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2022 | Buch

Musik & Marken

herausgegeben von: Lorenz Grünewald-Schukalla, Dr. Anita Jóri, Dr. Holger Schwetter

Verlag: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden

Buchreihe: Jahrbuch für Musikwirtschafts- und Musikkulturforschung


Über dieses Buch

Spätestens seit den frühen Formationen einer auf Notendrucken basierenden Musikindustrie unterhalten musikferne Unternehmen Beziehungen zu Musik und ihren Akteur*innen. Damals wurden vornehmlich Kosmetik und Tabakprodukte in Notenbüchern beworben. Heute jedoch haben sich die Formen, bei denen Musik in den kommerziellen Aktivitäten musikferner Akteur*innen eine Rolle spielt, ausdifferenziert. Gleichzeitig hat der Markt für Aktivitäten wie Sponsoring oder Werbung an Volumen zugenommen. Hierbei spielen Marken eine besondere Rolle. Um Marken aufzubauen publizieren Unternehmen Musikmagazine, vertreiben Tonträger, organisieren und streamen Konzerte oder nehmen gar Künstler*innen mit eigenen Labels unter Vertrag. Gleichzeitig werden auch Künstler*innen und Bands durch die Musikindustrie immer stärker als Marken aufgebaut. Das Jahrbuch der GMM „Musik & Marken“ sondiert die Forschung zu Musik und Marken, versammelt empirische Befunde und zeigt neue Forschungsperspektiven in der Untersuchung von „Musik & Marken“ auf.


Einleitung: Musik und Marken –Überblick über einen interdisziplinären Forschungsbereich
In diesem Band wird ein Forschungsbereich zwischen zwei Gegenständen aufgespannt, die sich in ganz unterschiedlichen Weisen berühren: Musik und Marken. Werden wie hier zwei umfassende Begriffe verknüpft, die aus lebensweltlicher wie auch aus wissenschaftlicher Sicht vielfältig verwendet werden und daher relativ unbestimmt sind, dann stellt sich die Forschungslandschaft zu dieser Verknüpfung als eine von ganz unterschiedlichen Phänomenen und Forschungsansätzen dar. Das vorliegende Jahrbuch will mit dieser Einleitung und seinen Beiträgen einen Ansatz für eine Kartierung bieten und die Vielfalt der Forschung zu Musik und Marken sichtbar machen.
Lorenz Grünewald-Schukalla, Anita Jóri, Holger Schwetter


Die Versprechen des Westens. Markennamen in der Pop-Musik am Beispiel Pepsi
While Pop Art and Pop Literature are defined by their representations of brand names, only two of them can be found in The Beatles’ oeuvre. How come the signifiers of consumer culture are avoided in Pop Music (except for expensive cars and outside of Rap, that is)? The paper deals with this question by exploring the occurrences of the brand name Pepsi in Pop lyrics from the 1950 s to the present day, from early Blues parodies via Barry Manilow and Suicidal Tendencies up to Lana del Rey.
Moritz Baßler
Recommended to you: Generierte Empfehlungen für Konzerte. Potenziale und Herausforderungen bei der Anwendung von Recommender Systems im Kontext von Konzerten
Several studies have shown the importance of personal recommendations in attracting attention to cultural events. Nowadays, not only friends can make suitable recommendations, but also algorithms based on the behavior of Internet users. This article examines different types of recommendations with their benefits and limits in the context of marketing. For a better understanding of the opportunities of such technologies the special features of concert events are described, which leads to the applications, where such generated recommendations are used for concerts. A quantitative study is conducted to find out what role generated recommendations currently play among young concert goers compared to personal recommendations. Since the decision to buy concert-tickets is also related to listening habits, another focus is on the question to what extent generated music recommendations in streaming services lead to later concert visits.
Alice Bodnár
Evidenzbasierte Praxis im Music Branding–Musikalische Markenkommunikation wird erwachsen
This contribution describes the results of a research and innovation project in which academic and industry partners collaborated in order to systematically address three problems encountered in European music branding practice: 1) a lack of a useful standardised terminology to describe the communication goals intended and achievable through music branding campaigns, 2) a lack of a standardised measurement instrument for evaluating successful music branding communication on the consumer side, so that in practice it has often been difficult to directly compare the brand congruence effects that can be achieved with different music titles, for example in pre-tests or evaluation studies; 3) a lack of proper algorithms to automatically index the now very extensive digital music archives concerning the target group-specific suitability of the music pieces they contain to achieve brand congruence effects in order to make a meaningful pre-selection for music branding campaigns. All three problems were addressed within the research project, and the presented article summarises the solutions that were developed by the authors accordingly. We provide an overview of the knowledge gained in this way, as well as a documentation of the tools practically developed to overcome the hurdles for possible future users. Finally, an evaluation of what has been achieved and an outlook on open research questions and future challenges in the field of evidence-based music branding is given.
Hauke Egermann, Steffen Lepa, Martin Herzog, Jochen Steffens
From Controversial Brand to Popular Music Heritage: A Reassessment of the Sex Pistols’ Marketing Strategy Forty Years On
In the late 1970s, the Sex Pistols built their image on being controversial, rebellious, and outspoken. While their lyrics addressed social issues and attacked institutions like the British monarchy, the Sex Pistols relied on flashy and provocative imagery in their clothing and artwork. With the help of their manager Malcolm McLaren, the band utilised scandals and publicity stunts to develop their controversial brand. The outraged media reactions that followed served as free advertising. Heavily criticised by the public during their early years, several decades after their formation the Sex Pistols continue to gain institutional and commercial recognition. Nowadays, the band’s records and artwork are found in museums and framed as music heritage, while Sex Pistols T-Shirts have become a common sight in high street stores. The chapter explores the reasons that led to this gradual change and traces the emergence and development of the Sex Pistols’ branding and marketing approach.
Julia Ehmann
Practices and Ideological Effects of Music Festival Branding: The Case Study of Serbia’s Two Major Music Festivals, Exit and Guča
In this chapter I explore the phenomenon of music festival branding and its ideological effects using two major Serbian music festivals, Exit and Guča, as case studies. The departure point of analysis is the residual national identity narrative of Two Serbias, by which Exit (a purveyor of Western-style popular music) and Guča (as the self-proclaimed guardian of the Serbian brass band tradition) were pitted against one another as representatives of Two Serbias, one looking towards the West, and the other towards the East. I move away from this obsolete model of interpretation and present a detailed comparison of the scope and variety of branding practices in two festivals, illustrating such phenomena as a brand canopy, corporate social responsibility, or the promotion of multiculturalism and intercultural dialogue. I conduct this inquiry with both general and particular objectives in mind. Speaking more broadly, I provide a set of analytical categories by which to address, interpret, and understand the branding phenomenon in music festivals and cultural events alike. This in turn allows for a critical assessment of the underlying contradictions and political implications arising from the production of contemporary music festivals as brandscapes. On a more specific level, I illustrate the ways in which Exit and Guča keep abreast of major branding trends and practices in the transnational music festival industry. I also showcase that Exit is far ahead of Guča in that respect. This fact alone, as I claim in my final argument, implies that despite the perceived flattening of ideological differences between the two festivals caused by branding, the latter continues to reproduce the West–East hermeneutic within the trans/national imaginaries of Serbia and the world beyond. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on whether the new realities of globalized capitalism call for a transnational perspective rather than justifying a stubborn insistence on the Balkanist paradigm and its claim of Balkan exceptionalism.
Jelena Gligorijević
Musiktechnologie und Marken: Boutique-Marken in der Effektpedalgemeinschaft
This article deals with processes of community building around guitar effect pedals. We especially focus on the role that brands play in shaping what we call effect pedal communities. Therefore, we took netnographic samples from three online forums and a Facebook group to reconstruct four types of pedal brands: budget brands, heritage brands, boutique brands and post-boutique brands. The controversial status of boutique brands allows us to shed light on the unwritten rules and mechanisms of the community. Our results show that a differentiation between the brands is subject to constant boundary work. Steady negotiation of definitory and normative conflicts shape and maintain the community’s practices and values. Our results suggest that brands and types of brands as precarious categories are part of what drives and sustains a „pedalheads“ search for individual tone.
Lorenz Grünewald-Schukalla, Alan van Keeken
Brand Placement and Gender Inequality in the top 30th Billboard Hot 100 from 2003 to 2016
The aim of this chapter is to shed new light on gender inequality through a joint examination of brand placements and the music industry. Firstly, we looked at whether the number of hits by male artists exceeded those by females in the Billboard Hot 100 chart; secondly, we evaluated differences in product placements in music videos by gender by observing the number of brands associated with men and women as well as the type of brands and products. Then, by analysing the contents, we looked at the top 30 hits in this chart, 420 music videos of the best-selling songs from 2003 to 2016. The findings from this study show persistent inequality both in advertising and the music industry. Nevertheless, it also demonstrates how powerful female artists can be because although they were considerably less represented, women had more hits than men in the Billboard Hot 100 in this period.
Cande Sánchez-Olmos, Tatiana Hidalgo-Marí, Eduardo Viñuela
Die Konjunktur von Hip-Hop Mode und Modemarken im Kontext von Hip-Hop als Teilprozess der „lange Revolution“ der Kultur
The text reconstructs the success of hip-hip fashion and fashion brands as a part of Hip-Hop as a conjuncture of the long revolution of culture (Williams, The long revolution, Pelican Books, London, 1961). In this Cultural Studies understanding of culture as a process, we explain how rap-acts interpret and articulate their living conditions with hip-hop and hip-hop fashion in a way that is empowering not only for themselves but also for culture. The idea of culture as a process-like conflictual connection of whole ways of life allows to understand how and why the conjunctures of Hip-Hop and in particular of Hip-Hop fashion brands contribute to the long revolution of culture and to the conditions under which brands are developed and managed.
Carsten Winter, Lea Gerlach

Young Scholars

The influence of music tuned to 440 Hz & 432 Hz on the perceived arousal
The aim of this article is to investigate whether music tuned to A4 = 432 Hz leads to less perceived arousal than music tuned to A4 = 440 Hz.
To answer this question, an experiment with 54 subjects without any musical training was conducted. The participants heard six music excerpts (three pop and three classical) for 30 s each and tuned to both frequencies. Participants were asked to rate the songs in terms of hypoarousal and hyperarousal.
The results of the experiment showed that music tuned to A4 = 432 Hz does not result in lower, but in higher levels of perceived arousal. The data revealed a significant difference between both tunings. The results show that the frequency music is tuned to has an influence on perceived arousal.
Marvin Kopka


Sharing Strategies: Netzwerk-Co-Organisator_innen deutscher Musikstädte entwickeln ihre Zusammenarbeit
This article describes the Sharing Strategies campaign of the Gesellschaft für Musikwirtschaft- und Musikkulturforschung e. V. from 2019, which brought together network co-organizers in a series of workshops to promote a new and high-quality exchange of experiences and knowledge on the development of music cities. The workshops revealed fundamental chances, problems, needs and objectives of new open networks, identified in all cities, as well as specific challenges that differ from one city to another. The results of the campaign were used to develop five recommendations for action for politicians, administration and the network co-organizers themselves, ranging from an increased use of Big Data to the further development of networking formats.
Moritz Bailly, Christine Preitauer, Carsten Winter


Mack Hagood: Hush. Media and Sonic Self-Control
Nur zwei Figuren der griechischen Mythologie konnten dem Gesang der Sirenen entkommen: Odysseus und Orpheus. Ersterer ließ sich an den Mast des Schiffes binden, während seine Männer Wachs in den Ohren hatten. Orpheus hingegen übertönte das betörende Singen der Sirenen mit seinem eigenen Gesang und Lyra-Spiel.
Max Alt-Hessenbruch
Rolf Moser, Andreas Scheuermann & Florian Drücke (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Musikwirtschaft
Um 2000 war das Handbuch der Musikwirtschaft eine zentrale Ressource für alle, die sich aus Wissenschaft, Journalismus und Berufspraxis über die Musikwirtschaft informieren wollten. Zentrale Akteursgruppen der Musikwirtschaft wurden ebenso erläutert wie das Recht der Musikwirtschaft. Freilich datierte die bislang letzte Ausgabe aus dem Jahr 2003. Und in Sachen Musikwirtschaft ist das eine andere Epoche. Umso erfreulicher und nützlicher, dass nun eine neue, grundlegend überarbeitete und erheblich erweiterte Ausgabe dieses Klassikers der Musikwirtschaftsanalyse vorliegt.
Frédéric Döhl
Detlef Diederichsen & Lina Brion (Hrsg.): 100 Jahre Copyright
Das Urheberrecht stellt eine der wichtigsten Rahmenbedingungen für die Produktion, Distribution und Verwertung kultureller Inhalte wie Musik, Film, Text und weiteren dar. Diese Erkenntnis ist nicht ganz neu, setzt sich innerhalb der verschiedenen wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen jenseits der Rechtswissenschaften aber erst langsam durch. Seit einigen Jahren mehren sich die empirischen und kritischen Zugriffe aus den kultur-, sozial- und wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fächern auf die Bedingungen und Implikationen urheberrechtlicher Regulation für kreative Prozesse.
Georg Fischer
Georg Fischer: Sampling in der Musikproduktion: Das Spannungsfeld zwischen Urheberrecht und Kreativität
Sampling ist kreativ und Sampling ist – bis heute – rechtlich unsicher. Wer „Sampling in der Musikproduktion“ liest, findet dichte Beschreibungen, historische Zuspitzungen sowie soziologisch-analytische Abstraktionen, die dabei helfen zu verstehen, was dieses Spannungsfeld von Kreativität und Urheberrecht für sampelnde Musikakteur_innen in ihrer Musikpraxis bedeutet.
Konstantin Hondros
Alan S. Lenhoff & David E. Robertson (2019): Classic Keys. Keyboard Sounds that Launched Rock Music
Was ist Kaffeetischliteratur? Darunter werden großformatige, schwere Bücher verstanden, die meist mehr (schöne) Bilder als Text enthalten: In Warteräumen oder in Wohnzimmern zieren sie, na, den Kaffeetisch. Das irritierte schon im 16. Jahrhundert unfreiwillige Lieferanten schmückender Folianten wie Michel de Montaigne, dessen Essays nicht gelesen, sondern im Wohnzimmerfenster ausgestellt wurden.
Alan van Keeken
Musik & Marken
herausgegeben von
Lorenz Grünewald-Schukalla
Dr. Anita Jóri
Dr. Holger Schwetter
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