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Über dieses Buch

This book is part of a two-volume book series that exhaustively reviews the key recent research into nanoclay reinforced polymer composites. This second volume focuses on nanoclay based nanocomposites and bionanocomposites fabrication, characterization and applications. This includes classification of nanoclay, chemical modification and processing techniques of nanocomposites. The book also provides comprehensive information about nanoclay modification and functionalization; modification of nanoclay systems, geological and mineralogical research on clays suitability; bio-nanocomposites based on nanoclays; modelling of mechanical behaviour of halloysite based composites; mechanical and thermal properties of halloysite nanocomposites; the effect of Nanoclays on gas barrier properties of polymers and modified nanocomposites. This book is a valuable reference guide for academics and industrial practitioners alike.



Nanoclay Modification and Functionalization for Nanocomposites Development: Effect on the Structural, Morphological, Mechanical and Rheological Properties

During the last decades, a widespread research has been devoted to organically modified clay minerals as reinforcements for polymer matrices. The most commonly used procedure to prepare organophilic clay is the cation exchange reaction with ammonium surfactant. Nevertheless, this kind of surface modification does not provide an efficient covalent bond between clay minerals and polymer matrices. For these reason, wide variety of silane coupling agents has been used to achieve compatibility and good dispersion between the hydrophilic clay and hydrophobic polymer. In this respect, the obtained polymer/organoclay nanocomposites exhibit significant improvements in their physical and mechanical properties over those of raw polymers. Herein, this chapter is divided into two parts. In the first part, it focus on the effect of silane modification of different clays minerals namely Halloysite, Montmorillonite and Sepiolite by various organosilanes such as 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (A), 3-iodopropyltrimethoxysilane (I), 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (S) and triethoxyvinylsilane (T). Although the silylation method, characterization and properties of the silane grafted clays are discussed. The second part is devoted to the preparation of polymer/silane grafted clay nanocomposites by melt compounding using polypropylene as polymer matrix. From the nanocomposites with 3wt% concentration in terms of silane grafted clay produced, the morphological, physical, mechanical, and rheological properties were measured. The results showed that the overall properties of silane grafted clays nanocomposites were increase which is attributed to better interfacial adhesion.

Marya Raji, Mohamed El Mehdi Mekhzoum, Abou el Kacem Qaiss, Rachid Bouhfid

Characteristic Properties of Nanoclays and Characterization of Nanoparticulates and Nanocomposites

Clays have been one of the more important industrial minerals; and with the recent advent of nanotechnology, they have found multifarious applications and in each application, nanoclays help to improve the quality of product, economize on the cost and saves environment. The chapter describes key characteristics of nanoclays and their classification on the basis of the arrangement of “sheets” in their basic structural unit “layer”. Major groups include kaolin–serpentine, pyrophyllite-talc, smectite, vermiculite, mica and Chlorite. The structural, morphological and physicochemical properties of halloystite and montmorillonite nanoclays, representative of the 1:1 and 2:1 layer groups, respectively, are discussed as well. After briefly introducing the surface modification of clay minerals by modifying or functionalizing their surfaces and their incorporation into polymer matrices to develop polymer/clay nanocomposites, techniques that are being employed to characterize these nanoclays, in general, and the sample preparation for these techniques, in particular, are also reviewed in this chapter.

Muhammad Shahid Nazir, Mohamad Haafiz Mohamad Kassim, Lagnamayee Mohapatra, Mazhar Amjad Gilani, Muhammad Rafi Raza, Khaliq Majeed

Modification of Nanoclay Systems: An Approach to Explore Various Applications

Nanoclay has a great potential in various fields. Small amount of nanoclay can change the whole physical and chemical properties of polymers, paints, inks and lubricants by dispersing nanoclay layers into the polymer matrices. The flexibility of interlayer gallery of nanoclay helps in the release of drugs to the targeted place. The controlled release of drugs takes place on account of the drug incorporated within the nanoclay galleries. This makes these nanomaterials as potential materials with its application in pharmaceutical field. Organoclays, a type of nanoclay are also being utilized for waste water treatment in junction with other sorbents viz. activated carbon and alum. Organoclays have been found to be the finest material for water treatment especially when the water contains enough amounts of oil and grease or humic acid. The use of nanoclays as reinforcing agent or additives in polymers for various properties is exploited for various applications. This chapter provides an overview of nanoclays or types of nanoclays with significance on the utilization of nanoclays as the filler in polymer matrices for the synthesis/fabrication of polymer nanocomposites, drug delivery agents, viscosity modifier for coatings, inks and lubricants and nanoclays for industrial effluent as well as potable water treatment.

Mohd Amil Usmani, Imran Khan, Naheed Ahmad, A. H. Bhat, Dhananjay K. Sharma, Jahangir Ahmad Rather, Syed Imran Hassan

Geology and Mineralogy of Clays for Nanocomposites: State of Knowledge and Methodology

The present chapter focuses on the scientific and technical research on clay-based nanocomposites. It begins with an introduction reminding the definition of clay nanocomposites reinforcement, the history of evolution of their field of research and development, their properties and their application fields. A synthesis is then presented on the mineralogy of natural clays specifying their classification and their physicochemical properties. This synthesis also includes the geology of argillaceous rocks citing their mode of genesis and their geographical distribution according to climatic zones. The last part of this paper shows, through the example of Morocco, the spatial distribution of clay deposits and the relationship that may exist between the nature of clay minerals of a deposit and its geological context. The note ends with a brief presentation on the different techniques of purification of natural clays and their organophilic transformation to make them finally ready to be used for the preparation of nanocomposites.

I. El Amrani El Hassani, C. Sadik

Bioplastics and Bionanocomposites Based on Nanoclays and Other Nanofillers

This chapter provides an overall review on the latest progress in the research and development of bionanocomposites that are utilized in various applications such as packaging, durable goods, electronics and biomedical applications. The rise of biobased materials is guided by its renewability, low carbon footprint and biodegradability issues and by virtue of which vast applications of these materials are already available. The bionanocomposites provides a better alternative for the various drawbacks which can be found in the biobased polymer matrix materials. Some of the issues of low strength, poor barrier properties, hydrophilicity, low thermal stability and conductivity can be addressed by the development of bionanocomposites. The chapter will begin with the introduction and recent advances in the development of biobased materials from renewable resources and their usefulness. In the very next part, many types of bionanocomposites based on these fillers i.e. nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes and nanoclays, are discussed. This review also presents up-to-date progress in this area in terms of processing technologies, product development and applications.

A. H. Bhat, Imran Khan, Mohd Amil Usmani, Jahangir Ahmad Rather

Oxygen Permeability of Layer Silicate Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites

Reinforcement of organically modified nanoclay into different synthetic and biopolymer matrices was performed by several techniques. For high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyamide (PA6) based nanocomposites, single screw compounding process was adopted, whereas; for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN) based nanocomposites in situ polymerization technique was taken into consideration. For protein and biopolymer based nanocomposites; nano clays were made to disperse through solution casting technique. The structural analysis of all the polymer/clay nanocomposites or bionanocomposites was performed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies, whereas; the morphological analysis was carried out through transmission electron microscope (TEM). The oxygen permeability of nano clay reinforced polymer nanocomposites was measured as function of clay content and pressure. It was found to be decreased with increase in clay content as compared to their neat polymers. Along with the clay content, ultrasonic treatment also affect the nature of dispersion of nanoclay and thereby the oxygen permeability of the fabricated nanocomposites. The enhanced obstacle towards the path of gas transportation within the fabricated polymer nanocomposite may enable the material for food packaging applications.

Sarat K. Swain, Niladri Sarkar, Gyanaranjan Sahoo, Deepak Sahu

Bionanocomposite Materials Based on Chitosan Reinforced with Nanocrystalline Cellulose and Organo-Modified Montmorillonite

Recently, the research of materials based on bio-renewable and biodegradable polymers has been intensively increased since they are more friendly to the environment than the conventionally used petroleum-based polymers. Chitosan is globally the second most ubiquitous renewable natural polymer following cellulose. Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer characterized by unique structural, chemical, and biological properties. In the aim to obtain chitosan with ultimate properties, different nanofillers reinforcements were incorporated. The presences of nanosized filler result in very promising materials since they exhibit enhanced properties with preservation of the material biodegradability without eco-toxicity. Nowadays, chitosan bionanocomposites represent a class of materials that has attracted considerable attention especially in biomedical field thinks to their inherent properties such as nontoxicity, biodegradability as well as their improved structural and functional properties. This chapter highlights the recent advances in the development of chitosan bionanocomposite films. Preparative techniques, characterization and property improvements, these novel materials are discussed. A comparative study of chitosan-based bionanocomposite films prepared by incorporation with nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC), an organo-modified montmorillonite. The chemical and physical properties of the obtained bio-hybrid films with different concentration in terms of NCC and OMMT were discussed.

Meriem Fardioui, Mohamed El Mehdi Mekhzoum, Abou el Kacem Qaiss, Rachid Bouhfid

Hybrid Polymer Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

This chapter highlights on recent development in general concept, preparation, characterization, properties, possibilities of polymers incorporated layered silicate nanocomposites and their applications in the field of nanotechnology. Polymer matrix based layered silicate nanocomposites have become a prominent area as it constitute a class of hybrid composites which the hybrid composite materials exhibit significant improvement in mechanical, decrease in gas permeability and flammability, heat distortion and thermal stability at very low filler content when compared with virgin polymers or conventional macro and micro composites. The wide range of polymer matrices is covered in this topic i.e. thermoplastic, thermosetting and elastomer. Preparative techniques of the polymer layered silicate nanocomposites include intercalation of polymers or pre-polymers from solution, sol-gel, in-situ polymerization and melt intercalation. The polymeric matrix with suitable filler and proper filler-matrix interaction will developed polymeric composites thus show great potential in wide range applications such as automotive, aerospace, packaging, construction and building.

Hazizan Md Akil, Nur Suraya Anis Ahmad Bakhtiar, Nor Hafizah Che Ismail

Rubber/Nanoclay Composites: Towards Advanced Functional Materials

In the recent years, nanoclay composites have drawn the attention of the researchers as well as manufacturers greatly because of their excellent capacity to withstand thermal and mechanical stress without significant compromise of impact and/or clarity. This chapter presents the preparation of nanoclay composites, characterization techniques, and the properties of the developed composites such as mechanical and thermal characteristics along with the recent applications of these nanocomposites. The rubber nanocomposite (RNC) and clay polymer nanocomposite (CPNC) have found their niche commercially in the tyre and sports industries providing reduced weight and energy dissipation, and enhanced air retention to the applied product.

Mohammad Khalid, Rashmi Walvekar, Mohammad Reza Ketabchi, Humaira Siddiqui, M. Enamul Hoque

Clay, Natural Fibers and Thermoset Resin Based Hybrid Composites: Preparation, Characterization and Mechanical Properties

Combining two or more kinds of reinforcement into the same matrix in order to enhance the mechanical properties of natural fiber composite is one of the attractive ways employed in this sense. Natural hybridization has also the target of promoting the natural resources, particularly local resources not exploited industrially. This chapter presents a study of the mechanical behavior of hybrid composite based on natural components, the first and third parts contain our own results on the mechanical behavior of the hybrid matrix epoxy/clay and the mechanical behavior of double hybrid composites using a hybrid matrix (epoxy/clay) and hybrid reinforcement jute/coir and jute/doum. About the second part, it focuses an overview of works of literature dealing hybrid composites based on natural fiber/natural fiber and natural fiber/synthetic fiber. Other than the hybridization of the reinforcement, it may also involve the hybridization of architecture and orientation of the reinforcement, which is also the subject of this chapter in its third part.

Hind Abdellaoui, Rachid Bouhfid, Abou el Kacem Qaiss

Wear Properties of Nanoclay Filled Epoxy Polymers and Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites

Polymeric material is one of the best materials, which has been used in many applications. This is owing to its excellent properties such as low density, good mechanical properties and good chemical resistance. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the effect of nanoclay on wear properties of epoxy polymer and fibre reinforced composites. The nanoclay/epoxy composites with 1, 3 and 5 wt% nanoclay contents were fabricated using high shear mixing system at 60 °C and speed of 12.7 m/s, while glass fiber reinforced nanocomposite panels were fabricated using vacuum bagging system. The effect of nanoclay on wear properties was evaluated using dry sliding wear and slurry tests. Dry sliding wear test was conducted using vitrified bonded silicon carbide abrasive wheels and Slurry test was conducted using a mixture of sand and water as slurry items. The mass loss and specific wear rate curves showed that wear properties of pure epoxy system and fiber reinforced polymer were enhanced when the weight fraction of nanoclay in the system reached up to certain weight percentage. Epoxy system with 3 wt% nanoclay has highest wear properties when compared to pure, 1 and 5 wt% nanoclay content in epoxy systems, while fiber reinforced polymer composite with 5 wt% nanoclay content has the highest wear properties compared to pure, 1 and 3 wt% nanoclay content. The results were affected by the agglomeration of nanoparticles and weak compatibility of nanoclay, glass fiber and epoxy.

A. Jumahat, A. A. A. Talib, A. Abdullah

Synthesis of Natural Rubber/Palygorskite Nanocomposites via Silylation and Cation Exchange

This aim of this work is to study the synthesis of the natural rubber (NR)/palygorskite (PAL) nancomposites through silylation and cation exchange method. The properties of the vulcanizates are observed to investigate how different surface modification affects the properties of the nanocomposites. The results for curing characteristics, tensile properties, tear strength, hardness, crosslink density, rubber-filler interaction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) are discussed. It is found that the NR/PAL nanocomposites have improved properties compared to NR. NR/PAL using silylation method shows higher tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength than NR/PAL using cation exchange method whereas NR/PAL using cation exchange method has higher modulus, hardness, crosslink density and lower rubber—filler interaction. The results are supported by SEM and TEM images. FTIR result shows new peaks signify the surface modification occurred. XRD pattern indicates that the modified PAL intercalates in the rubber matrix and the Tg values of NR/PAL nanocomposites decreased as a function of temperature.

N. A. Mohd Nor, S. N. A. Muttalib, N. Othman

Impact of Nanoclay on the Properties of Wood Polymer Nanocomposites

In this chapter, the influences of nanoclay on the attributes of tropical wood polymer nanocomposites (WPNCs) were discussed. The impregnation of wood samples with nanoclay and in situ polymerization were employed by vacuum-pressure method. The comparisons of improvement in different properties have been showed between the raw wood, wood plastic composites (WPC), and WPNC. The FTIR result confirmed the interaction and incorporation of nanoclay inside wood. The exfoliation of nanoclay has been identified by Transmission electron microscopy result. The formation of wood polymer nanocomposites was proven through X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, respectively. Significant improvement in mechanical properties was found through nanoclay treatment. The Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) result also indicated the improvement of thermo-mechanical properties after nanoclay treatment. The storage modulus (E’) of the WPNC specimen also unveiled notable enhancement in both rubbery plateau and glassy region in alliance to their parallel wood polymer composites and raw wood samples. The wood’s Dynamic Young’s modulus (Ed) also indicated significant increment for PF-nanoclay impregnated WPNC samples. Whereas, the treatment by PF-nanoclay system seem to lower the damping (loss Tanδ) peaks of woods. Furthermore, the WPNC samples shown significant improved compared to WPC and raw ones against white-rot white-rot (polyporous versicolor) and brown-rot (postia placenta) exposed.

Md. Saiful Islam, Irmawati Binti Ramli, Sinin Hamdan, Rezaur Rahman, Ahmad Adib Aiman, Abdul Rasyid, Amyrah Auni

Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Hybrid Graphene/Halloysite Nanotubes Reinforced Polyethylene Terepthalate Nanocomposites

In this work, the effects of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) constant ratio content and processing methods on the mechanical and thermal properties of polyethylene terepthalate (PET) nanocomposites were investigated. The GNP/HNT filled PET nanocomposites were prepared by melt process using single screw extruder and counter rotating twin screw extruder followed by injection molding to produce test samples. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites was investigated by comparing the effect of extruder types on tensile, flexural and impact test. The results show that the nanocomposites with the ratio of 2 wt% GNP and 1 wt% HNT hybrids have the highest tensile strength, flexural strength and impact strength. By comparing the two processing methods, PET nanocomposites prepared by single screw extruder exhibits higher tensile strength than those prepared using twins screw extruder. Furthermore, the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows that the melting temperature of PET is not essentially affected by the presence of the hybrid nanofillers. However, the degree of crystallinity (Xc) and cold crystallization temperature (Tcc) were lower than pure PET with GNP2/HNT1 having the lowest Xc and Tcc. Overall the results show that the maximum improvement in mechanical and thermal properties were achieved by the combination of GNP and HNT in the nanocomposites with 2 wt% and 1 wt% respectively using the single screw extruder.

Ibrahim Mohammed Inuwa, Tan Boon Keat, Azman Hassan

Nanoclay Reinforced on Biodegradable Polymer Composites: Potential as a Soil Stabilizer

Polymeric composites (biodegradable and non-biodegradable materials) have been extensively used in diverse types of applications ranging from automotive industries to packaging industries using natural fibres, man-made fibre and other biomass as reinforced materials. Soil erosion, triggered by two main events, anthropogenic activities and natural causes conceivably gives bad impacts to living things by altering the stability of the ecosystem and causing human to lose lives and damage their properties. Nanoclay reinforced on biodegradable polymeric is the preferred candidate for developing soil stabilizer materials as this material possesses hydrophilic properties that adsorb liquid molecules to handle erosion of soil. The capacity of the materials to retain a significant amount of water that releases gradually into the ground as it decays will not only mitigate soil erosion, but also improves soil fertility and productivity by enhancing the aeration of water and air in soil. Recent studies concerning nanoclay/biodegradable composite materials are cited in this paper. Overall, this chapter summarizes the definition, the properties, as well as the applications of nanoclay and biodegradable materials, to further generate the idea of combining both of these materials for soil erosion mitigation. Potentially, this fundamental study pertaining to special characteristics of nanoclay/biodegradable composite offers limelight on the green solution potentials for cost-effective and sustainable plantations management.

M. I. Syakir, N. A. Nurin, N. Zafirah, Mohd Asyraf Kassim, H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

Development and Characterization of Nano Clay Reinforced Three-Phase Sandwich Composite Laminates

Polymer based sandwich composites are widely used in the development of components for aircraft, railway coaches and marine application. Among the varieties, Glass-Jute fiber hybrid and Glass fiber-PS foam core sandwich laminates find wider application in the railway coaches and building of boat hulls, because of its unique properties such as high strength and stiffness-to-weight ratio and good damping property. In the present investigation, PS foam-GFR sandwich laminates are fabricated with a total of four layers of glass fiber in the skin and PS foam as core, by varying wt% of nano clay in polyester resin so as to obtain four different combinations of PS foam-GFR sandwich laminates. Various tests are undertaken to study the properties. In general, the results of the various experiments have shown that, the nanoclay modified polyester resin sandwich laminates exhibit the highest mechanical properties when compared to the unmodified polyester resin composite laminates. In addition to the mechanical tests, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) have been carried out to examine the microstructure and elemental composition of the fabricated composites. From the analysis, it is observed that, the samples containing nanoclay contain more of Silicon and Aluminium due to nanoclay loading in the matrix. The relative comparison has also been made between Jute-GFR hybrid and GFR-PS foam sandwich laminates for suitable application of composites.

N. R. R. Anbu Sagar, K. Palanikumar
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