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Über dieses Buch

This book offers comprehensive information on the theory, models and algorithms involved in state-of-the-art multivariate time series analysis and highlights several of the latest research advances in climate and environmental science. The main topics addressed include Multivariate Time-Frequency Analysis, Artificial Neural Networks, Stochastic Modeling and Optimization, Spectral Analysis, Global Climate Change, Regional Climate Change, Ecosystem and Carbon Cycle, Paleoclimate, and Strategies for Climate Change Mitigation.

The self-contained guide will be of great value to researchers and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines: those from Meteorology, Climatology, Oceanography, the Earth Sciences and Environmental Science will be introduced to various advanced tools for analyzing multivariate data, greatly facilitating their research, while those from Applied Mathematics, Statistics, Physics, and the Computer Sciences will learn how to use these multivariate time series analysis tools to approach climate and environmental topics.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Artificial Neural Network

Abstract
Multivariate time series analysis in climate and environmental research always requires to process huge amount of data. Inspired by human nervous system, the artificial neural network methodology is a powerful tool to handle this kind of difficult and challenge problems and has been widely used to investigate mechanism of climate change and predict the climate change trend. The main advantage is that artificial neural networks make full use of some unknown information hidden in climate data although they cannot extract it. In this chapter, we will introduce various neural networks, including linear networks, radial basis function networks, generalized regression networks, Kohonen self-organizing networks, learning vector quantization networks, and Hopfield networks.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 2. Multivariate Harmonic Analysis

Abstract
Multivariate harmonic analysis technique has been employed widely in determining cyclic variations of multivariate time series.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 3. Multivariate Wavelets

Abstract
Wavelet analysis offers an alternative to harmonic analysis of multivariate time series and is particularly useful when the amplitudes and periods of dominant cycles are time dependent.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 4. Stochastic Representation and Modeling

Abstract
Stochastic methods are a crucial tool for the analysis of multivariate time series in contemporary climate and environmental research.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 5. Multivariate Spectral Analysis

Abstract
The complexity of climatic and environmental variability on all timescales requires the use of advanced methods to unravel its primary dynamics from observations, so various spectral methods for multivariate stochastic processes are developed and applied to unravel amplitudes and phases of periodic components embedded in climatic and environmental data.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 6. Climate Modeling

Abstract
Global climate change is one of the greatest threats to human survival and social stability that has occurred in human history. The main factor causing climate change is the increase of global carbon emissions produced by human activities such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 7. Regional Climate Change

Abstract
Global warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 8. Ecosystem and Carbon Cycle

Abstract
The global carbon cycle is the fluxes of carbon among four main reservoirs: fossil carbon, the atmosphere, the oceans, and the land surface.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 9. Paleoclimate Proxies

Abstract
The ability to reconstruct past climates has expanded in recent years with a better understanding of present and future climate variability and climate change.
Zhihua Zhang

Chapter 10. Strategies for Climate Change Mitigation

Abstract
Climate change and its social, environmental, and ethical consequences are widely recognized as the major set of interconnected problems facing human societies.
Zhihua Zhang
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