand brand value, brand image, and customer satisfaction, as well as its relationship. This chapter contributes to understand CSR consequents and customer satisfaction antecedents. Furthermore, it suggests relationships between these variables which can be tested in future quantitative research. It could be concluded that CSR may impact customer satisfaction, but brand value and brand image may be important to better understand how customer satisfaction is formed.

Inês Veiga Pereira, Joana Araújo, José Duarte Santos


19. Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Approaches to Determine Tensile Strength in Mechanical Components

Industry mechanical design departments are typically involved in the development and validation of new geometric and material solutions for different components. On the other hand, increasing demand for new and improved products, as well as the development and application of more stringent criteria for mechanical strength verification, necessitates an increase in the number of experimental tests used to validate prototypes of such designs. A good alternative is to perform virtual testing and stress analysis through the use of FEM (finite element method) tools already available in conventional CAD (computer-aided design) software used in the industry. However, some companies have complained that there are significant discrepancies between the numerical and experimental results, questioning the validity of virtual testing. This chapter aims to demonstrate that such discrepancies are the result of user interpretations of the data rather than a failure of one of the methods. In addition, it aims to clarify how the results should be interpreted and compared. For this purpose, two electrical connectors manufactured by the company SKELT are tested using both computational and experimental approaches and the obtained results are critically assessed and compared.

Américo F. G. Costa, António T. K. B. Ferreira, Fernando A. V. Figueiredo, César M. A. Vasques
20. Indoor Navigation of an Autonomous Guided Vehicle Using ArUco Markers

Autonomous guided vehicles (AGVs) are an important means of making transportation, logistics, and intra-logistics more environmentally friendly. Navigation and accident avoidance are perhaps the two most important features that still have plenty of opportunities for improvement. Technologies such as GPS, sonar, radar, and LIDAR have been successfully used and combined for this effect. More recently, image processing with multiple cameras has enabled the 3D reconstruction of the vehicle’s environment, at the expense of requiring state-of-the-art graphics processors. This chapter evaluates the viability of indoor navigation using a single camera and ArUco markers placed at known locations within the navigating environment when a global positioning system (GPS) is unavailable. If the location of external objects cannot be determined with a single camera, sonars can be used for collision avoidance. A custom-built AGV with differential steering and a simple universal serial bus (USB) webcam connected to a Raspberry Pi that processes the image to locate the robot in space are utilized. In addition, the Raspberry Pi transmits reference positions to an Arduino, which runs a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control loop for each wheel of the AGV. The entire assembly is shown to locate, align, approach, and dock at docking stations. To compare with the calculated values, the effective position in relation to the markers is manually measured. With sufficient illumination and a clear path to the markers, it is shown that location calculation with a single camera and ArUco markers is precise enough for indoor navigation.

Fernando A. V. Figueiredo, Eduardo G. C. Pereira, César M. A. Vasques

Sustainability & Innovation

21. Plastic and Copper Reduction in Residential Building, an Empirical Analysis on Materials Usage and Energy Efficiency

This study examines the consequences of the utilization of intelligent lightning instead of traditional lighting in residential buildings. Although the same type of lights can be used on both systems when building directly from projects which include intelligent lighting, additional significance can be observed: (1) less usage of copper, (2) less usage of plastic, and (3) higher energy efficiency. The methodology used was based on a case study of two similar houses being built near Porto and projected by the municipality of Vila Nova de Gaia (Portugal). The first house uses traditional lightning, and the second house uses intelligent lightning. The empirical results confirmed the reduction of copper and plastic. As for energy efficiency, and although it can be achieved, it relies on human behavior and the interaction between humans and lightning technology; therefore, it could not be confirmed at this point. This chapter is original; besides the analysis observed in real building houses, the authors could compare traditional and intelligent lighting systems; such type of comparison is not available in the current literature. Furthermore, this research topic can be used in the discussion between the industry, engineers, architects, central or local government, and the academy to support additional efforts to the reduction of copper and plastic, therefore contributing to greener building and energy efficiency.

Nelson Castro Neves, José Castro Oliveira
22. Sustainability in Society 5.0 Perspective

The rapid consumption of natural resources by humans as if they are unlimited, the increasing world population, industrialization, and excessive consumption habits of people have begun to cause the balance between humans and nature to deteriorate. All of these have led to the thoughtless use of natural resources, environmental degradation, and global disasters in order to meet the increasing energy need by increasing the world’s energy need. Increasing social, economic, and environmental concerns about the future have increased the importance of sustainability. At this point, we come across the concept of Society 5.0, which emphasizes the importance of research and innovation for providing long-term services to humanity within the borders of the world. From this point of view, in this study, the concept of sustainability will be tried to be explained from the perspective of Society 5.0, which is a human-centered society model that uses technology in the most beneficial way. For this purpose, in this study, we will summarize by examining the results of different studies dealing with Society 5.0 practices that mediate the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals.

Zehranur Sanioğlu Tanış
23. The Role of Mathematics on the Sustainability: A Systematic Review

This chapter aims to present a comparative analysis and synthesis of online information related to: Sustainability and Statistics, Sustainability and Mathematics, and Sustainability and Modelling. The generating research question was: “What is the role of Mathematics in the field of Sustainability?”. To facilitate answering such a broad question, several more concrete derived questions were formulated. A qualitative methodology was used which consisted of a review based on a pre-defined systematic method to exhaustively search and identify the most relevant answers that Google provides to the research question. Responses from published and unpublished documents (articles, reports, and blogs) were analyzed. The quality of the extracted data was assessed, the answers provided by the different documents were compared and the results were synthesized. It was concluded that, on the one hand, the discipline of mathematics has much to contribute to solving urgent and huge sustainability problems; on the other hand, mathematics has much to gain from its involvement in this field: new mathematics is appearing stimulated by the energy and freshness that comes from new applications and challenges. In particular, in the field of education, complementarity, and cooperation of various disciplines is essential to create solutions for sustainable development, in order to explore different processes and ways to achieve it, by contributing to: sustainable agriculture and forestry, sustainable production and consumption, good governance, sustainable research and technology transfer, sustainable education, and among others.

Catarina Oliveira Lucas, Joana Becker Paulo
24. Effects on Students and Teachers of a Course on Strategies for Well-Being

The development of educational models focused on the well-being and sustainability of educational communities has become crucial in recent years. In this context, European education systems have implemented social and emotional learning (SEL) and executive functioning (EF) in their curricula, in a process producing new models for the development of teacher competencies. Through a qualitative design, we conduct the present study to assess the perception of elementary teachers about the development of their own competencies and the competencies of students, during a 25 h intervention program. Participants were teachers (n = 8) and their 8- to 15-year-old students (n = 423). Student assessment data were collected through the questionnaire “Teachers Perception of SWCI Impact on Students”, and data on teachers’ competencies were obtained through an individual interview “Strategies for Well-Being in the Classroom Intervention”. A thematic content analysis of the responses given by the teachers showed that they believe that improving strategies for well being can promote the personal development of both teachers and students. We could also understand a positive impact on teachers’ personal and professional well-being. As a result of the implementation of the program, students showed a greater capacity for attention and concentration, as well as more personal interrelationship, organization, and emotional management. Regarding the program’s impact on the teachers’ skills, they highlighted the importance of self-awareness and self-mediated learning, based on empathic communication, on sharing experiences and on good practices aimed at the educational community’s well-being and sustainability.

Adelinda Candeias, António Portelada, Adriana Félix, Edgar Galindo
25. Peace as an Essential Condition for Sustainable Development

Although the United Nations established sustainable development goals in 2015, expected to be in force by 2030, war was not considered a contextual possibility. Nevertheless, a conflict in Europe erupted. Wars obey to destructive forces, as the destruction of living beings in general, their environment, and their things. These anomic situations aim to defeat the enemy with the maximum effectiveness and efficiency. This chapter reviews these environmental damages, including lives destructed. Unexploded bombs, water, soil and atmosphere contamination, the use and experiments of atomic weapons, and the use and later destruction of chemical and biological weapons have destructive effects on the milieu in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Despite enlightened treaties and conventions in international public law, indiscriminate damages are effective. This contradiction, according to the sociology of law, is partly due to the gaps between social and legal facts. Habermas explains them as part of the legitimation crisis. The author regards these gaps as results of lack of Sittlichkeit, a Hegelian concept for ethical life or order. Therefore, a new one needs to be woven, facing the increasing risks of our time.

Candido Alberto Gomes, Susana de Oliveira e Sá
26. The Sustainability of the Cork Sector Through a Second Life of Retired Wine Bottle Corks: An Empirical Study

Cork is a very important vegetal resource for mankind and is being used in Egypt for numerous applications from the third millennium BC. Portugal is the world’s largest producer of cork and its derivatives, being wine bottle corks the most used application for this type of resource, both in the domestic and in the foreign markets.Since the usage of corks in wine bottling is mostly a one-time use, a substantial part of corks will end in the domestic waste. Consequently, large amounts of used cork will have landfill as final destination. The aim of this research is to explore how this type of residue can be reused after being removed from wine bottles. The research methodology used is mixed, dealing especially with a case study carried out by APCOR (Portuguese Cork Industry Association) and statistical data on the evolution of the production/processing of the raw material. The actual results point out that several attempts were made to change the social behavior of citizens to dispose properly this type of residue and avoid landfill, but with no credible success. To reverse this situation, the authors proposed a model to increase the collection of used corks through the active participation of society, especially some sensitive areas, namely primary/secondary schools and fire brigades. This research in this chapter is original, as the actual literature doesn’t refer to wine bottle corks reuse. Furthermore, this research topic can be used as a base of discussion with cork producers, government, and the academy aiming to increase sustainability and reusage.

Catarina Ferreira, Marta Cardoso, Marta Moreira, Pedro Sousa, Tânia Moura

Tourism & Leisure

27. A Grounded Theory of Historic Housing Tourism: A Methodological Path

Classic grounded theory is a methodological approach that enables the generation of theories based on data induced from the reality studied. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of the classic grounded theory methods to account for what is happening in the substantive area of historic housing tourism, a typology of tourism that has contributed to the appreciation of the local and regional heritage and to the cohesion of the portuguese countryside. In this study, considerable data was collected that was retrieved by two techniques of social research: participant observation and unstructured interview. Data analysis in classic grounded theory is a meticulous work involving several stages that are performed iteratively: open coding; constant comparative analysis; theoretical sampling; the identification of the core category; selective coding; sorting of memos; theoretical coding, and the writing of memos in the form of theory. In this chapter, the essential methodological aspects of the empirical research are explained in depth. Furthermore, clarification of how the owners of stately homes solve the main concern with which they are faced in the pursuit of their task of hosting in historic housing tourism facilities is expounded.

José Luís Braga, Óscar Silva
28. Attitudes of Internal Stakeholders About Museums in Vojvodina and Their Offer in Tourism

The aim of this chapter is to analyze the attitudes of employees in the museums and examine the level at which the museums are focused on tourism and participate in the formation of the tourist offer. The research was conducted on the territory of AP Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia) in the period from October to December 2020. A five-point Likert scale was used to investigate the perception of internal stakeholders. The questionnaire was made in accordance with the research of Sara Kali, and it was adjusted for the needs of the research of this chapter. In the questionnaire, different statistical methods were applied in relation to the set topics. Statistical processing of the collected data was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0). The applied statistical methods are descriptive, reliability of the measuring instrument, and factor analysis.The descriptive statistical method included methods of collecting, arranging, and presenting data, and grouping of data was performed according to the values or modalities of the observed characteristics. The reliability of the measuring instrument was tested using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. In order to reduce a large set of items, factor analysis was applied, and this was achieved by finding groups of closely related items. In order to determine the justification of the factor analysis, Bartlet’s test of certainty and the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin indicator were applied. Factors explained 70% of the total variance. When a number of factors were determined, the rotation method was performed. The study provides a practical insight into how to promote museums in tourism and improve the quality of their services.

Snežana Besermenji, Jelica Ilić, Staša Arsenović Koprivica, Radovan Sremac
29. Perception and Expectations of an Employability Fair as a Generator of Sustainable Wealth in the Tourism Sector

As society is getting into the standard way of living, looking for a job and recruitment in the tourism sector is once again a path to revitalize the economy and generate wealth. To be competitive, companies must recruit potencial talents, that are ending, or about to end their high education courses, employability fairs is the mean chosen by the tourism sector to reach this type of educated workforce. This research aims to investigate how employability fairs for high education students contribute to the interdimensional sustainability of employers as generators of economic/social and environmental wealth. To support this goal, a qualitative methodology was used, whereby a questionnaire was delivered to a sample of visitors for the First Tourism Employability Fair, which occurred on April 6th in Porto. The results reveal a high level of satisfaction among respondents regarding the event. Around 68% of the individuals surveyed participated in the event in search of internship/work opportunities and around 22% went to the fair because it was suggested by teachers. Since a large part of the individuals that have participated in the event was looking for an internship/work opportunity, we can estimate that there is a possibility to generate a sustainable wealth to the organizations, local economy, and employment in the tourism sector. This research is original, and the authors could not trace any mentions of this research topic in the actual literature; being so, this research contributes to enhancing the literature.

Óscar Silva, Catarina Lucas, José Oliveira
30. Rail Tourism – Emergencies and Possibilities on National Territory

The theme related to rail tourism has been gaining prominence, related to sustainability, and our goal is to explore how the use of railway structures for tourism, namely stations, is currently seen by communities. In an attempt to better understand these relationships between the old infrastructures and the community where they are located, we take a look at the stations that have been transformed into railway museum nuclei that depend on the Museu Nacional Ferroviário. We present an embryonic approach embodied in an exploratory study that includes a brief survey of cases of sustainable use of the railroad heritage, the use of bibliography to sustain the investigation, and the execution of a semi-structured interview as a research method.The interview serves the purposes of this approach, which we have established to be exploratory. We interviewed the people in charge of four museum nuclei out of a total of five in operation and dependent on the Museu Nacional Ferroviário. These interviews were conducted throughout the months of July and August 2022. The study points to different degrees of relationship that these museums establish with the community, involving it in their activities, which can be a reason for attracting tourists.The theme of sustainability in tourism is addressed from the point of view of the relationships it establishes with the community in the specific case of this kind of railroad tourism, involving the built heritage in the dynamization of small museum spaces.

Luísa Fernanda Ferreira Rodrigues
31. Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility in the Portuguese Tourism Context: A Preliminary Study

This chapter aims to understand the importance of sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a differentiating factor in the tourism industry (specifically, in the post-pandemic context).After some considerations on the concept of sustainability and corporate social responsibility, this chapter presents the link between CSR, socially responsible marketing, and cause-related marketing. This is followed by the characterization of four aspects that play an increasingly important role in tourism and that must be present in a company’s strategy to develop its corporate social responsibility: disability employment in tourism, LGBTI and social responsibility, pet-friendly tourism, and ecofriendly hotels.

Beatriz Rosendo, Bruno Sousa, José Duarte Santos
32. The Impact of COVID-19 on Active Population Perception, Motivation, and Decision to Travel in the Northern Zone of Portugal

This study aims to investigate how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced the tourist choice and preferences of the destinations located in Porto and Northern Portugal. To achieve this goal, a qualitative methodology was used, supported by a questionnaire distributed to a sample of the active population in the north of Portugal. The results indicate that tourists have a high degree of security perception in relation to the different measures implemented in the tourism sector; furthermore, a large portion of the sample will not accept any additional security measures, unless mandatory by law. The respondents consider that COVID-19 had an impact on the choice of tourist destinations and recommend a greater frequency of transport and added investment so that the Porto and North region of Portugal are considered as post-COVID-19 destinations of choice. Proximity and hospitality stand out as the main decision-making criteria for traveling to the Porto and Northern Portugal region. However, when analyzing the activities being practiced in Porto and the northern region of Portugal, it is observed that most of the activities practiced in these regions correspond to leisure, cultural, and sports activities. As managerial advice, the authors suggest that companies in the tourism sector should act essentially in the promotion of programs that involve leisure, holidays, culture, nature, and gastronomy to obtain a greater impact, thus increasing the demand.

Óscar Silva, Catarina Lucas, José Oliveira
Multidimensional Sustainability: Transitions and Convergences
herausgegeben von
Fernando Luís Almeida
José Carlos Morais
José Duarte Santos
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