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Über dieses Buch

This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering. Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: Systems Engineering—Why?

Abstract
The purpose of this text book is to arm the student with System Engineering principles, practices, and activities applicable to developing programs and systems within today’s complex, distributed multi-discipline converging enterprise environments. Specifically, the focus is to match the overwhelming design gaps and needs of the current Systems Engineering discipline with foundations of new and relevant procedures, products and implements. Therefore, this introductory text book provides the basis for a modern Multi-disciplinary Systems Engineering approach.
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 2. Multidisciplinary Systems Engineering

Abstract
Multidisciplinary Engineering will be a requirement for designers of modern systems in the near future. Much of the undergraduate Systems Engineering education is not effective in preparing engineers for the multidisciplinary approaches that will be required for system-of-systems integration and system optimization in the future. Commercial companies are becoming increasingly aware of the need for systems engineers, particularly systems engineers that understand a host of disciplines required to design, implement, and manage complex Information Technology systems. Engineering students must learn and adopt a breadth of disciplines to be ready for the systems engineering challenges of the future. Not only will Systems Engineering skills be required, but a host of other skills like Business Intelligence, Human Factors, Technology Integration, along with a working knowledge of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) skills. Systems Engineers can no longer become a stovepipe of systems engineering knowledge, and assume someone else will handle making sure their designs conform to the needs of other disciplines. Figure 2.1 below illustrates the confluence of these skills into the field of Multidisciplinary Systems Engineering [25].
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 3. Multidisciplinary Systems Engineering Roles

Abstract
Multidisciplinary System Engineer’s play many roles within the scope of the entire System of Systems lifecycle. In some cases these roles run throughout the program. In some cases Multidisciplinary Systems Engineers take on multiple roles at different stages in the System of Systems development. Here we describe the basic roles of System Engineering within a program and how they are involved in every aspect of the overall system lifecycle.
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 4. Systems Engineering Tools and Practices

Abstract
In order to deal with the complexity of systems engineering designs for modern systems, formalized methods and tools have been created to allow documentation, communication, and comparison of systems and software architectures [65]. These methods and tools all focus around the creation of different drawings, each with their own set of standards, each designed to aid in the design, implementation, and manufacturing phases of overall system development, operations, and maintenance. As has been discussed throughout this textbook, the system must be defined through with a complete multidisciplinary lifecycle perspective in order to capture all of the requirements, needs, and goals of the customer. The overall objective is to develop a complete lifecycle-balanced system. As system complexities have increased over the decades, the Systems and Software Engineering tools have evolved to keep up with changing system designs (e.g., service-based systems, agile development methods, etc.) [35].
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 5. The Overall Systems Engineering Design

Abstract
The mission/business analysis community typically attempted to keep analysis distinct from technical design. It is not inherently different or an incorrect term for development of a solution to a system design. In the end, the activities which we would call design are nothing different from the activities required to create the “To-be” requirements.
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 6. Systems of Systems Architecture Design

Abstract
According to the IEEE standards, System Architecture is defined as:
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 7. Systems Engineering Tasks and Products

Abstract
Developing of a cohesive technical plan, requires engineering efforts to follow established guidance at each tier of the architecture, and is critical to achieve successful system engineering processes. A technical plan should establish the guidance and/or work instructions for the technical artifacts, so that a standards-based approach can be maintained across both small and large development, taking into account time, schedule and personnel turn-over. When guidance is established, it allows for management and tracking of activities at each development level ensuring system design and implementation meets development objectives. As the program progresses, refinement of technical guidance may occur. If so, it is critical that changes in guidance flows down efficiently to the entire engineering staff and that the new direction is followed. Although many optimizations can be found during development, it is important for Systems Engineering to watch closely for and to avoid unnecessary shortcuts during all technical engineering efforts, as each shortcut can lead to increased development and cost risks.
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 8. Multidisciplinary Systems Engineering Processes

Abstract
Multidisciplinary System Engineering provides the processes and oversight for the three main critical aspects of System of Systems design:
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 9. Plan Development Timelines

Abstract
In Chap. 8 we described the processes, inputs, outputs, and dependencies of various disciplines and development plans. However, another aspect of MDSE plan development is the information on the phasing or timing of when each plan is required across the system development life cycle. This chapter lays out each major program milestone and illustrates which plans must be in “initial release” maturity and “baseline” maturity during each major phase of program development. The arrows indicate plan dependencies and phasing across program milestones. The point to be made is that plans are not made in a vacuum and require cooperation among all MDSE and management disciplines to ensure that the plans are complete and meet the program needs across the entire program lifecycle. One major point to understand about the plans discussed in Chap. 8 and the timelines presented in Chap. 9, is that the amount of detail needed in each greatly depends on the project size and scope. In some cases these plans are separate documents unto themselves. In other cases they may be a paragraph in an agile Sprint plan that discusses changes as a result of the current plans. But, for the MDSE, these issues must be thought through throughout the SoS design, development, integration and test, and deployment phases. Figures 9.1 and 9.2 illustrate this. Figure 9.1 illustrates a traditional program development cycle [21]. For the development process depicted in Fig. 9.1, the engineering plans are finalized early in the development process and only changed when major program events dictate the changes.
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 10. Putting It All Together: System of Systems Multidisciplinary Engineering

Abstract
Developing relatively small solutions, to very large Systems of Systems, requires today’s Systems Engineers address multiple disciplines in their daily duties. Without realizing it, today’s systems, and the systems of tomorrow, require a Multidisciplinary Systems Engineering (MDSE) solution. The background and materials in this book are an essential step to implement a change from the stove pipes engineer roles of today, into a well-rounded Multidisciplinary engineering role of tomorrow [124].
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Chapter 11. Conclusions and Discussion

Abstract
In the end what we want, what we need, is MDSE that provides value and is useful to the overall life cycle of System of Systems. Systems Engineering is important because it allows systems to be architected, designed, implemented, tested, deployed, operated and maintained with separable components at all levels of the system (element, subsystems, services, CIs, and components), such that the System of Systems can be managed, operated, and maintained at low cost over a long period of time. Some programs would not benefit from this approach, but those are few and generally small projects. As an MDSE, hopefully the following phrase is never used:
James A. Crowder, John N. Carbone, Russell Demijohn

Backmatter

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