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Über dieses Buch

Car-to-X (C2X) communication in terms of Car-to-Car (C2C) and Car-to-Infrastructure (C2I) communication aims at increasing road safety and traffic efficiency by exchanging foresighted traffic information. Thereby, security and privacy are regarded as an absolute prerequisite for successfully establishing the C2X technology on the market.

Towards the paramount objective of covering the entire ITS reference model with security and privacy measures, Hagen Stübing develops dedicated solutions for each layer, respectively. On application layer a security architecture in terms of a Public Key Infrastructure is presented, which provides low complexity and operational costs, while at the same time security and privacy constraints are preserved. On facility layer complementary security solutions based on mobility data verification are proposed, which promise efficient message content protection at a low computational complexity. On network layer a privacy protocol is presented aiming at a creation of cryptographic mix zones by means of group keys, which enhance privacy towards a global adversary. On physical layer a technique denoted as Secure C2X Beamforming is presented, which enhances privacy and security by means of radiation pattern control.



1. Introduction

Car-to-X communication is considered as a key technology towards enhancing road safety and traffic efficiency. The term Car-to-X (C2X) communication refers both to the Car-to- Car (C2C) communication defining information exchange among vehicles and to the Carto- Infrastructure (C2I) communication, which includes Road-Side Units (RSU). Compared to other, centralized networks like, e.g., mobile telephony, this communication technology is characterized by its decentralized organization, letting participants communicate in an ad-hoc mode via broadcast messages.
Hagen Stübing

2. Car-to-X Communication: System Architecture and Applications

Modern vehicles include a multitude of highly sophisticated technologies for providing active safety. Driver assistance systems like Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC), Active Braking, Night Vision or Pedestrian Recognition are only some examples, which are devoted for enhancing future road safety.
Hagen Stübing

3. Application Layer Security: Public Key Infrastructure

Despite all benefits the Car-to-X applications are contributing to active safety and traffic efficiency, the exchanged messages are highly vulnerable towards several possible attacks.Especially applications, such as Emergency Electronic Break Light (EEBL) require instant driver reaction and therefore have to be reliable by all means.
Hagen Stübing

4. Facility Layer Security: Mobility Data Verification

This part of the thesis is dedicated to message content verification in vehicular ad-hoc networks. In particular the focus is set on an evaluation of the trustworthiness of transmitted mobility data in terms of position, speed and heading. Mobility data represents the main component of frequently sent Cooperative Awareness Messages (CAMs) and thus is highly relevant for most safety applications. However, this makes mobility data also an attractive attack target for most adversaries.
Hagen Stübing

5. Network Layer Security: Group Privacy Protocols

In this part of the thesis, a novel approach for obfuscating pseudonym changes based on dynamic cryptographic Mix Zones is presented. While geographical cells are used to establish a secret group key among all members, the group is maintained even when travelling along the road. Using the group key, a vehicle is able to send authenticated messages, though its anonymity is preserved.
Hagen Stübing

6. Physical Layer Security: Secure Car-to-X Beamforming

From the previous parts of the theses, it can be already concluded that, with the exception of the Access Technologies, for every layer, security and privacy mechanisms have been found. Thus, to fully cover the ITS reference model as required by the standard and to further enhance the overal security of the C2X system, appropriate techniques have to be provided for the physical layer, too. This means, that privacy and security issues have to be ensured already during the sending and receiving of messages. Motivated by this lack of security within the C2X communication stack, in this part of the thesis, a novel physical protection technique called Secure C2X Beamforming is presented.
Hagen Stübing

7. Conclusions and Perspectives

‘The age of privacy is over’ – this statement, assigned to Mark Zuckerberg, the founder and CEO of Facebook has received great amount of public attention. Though, it turned out later, that this statement has been slightly taken out of the context, however, the reaction of society demonstrates quite well, how sensitive this topic has become recently. In fact, the great amount of collected data, in general, should be not a concern to users of social networks only.
Hagen Stübing


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