Skip to main content

Über dieses Buch

This book studies the historical changes of the cityscape of Nanjing from the point of view of geographical systems. Nanjing is a city located along the Yangtze River, originated 2500 years ago, after which ten dynasties established their capital dependent on the geographical conditions. The book focuses on the analysis of the characteristics of mountain and river systems in the various historical periods, and provides investigations of historical sites along with these systems. This enables the search for the laws of historical evolution and spatial structure changes, which is also the research of the relationship between man and nature. It extends the traditional preservation and cityscapes planning to that of geographical landscape system. Readers working in the area of geography, history, urban and landscape planning will benefit from it.



Chapter 1. Significance of Geography and Urban Planning

The landscape of China’s ancient capital of Nanjing, as a visual and tangible reserve of history, came into being as a result of long-term action, accumulation, and evolution of factors such as geographical environment, politics, economy, culture, and technology. Among these, the geographical environment provided a base for the establishment and development of the landscape of the ancient capital, also a deep influences for cultural tradition. The geographical landscape, as a basic factor, was the most stable, successive, durable, and vital force during the formation of Nanjing’s landscape.
Yifeng Yao

Chapter 2. The Yangtze River Impacts and Early Nanjing Geography

The Yangtze River flows from west to east geographically. Throughout history this mighty river, divides the territory of China into two parts, with the North and South both taking the Yangtze River as their boundary. The initial origin of Nanjing City firstly comes from important influence of Yangtze River, which was the natural moat for defending against the north nationalities’ invasion. In modern times, the Yangtze River is the important landscape boundary through the city, the important cityscape site and tourist destination, as well as the symbol of geography, history and culture. Relying on the natural moat, the Kingdom of Wu selected Nanjing as his capital, which allowed him to guard the vast region to the south of Yangtze River.
Yifeng Yao

Chapter 3. Nanjing Historical Landscape and City Changes

Nanjing’s urban geography played an important role in the specific cultural traditions in the development process and formed different culture landscapes in historical periods while serving as the main context of historical inheritance. Wu state(229 AD) first selected Nanjing as its capital under the idea of a materialistic “geographic landscape intent”; it regarded Yangtze as a natural moat in the north of the city. The two branch ranges of Ningzhen Mountain surround the small plain of Qinhuai River and constructed the ancient cityscape of Nanjing. After that, the local people saw that the mountains appeared to sometimes show a “purple light” or “royal aura.” It was said that an “imperial atmosphere” for over a thousand years. In the Ming Dynasty, the capital was named “Response Heaven Capital.” The city wall ran along the mountain ranges and rivers, reaching a length of 33.67 km. In the Republic of China, Nanjing had its first Western-style city plan.
Yifeng Yao

Chapter 4. City Status and Contemporary Geographical Landscape

Modern urban planning overemphasizes function and practical use. Mountains and hills flattened for construction, and rivers are filled in for roads, causing much of the natural landscape to disappear and fragment. Lofty palaces and towering pavilions mentioned in historical records, praised by ancestors, have already disappeared. What is left behind is the historical city’s composition along with mountains and a familiar landscape. Nanjing once proposed a master plan for its urban style, claiming: “The city and natural landscape should be integrated organically. The composition should be rigorous but flexible, and the building scale should be pleasant and simple, reflecting leisure, charm, and poetic tolerance, rather than showing off and making grand gestures. The magnificence should be embodied in plainness and nobility in simplicity.” This approach could reflect the traditional beauty of historical Nanjing; however, construction in today’s Nanjing has not followed this plan. Unfortunately, as more and more skyscrapers are erected, the city stands to lose a lot.
Yifeng Yao

Chapter 5. Rivers, Greenspaces, and Ancient Capital Composition

Urban water systems, as a development axis of the city, have a great impact on the urban composition, partition structure, and traffic routes. The three main river systems of Nanjing beside the coast of Yangtze River are the Qinhuai River, Jinchuan River, and the moat. Each park in Nanjing has a long history, rich culture, and a meaningful name. Historic sites, buildings, streets, and geographical landscapes constitute a continuous historical space. As extensions of time, traces of sites from every dynasty exist in a continuous context. The visual coherence and rhythm of images form an overall sense of the space–time continuum.
Yifeng Yao

Chapter 6. Geographic Landscape Planning and Design

Geography studies the sustainable development of human–nature relationships from a macrolevel to grasp the cultural ecology of an ancient capital. Research on the interaction between historical and cultural landscapes and geography can ensure the integrity, logic, and continuity of ancient landscapes in capitals. Both contemporary geography and historical geography are important to our research, as they relate to such matters as: geographical clues about physical expansion; the origin and developmental evolution within the geographical system; the key point of the important rivers and mountain ridges that embody the ancient city’s landscape; the main conflicts within city construction and the landscape; investigating the existing cultural relics in the geographical system; and preserving the natural environment around historical districts and the landscape composition of the historic city and its natural integration. All of these make up the geographical foundation of the features of Nanjing and its layout from a geographical perspective.
Yifeng Yao

Chapter 7. Conclusion

The preservation of historical cities is an important part of modern human—nature relations, the value of which far exceeds an emerging tourism industry. The final goals of geographical planning methods are researching the combination of natural factors and urban construction environments; extending the concept of scenery and city landscapes to a wider area; combining natural resource preservation, land use planning, and landscape planning in a region into one field; and, ultimately, achieving sustainable development in human living environments. To study the planning of natural landscapes, scenic spots, and protected areas within historical sites from the perspective of geographical landscaping in order to conserve the continuity of the natural mountains and rivers, protect the integrity of the natural landscape context, and form a preservation network of landscapes in the historic capital of Nanjing.
Yifeng Yao
Weitere Informationen

BranchenIndex Online

Die B2B-Firmensuche für Industrie und Wirtschaft: Kostenfrei in Firmenprofilen nach Lieferanten, Herstellern, Dienstleistern und Händlern recherchieren.