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Über dieses Buch

Der Band behandelt die Verbindung von Musik, Wirtschaft und Empowerment, verstanden als die Möglichkeit des Sichtbarwerdens marginalisierter oder relativ machtloser, subalterner Gruppen und allgemein die Frage von Macht und Ausschluss in Musikkulturen und am Musikmarkt. Dies betrifft unter anderem (aber nicht ausschließlich) die momentan stark diskutierten Themenfelder Gender und Diversität. Wie sehen diese Verbindungen aktuell und historisch aus? Kann auch heute noch davon ausgegangen werden, dass allein die Teilnahme an Gruppenprozessen bereits einen wesentlichen Motor für das Entstehen eines Ermächtigungsgefühls darstellt? Oder geht es aus individueller Perspektive stärker darum, Einzelnen mehr Kontrolle über ihr Leben zu ermöglichen? Beide Aspekte werden durch Beiträge in diesem Buch in Form von Studien, aber auch in individuellen Standpunkten und Innenansichten zur Musikwirtschaft und Musikkultur beleuchtet.



Kapitel 1. Einleitung: Musik & Empowerment

Wurde populäre Musik früher von Vertreter*innen der Kulturindustriethese immer wieder verdächtigt, emanzipatorische Potenziale durch ihre Verbindung zum Markt zu unterdrücken bzw. lediglich als sozialer Zement für die Wiederherstellung der Arbeitsfähigkeit zu fungieren (vgl. Adorno & Simpson 1990 [1941]), so gilt sie seit den 1960er Jahren als in besonderem Maß mit emanzipatorischem, gesellschaftlichen Wandel verbunden (Schrage et al. 2019). Die einseitige Festlegung auf emanzipatorische Potenziale populärer Musik oder ein disempowerment erscheint jedoch wenig zielführend. Populäre Kultur stellt vielmehr einen Kampfplatz gesellschaftspolitischer Auseinandersetzungen um Emanzipationen und Unterdrückung, Subversion (Leibetseder 2012), Legitimation (vgl. Grossberg 1992) und dem Spiel mit Identitäten (Bennett 2000) dar.
Michael Ahlers, Lorenz Grünewald-Schukalla, Anita Jóri, Holger Schwetter



Kapitel 2. Gendering and music streaming: Discourse and algorithms on a music streaming service

In this article, the gendered aspects of music streaming are discussed as both discursive and material processes. Its findings are based on focus group discussions about music streaming, analysis of the functions of a music streaming service (Spotify), and examples of when this service promotes gender equality. Using a science and technology perspective and previous literature in the field, this article concludes that music streaming on Spotify displays several gendered cultural patterns and that gender stereotypes are challenged by Spotify. The main results are that the digitalization of music on Spotify has led listeners to masculinize expertise, and that algorithms promote successful white male rock artists. Spotify’s attempts to challenge this are located within isolated interventions, outside of the main code, with little chance of impacting upon listeners who are not already interested in gender equality. In the context of music streaming, discourse on gender often interacts with code to limit gender diversity while reproducing gender stereotypes.
Ann Werner

Kapitel 3. “In the Capital of Electronic Music, Women Rule the Scene” – Really?

Berlin has always had a great history and reputation in supporting gender diversity within the electronic dance music scene. Many non-profit organisations, cultural associations and individual initiatives work on changing the male-dominated local scene. They organise, for example, events and workshops for these (emerging) artists where they can also participate. This paper gives an overview on the actual situation of these organisations and tries to compare and analyse their activities in order to describe the so-called Berlin way. To do so, interviews were conducted with some of the protagonists from such institutions. Furthermore, by outlining the actual situation of these institutions, it can be questioned again if female artists and protagonists really “rule” the Berlin scene (in the sense of gender diversity) or if there are still some things left to do.
Anita Jóri

Kapitel 4. Between empowerment and powerlessness: Individual career trajectories of drug-addicted musicians in Los Angeles

It is well known that many musicians, from all different music genres, have misused all types of drugs. Up to today there has been very little research in Popular Music Studies or drug literature addressing drug use and abuse by musicians. This paper focuses on musicians based in Los Angeles from the alternative rock music scene of the 1980s/1990s who have been particularly heroin misusers. The study seeks to explore the self-concepts of these musicians, as well as the impact of heroin addiction on their reputations and subsequent musical careers. Using retrospective first-person accounts, illustrated by the example of one study participant, I argue that the concept of the musician – at least in a certain time and culture – has an influence on drug use, which in return affects the concept of being a musician and changes it for the worse.
Melanie Ptatscheck

Kapitel 5. Frauenanteil in Basler Bands. Erhebung zur Geschlechtergerechtigkeit und Sichtbarkeit von Frauen in der Basler Popszene

In the preliminary study „proportion of women in Basel bands – a survey on gender equality and the visibility of women in the Basel pop scene“, the Basel pop scene is examined with regard to the percentage of women in the years from 2008 to 2017. The aim of the preliminary study is to raise awareness of the low percentage of women in the pop music business and to contribute to a sustainable increase in the percentage of women in the pop scene. The results show that although the proportion of women in Basel’s pop music scene is small (10 %), this small group of women is very active: 23.5 % of the bands in the Basel region have one or more women playing. Bands with one or more women are on average more successful in receiving funding than all-male bands, although the local funding regulations have not followed any gender quotas yet. Assuming that the granting of funding is associated with quality and professionalism of music creation, this means that bands with at least one woman are on average more professional than bands without women. This in turn suggests that the promotion of women can currently be associated with an increase in professionalism and quality. The findings underline the urgency of implementing and further expanding measures to increase the proportion of women in the pop scene.
Seline Kunz

Kapitel 6. Electronic trans*Music. Gedanken zu trans*nichtbinärer Identifikation in technoiden Clubszenen

This essay digs into the potentials of techno and club-cultural scenes for queer, especially trans*identification and life realities. The author*, a trans*nonbinary person themselves, understands her*self as part of the research and offers an inside perspective as musician* and consumer*, by including their own records of recollection as well as interviews with fellow queer participants of the researched scene. The article prevents a breakdown of contemporary, anti-diagnostic, self-determined definitions of gender, sex and gender identity and looks for points of resonance for these lived realities within techno based music scenes. This happens via an analysis of the musical parameters of techno music, the modes of perception, and the social constitution that can be found in electronic music- and club cultures. The core of the essay is the question where bodily autonomy and alternative forms of community building and care can be empowered by the surrounding of techno-club scenes and the findings of this research play a role within bigger discourses outside of the specific social surrounding of the club.
Mine Wenzel

Kapitel 7. Queering Miku. Cyberfeminism and the Art of Queering a Virtual Pop Star

Through the lens of Japanese popular culture and taking a recent collaborative project endeavour as a starting point, the paper looks at the possible reasons behind the difficulties Japan faces in the implementation of a global wave of feminism and offers ways in which popular culture could be subverted to this cause.
Mari Matsutoya



Kapitel 8. FUCKING HEROINES. Von unfuckable zu unfuckable WITH ! Autobiographisches Schreiben von Frauen im Punk/Rock

This article seeks to inspect how and what women in (punk)rock write (about) themselves and their experiences in such a traditionally male-dominated scene. Aside from brief fashions thanks to movements such as Riot Grrrl, female punk rock icons have been few and far between and almost always had to contend with gender stereotypes aimed at raising girls to please others rather than raising their voices, let alone get angry – that cardinal sin in a female. What needs to be done today, in 2019, to challenge and change that status quo towards true empowerment ? Which voices do we need to hear more of to redress the imbalance of heteronormativity, misogyny and racism that pervades heavier music genres still ? – An attempt at inspiration for girls and women to become unfuckable with – rather than remaining trapped in the world of the male gaze where fuckability is still seen as our only real currency.
Katja Brunkhorst

Kapitel 9. Awesome Hip-Hop-Humans – Eine feministische und queere Hip-Hop- Szene bringt sich in Bewegung. Die Revolution frisst ihre Kinder auch im Hip-Hop

The article shows a autobiographical insight into more than ten years of German hiphop culture. Experiences and his-/herstories are reported. The author has developed a very personal perspective on hip-hop as a seismograph of societies, cultures and economies through her many years of commitment as a rapper, politically active artist, teacher, supporter of non-binary projects and artists, the queer community and her own activities in journalism and science. After all the frustrations and gruelling experiences in these contexts, her conclusion ends with constructive hints and outlooks.

Kapitel 10. Die Nationalisierung der deutschsprachigen Popmusik. Neurechte Themen im Popdiskurs

Analogous to the socio-political shifts caused by the swing to the right, one can identify a nationalisation of the German-speaking pop music and its culture. Themes, values and ideological conceptions of the New Right are distinguishable in multiple pop music genres. The South Tirolian rock band Frei.Wild spreads the spirit of patriotism. Soul singer Xavier Naidoo criticises democracy in a hostile manner and rapper Chris Ares adopts the image of an honest citizen to radiate the idea of ethnopluralism. The aim of the article is to examine the strategies of establishing New Right ideology in the German-speaking pop discourse. A glance at the more recent past of German pop culture reveals that these pop phenomena are not to understand as anomalies of the zeitgeist. They should be interpreted as key constituents of a proceeding nationalisation of the German-speaking pop music culture.
Max Alt

Young Scholars


Kapitel 11. Do It Yourself als Empowerment ? Eine explorative Studie

Was bedeutet es, sich in der Musikbranche selbst zu ermächtigen ? Die hier vorgestellte Studie beleuchtet diese Frage in Bezug auf eigenständige Künstler_innen/-gruppen sowie kleinerer Labels der deutschen populären Musikszene. Die Do It Yourself genannte Arbeitsweise soll in ihrer Entstehung und Entwicklung dargestellt und im Anschluss von Experten_innen der Branche eingeordnet werden. Wie werden Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugungen in der Praxis von den betroffenen Akteuren definiert und durch verschiedene Stakeholder legitimiert ? So lautet die Frage, die dabei den Rahmen bildet. Ziel ist es, Do It Yourself aus unterschiedlichsten Sichtweisen einzuordnen und zentrale Treiber dieses Ansatzes herauszuarbeiten, um schließlich Ansätze für eine Beurteilung zu gewinnen, inwiefern Do It Yourself als Empowerment für die Musikbranche zu sehen ist.
Janike Walter

Kapitel 12. Wahrnehmung von Gleichberechtigung in der Musikwirtschaft. Akteur*innen in Mannheim und Region

Gender equality has been a widely discussed topic in the past century. Finally, the subject has been a focus in the german music industry as well, not merley but also since latest cases of sexual abuse at the University of Music and Performing Arts in Munich (2016) have been made public or the most recent ECHO awards (2018). Furthermore, many women seem to be speaking out in the last few years about unequal treatment in the industry (Rabaa, 2017). The question remains: Are incidents and outbursts like these just occasional or do we have a widespread problem of power abuse and gender inequality in the music business in Germany ?
Current research does not provide sufficient data in context to participants of the industry and their opinions on the matter and a comprehensive scrutiny of the situation is nowhere to be found. Therefore, students of the Popakademie Baden-Württemberg developed a survey to examine the perception of gender equality of employees, musicians and other members of the German music industry. To that, students of music and music business studies were invited to participate as well to get a deeper understanding of the differences in awareness between them and experienced professionals. This analysis is the first step in acquiring a broader picture of gender (in-)equality in the industry, however the results are non-representative, but they deliver new approaches that can be reviewed in future examinations. In the context of this work, the focus was set on men and women, but this can be extended to various gender identities in the following studies.
Désirée Blank, Laurena Frey



Kapitel 13. GMM Summer Institute 2019 in Porto: Ein Rückblick

Informationsaustausch, Networking, spannende Vorträge – und das alles mit Blick aufs Meer: Zum fünften Mal ereignete sich das Spring Institute der Gesellschaft für Musikwirtschaft- und Musikkulturforschung (GMM). In ausgeruhter und produktiver Atmosphäre haben sich im März 2019 in Porto wieder Musikforscher_innen zum Austausch getroffen.
Matthes Köppinghoff

Kapitel 14. Reeperbahn-Festival-International auf der WISE 2019 in Peking

2019 geht als das Jahr in die Musikgeschichte ein, in dem ein Musik-Festival ein Teil deutscher Außenpolitik wurde. Das Auswärtige Amt unterstützt Spin-Offs des Reeperbahn-Festivals unter dem Label Reeperbahn-Festival-International in prosperierenden bzw. maßgeblichen Musikregionen: in China (Peking), Afrika (2019 in Accra, Ghana) und den USA (Nashville, New York, Los Angeles). Dieser partiell wissenschaftlich orientierte persönlichere Reisebericht zeigt, wie diese neue Initiative Musikakteur*innen durch eine co-organisierte Vernetzung in Agency-Situationen fördert, in denen Beteiligte neue Chancen persönlicher ökonomisch und gesellschaftlich innovativ erörtern und in Angriff nehmen.
Carsten Winter



Kapitel 15. Bodo Mrozek: Jugend. Pop. Kultur. Eine transnationale Geschichte

Unter dem Titel Jugend. Pop. Kultur. Eine transnationale Geschichte legt der Zeithistoriker Bodo Mrozek die editierte Fassung seiner 2016 an der Freien Universität Berlin eingereichten Dissertationsschrift vor. Mit diesem Werk, das im Frühjahr 2019 im Suhrkamp Verlag erschienen ist, leistet Mrozek einen wertvollen und äußerst facettenreichen Beitrag zur Popgeschichtsschreibung des Globalen Nordens. Denn Mrozek bricht mit den popkulturellen Narrativen, die die Entwicklung des Pop anhand von kalendarischen Dekaden wie der Golden Fifties oder der Swinging Sixties festmachen will.
Georg Fischer

Kapitel 16. Dean Vuletic: Postwar Europe and the Eurovision Song Contest

In seinem Buch über die Geschichte des Eurovision Song Contests zieht der Historiker Dean Vuletic Parallelen zur politischen Entwicklung des europäischen Raums und gesteht dem oft als belanglos eingestuften Event eine gewichtige gesellschaftliche Relevanz zu.
Aida Hollje

Kapitel 17. Maria Eriksson, Rasmus Fleischer, Anna Johansson, Pelle Snickars, Patrick Vonderau: Spotify Teardown. Inside the Black Box of Streaming Music

One thing that strikes immediately is the sensational title for a scientific study: Spotify Teardown. The authors borrow the term teardown from reverse engineering. It describes the act of disassembling a product in order to understand its functionality.
Holger Schwetter

Kapitel 18. Glaucia Peres da Silva, Konstantin Hondros: Music Practices Across Borders. (E)Valuating Space, Diversity and Exchange

“When [music practices] cross the borders of national states and create stable networks among musicians, fans, people involved in the music business, etc., they can be considered transnational,” the editors Glaucia Peres da Silva and Konstantin Hondros open the article collection (2019, p. 7). The idea of music crossing any kind of borders is also a common denominator between the articles throughout the book. The collection offers nine case studies that cover a vast area from Brazil to Kenya and France to Argentina.
Brigitta Davidjants

Kapitel 19. Ewa Mazierska: Popular Viennese Electronic Music, 1990 – 2015. A Cultural History

Ewa Mazierskas Buch ist eine wertvolle Nischenarbeit, die ein weitgehend unerforschtes kulturelles Feld abdeckt. Was die Literatur zu Wien als Musikstadt betrifft, so gibt es in eine Vielzahl von Studien zur klassischen Musik, darunter der Wiener Klassik um Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart oder Schubert. Doch existieren nur wenige Berichte über diese Stadt als Zentrum elektronischer (Tanz-)Musik.
Anita Jóri

Kapitel 20. Berthold Seliger: Vom Imperiengeschäft

Bertold Seliger, der mit Das Geschäft mit der Musik, I Have a Stream und Klassikkampf bereits drei lesenswerte Bücher über die Musikindustrie veröffentlicht hat, wendet sich in Vom Imperiengeschäft nun jüngeren Entwicklungen im Konzert- und Ticketing-Geschäft der Popmusik zu. Vom Imperiengeschäft ist kein wissenschaftliches Werk, sondern eine aus der Insiderperspektive eines Konzertveranstalters geschriebene Stellungnahme zu der Entwicklung seines eigenen Geschäftsfeldes. Entsprechend will ich hier nicht entlang wissenschaftlicher Kriterien rezensieren, sondern betrachten, wo dieses Werk neue Forschungsfragen anstoßen kann.
Lorenz Grünewald-Schukalla
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