We are here concerned with one aspect only of the foreign company — its role as an exporter of technology, not with an assessment of its total impact. The foreign company exports technology to other countries, including developing countries, either in embodied or disembodied (separate) form. Embodied export of technology is involved if the foreign company sets up a subsidiary (wholly or jointly owned) or supplies materials, equipment, etc., embodying its own technology. In this case, the embodied transfer of technology consists both in the standard of management and production technique employed by the foreign company in production, and the spread effects by training and force of example. Disembodied forms include licensing, transfer of patented or non-patented knowledge, and management contracts, consultants’ services, etc. The embodied technology of the foreign company includes, also importantly, techniques of marketing and marketing channels. Embodied and disembodied forms of transfer of technology can be, and often are, combined. Transfer of embodied technology is certainly more important in the overall activities of the foreign company, but because this part is invisible, it is often underrated.
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- Multinational Corporations and Technology Transfer: Some Problems and Suggestions
H. W. Singer
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
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