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2024 | Buch

NanoCarbon: A Wonder Material for Energy Applications

Volume 2: Fundamentals and Advancement for Energy Storage Applications

herausgegeben von: Ram K. Gupta

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Engineering Materials


Über dieses Buch

This book is part of a 2 volume book series that provides current, state-of-the-art knowledge, fundamentals of electrochemistry, design strategies, and future challenges in carbon-based materials for electrochemical energy production and storage devices. The key goals for nanocarbons based electrochemical devices are to provide safe operation, sustainability, high energy and power density, long working life, and reduced cost. This book describes the fundamentals and working principles of nanocarbons for basic to advanced applications for energy storage devices such as metal-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and flexible energy storage devices. The book is written by leading experts in these areas making this a suitable textbook for students and providing new directions to researchers and scientists working in science and technology areas.


One-Dimensional Nanocarbon for Electrochemical Energy Applications
The storage and generation of energy through sustainable ways is one of the top priorities of modern society to lead to a more sustainable future. For that, there is focused research directed at optimizing energy storage devices such as supercapacitors and batteries and energy generation devices such as fuel cells. Some of the most notable materials that are utilized as electrode components are nanocarbon-based materials. This chapter is focused on the uses of 1D carbon-based nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon nanofibers (CNF), carbon nanoribbons (CNR) along with the derivative structures from these nanomaterials. The discussion is focused on the field of energy storage and generation. For that, an introductory section covers the concepts and aspects of 1D carbon nanomaterials. Following that, a discussion regarding the main synthetical methods is provided. The third section is subdivided into three topics related to the application of 1D carbon nanomaterials in the development of electrodes for energy storage devices (i.e., supercapacitors and batteries) and energy generation (i.e., fuel cells). The discussion is conducted through recent works from the literature. Through that, the reader can understand the main nuances and aspects that influence the properties of 1D carbon nanomaterials which can assist in the development of novel ideas. Lastly, an outlook is provided that summarizes the main goals and current challenges related to the use of 1D carbon nanomaterials.
Pratik Patel, Rutu Patel, Felipe M. de Souza, Ram K. Gupta
Graphene-CNT Hybrid Structures for Energy Storage Applications
The utilization of graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has become prevalent in diverse applications, including energy storage devices such as batteries and supercapacitors. The combination of graphene and CNT is of particular interest, resulting in hybrid structures that exhibit the excellent properties of both constituents. This chapter presents various synthesis methods for fabricating graphene-CNT hybrid structures, specifically focusing on the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Furthermore, the energy storage device applications of the graphene-CNT hybrid structure are discussed based on the literature and our experimental data.
Mahnoosh Khosravifar, Vamsi Krishna Reddy Kondapalli, Qichen Fang, Vesselin Shanov
A Review on IoT Energy Storage with Nanocarbon Materials: Requirements, State-of-the-Art, Challenges, and Future Scope
The rapid proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) has significantly impacted various industries, necessitating advanced energy storage solutions that cater to the diverse needs of IoT applications. Nanocarbon materials have emerged as a promising candidate for IoT energy storage due to their remarkable properties, such as high electrical conductivity, large surface area, and excellent mechanical strength. This review comprehensively examines the requirements, state-of-the-art, challenges, and future scope of IoT energy storage devices incorporating nanocarbon materials. The review begins by highlighting the critical role of energy storage in the IoT landscape and the potential of nanocarbon materials to address these requirements. The discussion proceeds to explore the diverse energy needs of IoT applications, including miniaturization, form factor constraints, battery life, energy efficiency, environmental factors, safety, reliability, and integration with energy harvesting technologies. State-of-the-art nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanofibers, fullerene, graphene quantum dots, carbon nanohorns, carbon aerogels, and carbon nano-onions, are thoroughly analyzed, along with their specific applications in various energy storage devices, including supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries, metal-air batteries, flexible and wearable energy storage devices, energy harvesting systems, hybrid systems, and electrochemical capacitors. The review also provides an insightful comparison and evaluation of the trade-offs among different nanocarbon materials. Furthermore, the review discusses the challenges in implementing nanocarbon materials for IoT energy storage, such as material synthesis and fabrication, device integration and optimization, scalability, safety, reliability, environmental impact, cost-effectiveness, and standardization. In addition, the review presents a forward-looking perspective on the future scope of nanocarbon materials in IoT energy storage, touching upon innovative solutions, recent advancements, ongoing research, interdisciplinary collaboration opportunities, and novel nanocarbon material discoveries. In conclusion, this review offers a comprehensive understanding of the role of nanocarbon materials in IoT energy storage, their current state in the field, and the prospects for future developments. By shedding light on the impact of nanocarbon materials on IoT device performance, efficiency, and sustainability, this review aims to serve as a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, and industry professionals working in the field of IoT energy storage and nanomaterials.
Partha Pratim Ray
Graphene-Based Metal-Ion Batteries
Graphene, a two-dimensional material consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb structure, has inspired tremendous research interests in chemistry, physics, materials science, etc. Graphene can be synthesized by physical exfoliation and chemical methods. Graphene-based materials have shown great potential in metal-ion batteries due to their high carrier mobility, 2D structure, high surface area, and electrochemical stability. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of graphene and its derivatives in the context of monovalent metal-ion batteries, specifically focusing on Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, as well as multivalent metal-ion batteries (Zn and Al ions). The working principles of graphene in its roles as electroactive materials, conductive additives, and protective coating for current collectors will be elucidated.
Linfei Lai, Dong Han, Lili Zhang, Jiankang Chen
Graphene-Based Metal-Ion Batteries
Graphene-based metal-ion batteries are a promising technology for energy storage due to the unique properties of graphene, such as its high surface area, good electrical conductivity, and mechanical strength. These batteries utilize graphene as a conductive additive or electrode material, which enhances their performance, energy density, and cycling stability. The metal ions used in these batteries can be lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), or other multivalent ions (e.g., magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al)), which are inserted and extracted from the graphene electrode during charging and discharging cycles. Graphene-based metal-ion batteries have shown excellent electrochemical performance, including high capacity, fast charge–discharge rates, and long cycle life. Furthermore, they have the potential for large-scale commercial applications due to their low cost, safety, and environmental friendliness. Despite the encouraging results, additional research is required to optimize the design and performance of graphene-based metal-ion batteries for energy storage applications. This chapter details the preparation, and characterization of graphene and its application for metal ion batteries.
Anupam Patel, Rajendra Kumar Singh
Carbon Nanotubes for Metal-Ion Batteries
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great potential for improving the performance of metal-ion batteries, which are widely used for energy storage in various applications. The unique properties of CNTs, such as their high surface area, excellent electrical conductivity, and mechanical strength, make them ideal candidates for use in the electrodes and current collectors of metal-ion batteries. This chapter summarizes the recent progress in using CNTs for metal-ion batteries, including the synthesis and functionalization of CNTs, their integration into electrode materials, and their effects on the electrochemical performance of batteries. The challenges and opportunities associated with using CNTs in metal-ion batteries are also discussed. Overall, this chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art CNT-based metal-ion batteries and identifies future research directions in this rapidly growing field.
Yathavan Subramanian, Anitha Dhanasekaran, Lukman Ahmed Omeiza, Abul K. Azad
Nanocomposites of Carbon for Metal-Air Batteries
Extensive studies are being made on clean and sustainable energy conversion technologies to harness their potential in terms of great efficiency, large-scale uses, and negligible greenhouse gas emissions including fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and water-splitting techniques. Among them all, metal-air batteries are the most promising systems for portable electronic devices, electrical vehicles, and stationary microgrid applications due to their high energy density. However, the major limitation is the fundamental issues with their mechanism. The efficiency of energy conversion and storage is controlled by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which are generally very slow and require noble metal catalysts for fast operation. The high cost and limited availability of noble metals caused a growing interest in developing metal-free carbons as a novel class of bifunctional electrocatalysts. These materials display exceptional strength, stability, conductivity, large surface area, and high stability in both acidic and alkaline environments and therefore can play a significant role in the field of clean energy storage/conversion technologies. In this chapter, the recent advances regarding the rational design of carbon-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction are summarized, with a special focus on their applications in Zn–air and Li–air batteries.
Kriti Shrivastava, Ankur Jain
Carbon Nanotubes for Metal-Sulfur Batteries
Metal-sulfur (M-S) batteries with high theoretical energy densities and acceptable production costs have placed great expectations on the large-scale energy storage applications in the post-Li-ion battery (LIBs) era. However, the serious shuttle effect of polysulfides and high-reactivity metal anodes with unstable stripping/plating electrochemistry significantly limited their performance and applications. This chapter briefly introduces the working principle and challenges of M-S batteries as well as the structures and manipulation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Emphatically, the important progress and mechanism of CNTs-based materials in addressing the above-mentioned issues via acting as efficient hosts of S cathode and metal anode, as well as functionalized interlayers and artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film, are summarized. Finally, a few key points that need to be particularly concerned are proposed. These breakthroughs are believed to promote the understanding of the fundamental electrochemistry in M-S batteries as well as accelerate their rational design, development, and commercialization.
Qingxue Lai, Jing Zheng
Nanocarbon for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries
Lithium-sulfur batteries (LSB) are a highly regarded field of study within the energy storage field due to their potential to surpass the status-quo lithium-ion batteries (LIB) by delivering much higher theoretical energy densities. The implementation of this technology can lead to the improvement of the overall efficiency of current energy storage devices while adding an eco-friendly and economical aspect due to the abundance and low toxicity of sulfur. This chapter provides a general scope on the use of carbon nanomaterials in LSB. For that, the introduction described some of the current challenges associated with this technology and the importance of incorporating carbon-based nanomaterials to solve some of the challenges. The second section describes some of the synthetical approaches that are currently used to obtain different types of carbon nanomaterials followed by a description of the characterization methods. The third section provides a more theoretical discussion of the main property-structure relationships of carbon-based nanomaterials. Furthermore, the fourth section describes the main uses of carbon-based nanomaterials in LSB based on recent examples from the literature, while providing a discussion about the main aspects that influence the overall electrochemical properties of the fabricated devices. Lastly, a conclusion and future perspectives of the field are presented displaying the main challenges and the current hindrances that prevent the use of LSB in the market. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the main advantages and challenges related to LSB technology and possibly provide some insight to the young scientific community to engage in this promising field.
Eshaan Bajpai, Felipe M. de Souza, Ram K. Gupta
Carbon-Based Nanocomposites for Metal-Sulfur Batteries
The cyclability of metal-sulfur batteries is affected by the dilution of polysulfides in the electrolyte, for this reason, it is necessary to produce batteries with better electrochemical stability. Therefore, it is essential to know the cathode composite to improve the specific capacity that can be obtained; carbon-based nanocomposites are an alternative for the cathode improvement in metal-sulfur batteries. The first sections in this chapter summarize the main characteristics of metal-sulfur batteries considering the conformation of their electrodes and the reaction mechanisms involved during charge/discharge processes. Subsequently, in the following sections, carbonaceous materials will be addressed as an alternative to improve the sulfur conductive properties and to reduce the shuttle effect by forming S/C composites to anchor the metal-polysulfides (M-PS) using controlled porosity and/or heteroatoms on the surfaces of the carbonaceous materials. In the final section, the porosity developed in the carbonaceous materials will be briefly summarized given that characteristics such as porosity control and pore shape modulation influence how sulfur can infiltrate and stabilize within the pores of the carbonaceous material; and dependent on their interconnectivity, ionic mobility within the cathodes of metal-sulfur batteries will be favored or not.
Jennifer Laverde, Diana López, Robison Buitrago-Sierra, Nataly C. Rosero-Navarro
Carbon Nanotubes for Supercapacitors
Supercapacitors are energy storage devices that boast significant capacitance, enhanced energy density, rapid charge/discharge cycles, minimal heat generation, safety, sustainability with no expendable components, and extended durability. Supercapacitors, due to their unique characteristics, are increasingly favoured in consumer electronics and as alternate energy solutions. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as a promising material for supercapacitor electrodes, thanks to their remarkable features like exceptional conductivity, large surface area, robust mechanical strength, and chemical stability. The objective is to offer a comprehensive understanding of the pros and cons of supercapacitor materials involving CNTs and to pinpoint ways to boost their efficiency. This also entails examining how the inherent physical and chemical traits of pure CNTs, such as their size, quality, imperfections, shape, modifications, and treatment processes, influence their capacitance. Moreover, a deeper dive into composites, like CNTs combined with oxides, polymers, and other hybrid materials, aims to customize their composition and characteristics to optimize capacitance while ensuring the device’s longevity. This section also compiles the latest studies on various CNT composites as potential supercapacitor electrode materials.
Shilpa Simon, V. P. Aswathi, Sachin Sunny, P. B. Sreeja
Graphene-Based Supercapacitors
Ever since the initial report of producing graphene sheets (GS) through the micromechanical exfoliation technique in 2004, there has been significant interest in graphene-based nanocomposites materials. These nanocomposites have captured considerable attention due to their fundamental properties and potential applications in conversion also energy storage system. As compare to other materials, graphene-based composite and their derivatives possess a distinct two-dimensional (2D) structure, remarkable electronic mobility, exceptional electronic and thermal conductivities, impressive optical transparency, strong mechanical strength, as well as an extremely large surface area. Due to these favorable properties, they are considered as most promising candidates for supercapacitors (SCs). In the current chapter, we discussed the current development in the field of graphene and its derivatives, as well as various composite materials with graphene used in electrochemical SC applications. Moreover, we have summarized the SC performance of composites made of metal oxide, phosphate, phosphide, sulfide and conducting polymers including PANI, PPy, and PEDOT based on graphene. Lastly, the advantages and challenges of graphene-based materials for upcoming energy storage are discussed.
Chetankumar D. Chavare, Digambar S. Sawant, Harishchandra R. Kulkarni, Gaurav M. Lohar
Bio-Based Carbon for Supercapacitors
Due to the increased demand for sustainable energy conversion and storage solutions, significant research has been conducted on carbon-based materials for supercapacitor (SC) applications. Notable among carbon-based materials are bio-carbons derived from sustainable sources, including agricultural waste, biomass, and algae. These precursors are great candidates for energy storage materials because they have tunable pore architectures, high specific surface areas, and excellent electrical conductivity. Furthermore, in line with the global agenda for greener technologies, their sustainability and biodegradability help them leave a less environmental footprint. For carbon production, several methods have been investigated, including pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, and physical and chemical activation. Each method has its advantages and drawbacks. The end products have promising electrochemical features, including high capacitance, fast charge/discharge rates, high power density, and long cycle life. However, issues including low mechanical stability and a limited amount of energy density still exist, demanding further studies to improve bio-based carbons for SC integration. By solving these issues, bio-based carbon materials will have the potential to revolutionize energy storage technology by providing efficient, affordable, and sustainable answers for various applications, from grid-scale energy storage to portable devices. This chapter highlights the fundamentals, benefits, and challenges of using bio-based carbons and their nanocomposites as electrode materials in SCs. The synthesis processes, structural traits, and electrochemical performance of bio-based carbons in SCs are all covered. The chapter also emphasizes the value of more significant research in this area and the contribution of bio-based carbons to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly energy future.
Daniel Nframah Ampong, Kwadwo Mensah-Darkwa, Ram K. Gupta
Fullerenes and Its’ Derivatives: Marvels in Supercapacitor Technology
Nanocarbons are one of the most popular electrode constituents employed to enhance the performance of multifunctional supercapacitors. Fullerenes, the unique zero-dimensional nanocarbons, particularly the C60 variety, have been widely explored in designing high-performing supercapacitors for their unique structural, optical, electrical, thermal, mechanical, and other superior characteristic features. Various fullerene-derived micro-/nanostructured materials have been employed in the formulations of smart electrodes with excellent electrical conductivity, improved charge mobility and enhanced electrochemical activity for advanced energy storage applications. Further, the functionalized fullerenes facilitate easy coupling with suitable semiconducting components to form diversified heterostructures with smooth interfaces, facilitating easy and ultrafast charge transfer phenomena, leading to boosted electrochemical activity in addition to enhanced mechanical tenacity. Fullerenes also serve as essential fillers in binary/ternary/polynary nanocomposite electrodes to obtain versatile, large surface-based, cross-linked architectures with optimum porosity for uninterrupted ion and electron transfer processes. Thus, meticulously engineered fullerene-based materials are laying the foundations for manufacturing flexible electrochemical energy storage devices, intended for advanced technical applications in vivid high-tech arenas. This chapter highlights the recent progress of fullerene-based nanomaterials, embracing the existing challenges confronted and the plausible prospects that are evolving with this highly promising nanocarbons system in the domain of supercapacitor technology.
Dipanwita Majumdar, Rudra Sarkar
Nanocomposites of Carbon for Supercapacitors
The increasing need for electronic devices that are flexible, wearable, and hybrid has piqued the interest of researchers and industries alike. Supercapacitors have emerged as alternative sources of renewable energy with extraordinary properties such as high capacity, stability, fast charging and discharging rates, stable cycle life, low cost, and ease of production. Great advancements have been made in the past decades to enhance the potential and performance of supercapacitors with novel engineering in materials synthesis, configuration, and characterization techniques. Out of all the available flexible energy storage materials, the nanocarbons or nanocarbon-based materials (such as activated carbon, carbon dots, graphene, fullerene, and nanofibers) stand out with high surface area, exceptional mechanical and electrical properties, and outstanding electrochemical characteristics. In the present book chapter, the brief introduction of different nanocarbons for energy storage devices is explained along with the different carbon-based composites and their design and assembling as flexible supercapacitor materials. A brief elaboration of different synthesis methods and how they can be helpful in developing suitable electrodes for supercapacitors. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives in the development and optimization of nanocarbon composites as futuristic supercapacitors are explained.
Biraj Kanta Satpathy, Agni Kumar Biswal, Rasmita Barik
High-Performance Carbon from Recycled Mattress for Supercapacitor Devices
This chapter is focused on the use of wastes such as mattresses for energy storage devices. A process for the fabrication of carbon-based electrodes using recycled mattresses for supercapacitors is presented. The first section emphasizes the importance of recycling materials both from industrial and domestic waste. The second section describes some of the most utilized processes for the development of activated carbon from various sources including a detailed characterization study. The third section covers energy storage mechanisms such as EDLC, pseudocapacitor, and hybrid energy devices. Also, different types of energy devices and their configurations that are currently being researched are discussed. The fourth section depicts some of the results obtained for supercapacitors fabricated using carbons derived from various components of mattresses such as shoddy, coconut fiber, cotton, and foam. These carbon-based materials were then used for the fabrication of electrodes for supercapacitors and their electrochemical properties were studied through several characterizations. The effect of activating agent ratio and pyrolysis temperature on the properties of supercapacitors is provided. Finally, a conclusion section illustrates the main hurdles and some of the approaches that can be used to further optimize the electrochemical properties of such carbon-based materials.
Felipe M. de Souza, Anjali Gupta, Ram K. Gupta
Nanocarbon for Flexible Energy Storage Devices
Due to their extraordinary electrical, electrochemical, and mechanical capabilities, nanocarbon materials including graphene, carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanofibers have become budding candidates for the design of flexible energy storage devices. Energy storage devices are discussed based on highlighting the properties of nanocarbon materials. The application of nanocarbon materials in various flexible energy storage technologies, such as supercapacitors and batteries is the foremost subject of the sections. The electrochemical performance of flexible energy storage systems based on nanocarbons is also discussed in this chapter, including their specific capacitance, ionic conductivity, energy density, power density, and cyclic stability. The tuning of these performances of the energy devices is based on the methods and techniques involved in material synthesis and device fabrication. A huge number of accessible electroactive sites are made available by the high surface area and electrical conductivity of nanocarbon materials, which can store charge and boost the device's energy storage capacity. In order to improve the efficiency of the energy storage device, nanocarbon materials can also be utilized in the separator. Due to their exceptional mechanical strength, thermal stability, and ionic conductivity, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been analyzed as possible materials for separators.
Anand Sreekantan Thampy, Naveena Princy M, Bhavana J I, Jacob G.
Graphene-Based Lithium/Sodium Metal Anodes
Owing to the high theoretical capacities and low redox potentials, metallic lithium (Li) and sodium (Na) have attracted extensive attention as promising anodes for high energy density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), respectively. However, their practical applications have been hampered by poor cycling stability, low Coulombic efficiency, and even serious safety concerns arising from uncontrolled dendrite formation and unstable solid-electrolyte interface (SEI). Encouragingly, graphene-based materials have recently emerged as an effective strategy to address these challenges. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of the recent progress in the development of graphene-based Li/Na metal anodes. The basic properties of graphene-based materials and hybrid structures are discussed, and their application for Li/Na anodes is also introduced. These graphene-based composites offer unique properties such as enhanced lithiophilicity/sodiophilicity of the scaffold, improved surface kinetics, mechanical strength, and stability, thereby resulting in uniform Li/Na deposition with nearly dendrite-free morphology. Finally, we highlight the development of graphene-based composites in revolutionizing Li and Na metal anodes for high-performance energy storage solutions.
Ye Wang, Hui Wang
NanoCarbon: A Wonder Material for Energy Applications
herausgegeben von
Ram K. Gupta
Springer Nature Singapore
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