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Über dieses Buch

Solid waste management issues, technologies and challenges are dynamic. More so, in developing and transitory nations in Asia. This book, written by Asian experts in solid waste management, explores the current situation in Asian countries including Pacific Islands. There are not many technical books of this kind, especially dedicated to this region of the world. The chapters form a comprehensive, coherent investigation in municipal solid waste (MSW) management, including, definitions used, generation, sustainable waste management system, legal framework and impacts on global warming.

Several case studies from Asian nations are included to exemplify the real situation experienced. Discussions on MSW policy in these countries and their impacts on waste management and minimization (if any) are indeed an eye-opener. Undoubtedly, this book would be a pioneer in revealing the latest situation in the Asian region, which includes two of the world’s most dynamic nations in the economic growth. It is greatly envisaged to form an excellent source of reference in MSW management in Asia and Pacific Islands. This book will bridge the wide gap in available information between the developed and transitory/developing nations.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Sustainable Society and Municipal Solid Waste Management

Abstract
Environmental issues on a global scale the global warming crisis, resources crisis by wasting resources and ecosystem crisis are all closely related to waste and waste management.
Masaru Tanaka

Sustainable 3R Practice in the Asia and Pacific Regions: The Challenges and Issues

Abstract
In waste management phraseology, 3R was adopted by waste managers worldwide as the most appropriate strategy towards sustainable development. It associates with the current inclination of waste management planners towards a more environmental friendly waste management concept with minimal disposal of waste. To achieve sustainable development, ‘‘reduction’’ is the next highest preference after ‘prevention’. While ‘prevention and reuse’ benefits mostly via economic gains namely enabling higher productivity with higher efficiency in raw material utilisation, ‘reduce’ drives the reutilisation of wastes particularly when raw materials are more expensive and become scarce. The third and the most favoured methods of 3R application are ‘recycling’ where waste materials undergo physical and/or chemical changes in order to salvage valuable materials. This chapter deliberates on these concepts and provides case studies on its application worldwide.
Agamuthu Pariatamby, S. H. Fauziah

Formalization of Informal Recycling in Low-Income Countries

Abstract
Recycling in high income countries is a green business opportunity performed in a formal setting, especially with large scale material recovery and recycling facilities. This is different to informal recycling in low-income countries, where recycling is more of an economic activity than environmental cleaning, and is largely handled by unorganized groups or individuals known as ‘informal sector.’ Informal approach of recycling on one hand contributes to poverty reduction and environmental sustainability through social capital building, while managing the waste. However, use of primitive waste handling technologies on the other hand often misrepresents recycling as polluting industry. Unorganised and unregulated nature of the informal waste sector often characterizes it as a nuisance than a legitimate stakeholder. This chapter reviews in detail the characteristics of informal recycling sector, with selected cases from Asia. It also analyzes the possibilities and challenges for integration of informal sector into the formal waste management system.
Prakriti Kashyap, Chettiyappan Visvanathan

3R (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) in Bangladesh

Abstract
In recent days, the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) has started gaining more attention through paradigm shift in thinking of waste ‘not merely as a nuisance but as a resource’ and waste management planning from the ‘contain and disposal’ to ‘resource management’. With this mission, in 2010 Government of Bangladesh has formulated National 3R strategy of waste management and subsequent action plans for the local authorities has been prepared for promoting recycling of waste through mandatory segregation of waste at source, developing treatment facilities and market of the recyclable materials.
Tariq Bin Yousuf

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Cambodia

Abstract
Cambodia is a less developed country with a rapidly growing population, estimated at 14 million people. The population is becoming increasingly urbanized, resulting more waste generation, concentrated in urban areas. Cambodia does not have a specific definition of municipal solid waste in its policies or laws yet. This study aims to identify and understand the existing municipal solid waste management situation in Cambodia. The study employs a combination of exploring existing documentation, qualitative data analyses and reconnaissance studies. The key findings are presented in the following: (1) the amount of waste generated in Cambodia is approximately 6,818,000 tons/year of waste, based on a figure of 0.487 kg per capita per day. The percentage of the organic waste ranges between 60 and 80 % while plastic waste is about 15 %. (2) The waste collection and transportation is contracted to private companies, under the supervision of local authorities and technical line agencies, leading to a focus on profits rather environmental and public health concerns. Waste collected and transported to dump sites in urban areas was approximately 317,550 tons in 2004, increasing to 518,053 tons in 2008 and 630,679 tons in 2011. (3) Existing dumpsites are very poor quality with limited technical design, leading to environmental and social problems. (4) Lack of law enforcement and cooperation is commonplace. (5) Approximately 86 tons per day of material is recycled, largely informally with recyclable collected at source and from the final disposal point. In Phnom Penh the collected recyclables are estimated to reach 39.7 tons/day, or 4.3 % of the total waste generated in the city. Although waste management legislation is in force, there is room for improvement in its enforcement and raising awareness of its existence.
Sour Sethy, Chin Sothun, Rachel Wildblood

Municipal Solid Waste Management in China

Abstract
China is one of the largest nations in the world, encompassing a vast area, with diversified nationalities and cultures, and a very large population. It is also the largest developing country and which has relatively poor infrastructures and an underdeveloped industry. China has been undergoing a rapid urbanization, resulting in the enormous generation of municipal solid waste (MSW). In terms of municipal solid waste management, no country has ever experienced such a rapid increase or such large in MSW quantities that China is now facing. Along with this rapidly growing waste stream, MSW treatment technology has been improved, environmental legal framework has been established and developed, and public environmental awareness has also been promoted in the past three decades, although the MSW management in China still facing many challenges.
Su Lianghu, Huang Sheng, Niu Dongjie, Chai Xiaoli, Nie Yongfeng, Zhao Youcai

Municipal Solid Waste Management in India

Abstract
The Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules (MoEF 2000) in India, defines ‘municipal solid waste (MSW)’ as ‘commercial and residential wastes generated in municipal or notified areas in either solid or semi-solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but includes treated bio-medical wastes.’ It includes household garbage and rubbish, street sweeping, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residues, non hazardous industrial refuse and treated bio-medical solid wastes.
Kurian Joseph

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Indonesia

Abstract
Solid Waste Management Act 18/2008 is expected to bring major changes and new challenges in waste management in Indonesia, which will serve as the umbrella for sound MSW managements in Indonesia. The basic approach of this law is waste reduction through 3Rs as the first priority, and the next is proper waste handling.
Enri Damanhuri, Widhi Handoko, Tri Padmi

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Japan

Abstract
In Malaysia, urban waste generation increased 3% annually due to urban migration, affluence and rapid development. To date, the waste generation in Kuala Lumpur had increased tenfold since 1990s from approximately 590 tonnes to 3000 tonnes/day mainly dominated by organic waste of approximately 50% of the total waste stream. Almost 95% of wastes collected are disposed of into more than 300 landfills that landfill space is being exhausted rapidly. The fact that landfills are seen as a mere burden and not as a commodity (to generate Energy) in Malaysia is another aspect that impedes establishment of sustainable landfills. Though many challenges become the hurdles for an efficient waste management in the country, recent development namely the passing of Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 has carved a brighter future for waste management in Malaysia. This chapter elaborates the development of waste management trend in Malaysia from 1970s to the current years. Various case studies are given to highlight some of the crucial events that lead to the progress of waste management in Malaysia.
Masaru Tanaka

Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Korea

Abstract
The Republic of Korea (ROK) has small land area and high population. ROK has diverse natural habitats and abundant biodiversity because ROK is located in the Korean Peninsula with four distinct seasons and 65.4 % of land is covered with forests and trees. The total land size of ROK extends to 223,343 km2 and the territory of the Republic of Korea is 100,210 km2 excluding the area in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). The population of ROK in 2010 is about 50 million and the population density is 499/km2, which is equivalent to 0.002 km2 per capita (world’s 3rd smallest). The capital city of ROK is Seoul and about 46 % of population occupies Seoul metropolitan area which is only 11.8 % of total land area. And the number of foreign residents, which is about 1.2 million, has sharply increased in recent years.
Dal-Ki Min, Seung-Whee Rhee

MSW Management in Malaysia-Changes for Sustainability

Abstract
In Malaysia, urban waste generation increased 3% annually due to urban migration, affluence and rapid development. To date, the waste generation in Kuala Lumpur had increased tenfold since the 1990s from approximately 590 tonnes to 3000 tonnes/day mainly dominated by organic waste of approximately 50% of the total waste stream. Almost 95% of wastes collected are disposed of into more than 300 landfills; that landfill space is being exhausted rapidly. The fact that landfills are seen as a mere burden and not as a commodity (to generate Energy) in Malaysia is another aspect that impedes establishment of sustainable landfills. Though many challenges become the hurdles for an efficient waste management in the country, recent development, namely the passing of Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act 2007 has carved a brighter future for waste management in Malaysia. This chapter elaborates the development of the waste management trend in Malaysia from the 1970s to the current years. Various case studies are given to highlight some of the crucial events that lead to the progress of waste management in Malaysia.
Agamuthu Pariatamby

State of Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Municipalities of Nepal

Abstract
Similar to other least developed countries, little effort has been put in carrying out research on the issues of solid waste management (SWM) in Nepal. This chapter is intended to establish some of the urban SWM perspective for the municipalities through qualitative and quantitative surveys, interviews and data collection from 58 existing municipalities in Nepal. The chapter include information on the per capita waste generation, existing collection, transportation and disposal facilities, institutional arrangement and resources allocation for SWM in Nepal. Ultimately, the key outcome of this chapter is a diagnostic report on SWM in Nepal with highlights on key issues, challenges and the way forward. It is anticipated that it will serve as key reference document on the sector in Nepal as well as the South Asian region.
Surya Man Shakya, Bhushan Tuladhar

Solid Waste Management in Pacific Island Countries and Territories

Abstract
Poor municipal solid waste management is a major threat to sustainable development in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories, with potentially negative consequences on public health, environmental quality, water resources, fisheries, agriculture, tourism, trade and other areas of national development. Waste management in the Pacific Islands region is currently undergoing a transformation, which began in the early to mid 2000s with consistent support from several donors. Even with the progress being made through regional initiatives and national programs, solid and hazardous waste management remains an ongoing and escalating priority problem for the region. This chapter provides a regional overview of solid waste management in the Pacific Islands region.
Esther Richards, David Haynes

Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Philippines

Abstract
The Philippines like most developing countries in Asia and the Pacific Region faces more pronounced waste management challenges in urban metropolitan centres. As reported by World Bank in 2001, cities within Metro Manila generate almost 25 % of the country’s total waste generation.
Albert Altarejos Magalang

Solid Waste Management in Sri Lanka

Abstract
Solid waste management in Sri Lanka is a curial issue but it has been abridged by improvements in waste collection system and awareness programs. As the country’s population is increasing, the waste generation is also increasing. Hence, formulation of a sustainable solid waste management system has become crucial. More than 60 % of the solid waste generated is organic in nature. The prevailing MSW treatment and disposal methods are open dumping, landfilling, composting, anaerobic digestion and incineration. In terms with 3R, there are 2 notable programs that are National Post-consumer Plastic Waste Management Program and “Pilisaru” Waste Management Program. The national government is taking steps at policy level to tackle the problem of waste management in Sri Lanka and it also collaborated with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and United States Agency for International Development–United States-Asia Environmental Partnership (USAID–USAEP) to improve the situation in the country. Although the policy documentation has no inference to waste to energy (WTE) projects, particularly with landfill bioreactors and Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with a view to developing Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) approaches, but ISWM is believed to be the right of way forward for sustainable solid waste management systems in the country.
B. F. A. Basnayake , C. Visvanathan

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Taiwan: From Solid Waste to Sustainable Material Management

Abstract
Ever since the “Solid Waste Disposal Act” was established in 1974, Taiwan has been developing waste management for nearly four decades. Over the years, the substantial increase in the amount of solid waste and the indiscriminate disposal of waste had caused serious environmental pollution problems. In 1984, the “Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Disposal Plan” set landfill as the initial goal and incineration as the long-term policy. The “MSW Disposal Plan” was promulgated in 1991, empowering the Government to construct 21 incineration plants to relieve from the burdens of MSW pollution.
Harvey Houng, Shu-Hung Shen, Hsiao-Kang Ma

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Thailand: Challenges and Strategic Solution

Abstract
Thailand, covering an area of approximately 513,115 km2, is the world’s 50th largest country, while its population of approximately 64 million is ranked at the world’s 20th most populous country. In general, the average generation rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) is 0.64 kg/capita/day varying from 0.4 to 1.5 kg/capita/day based on the density of population and around 41,064 tons MSW /day was produced. The moisture content of MSW ranges between 40 and 60%. The 2007 constitution appeared a positive sign in environmental management affirmed the rights and freedoms of people to participate in the management, besides providing the public right to be involved in waste management. The 3Rs campaigns can be viewed as an illustration of the philosophy of sufficiency economy and show how the least technically complex can be the most cost-effective solution when small communities participate in MSW management. The basic information about MSW such as definition, classification, composition, method of collection and transportation, treatment and disposal including Thailand’s experiences in MSW case studies to elucidate the tension between existing policies and practices are presented. In addition, ways of effectively accommodating a renewed national policy commitment to MSW management are proposed. Then, tease out a sequence of perspectives and ideas of what should be the best research and development (R&D) opportunities for MSW management as the challenges and strategic solution in Thailand..
Orawan Siriratpiriya

Municipal Solid Waste Management in Vietnam Challenges and Solutions

Abstract
Vietnam is located in the Center of South-East Asia. The national capital which is Hanoi City has a total land area of 329,560 km2; a coast line of 3,260 km and Mainland border of 3,730 km.
Nguyen Thi Kim Thai
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