Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This book provides an interesting snapshot of new research within the fields of flexible and soft devices which use porous carbon-based materials. The increase in demand for soft and flexible electronics, electrochemical energy storage/conversion systems, piezoresistive pressure sensors has promoted the development of new strategies for the synthesis and integration of nanoporous carbon (NPC) into flexible and soft polymers and inorganic textures. The structural properties of such NPC materials combined with their mechanical, conductive and catalytic properties, show promising results for the technology they are designed for, which can be useful solutions in many other disciplines. An in-depth discussion of the use of NPC materials in different energy devices is provided in every chapter, while at the same time the knowledge of the reader on the various applications where these materials can be used will be broadened. This book sheds new light on nanoporous carbon-based materials and will be of great interest to graduate students and professionals working in this field.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Carbon Nanotubes for Flexible Fiber Batteries

Abstract
The development of various wearable flexible electronic devices has become an important trend of modern electronics. Fiber batteries are seen as one of the most promising power supplies for powering these wearable electronics due to their flexible, lightweight, breathable, and weavable features. The key to achieving flexible fiber batteries lies in constructing flexible electrodes. Among many promising materials, carbon nanotubes, which have the merits of lightweight, flexible, conductive as well as large specific surface area, are widely used to produce fiber electrodes for flexible fiber batteries. In this chapter, the preparation and the properties of carbon nanotube fibers are firstly described. Subsequently, the application of carbon nanotube fiber for flexible fiber lithium-ion batteries, lithium-metal batteries, aqueous-metal batteries, and other batteries are summarized from the aspects of working principle, fabrication process, and electrochemical properties. Finally, the issues of flexible fiber battery need to be conquered also have been discussed for future development.
Ye Zhang, Tingting Ye, Luhe Li, Huisheng Peng

Chapter 2. Carbon Nanotube Dual-Material Gate Devices for Flexible Electronics

Abstract
Due to limited power supply and multifarious scenarios in practical applications, flexible electronic devices are expected to have low power consumption and functional configurability. In this chapter, a novel technology of dual-material gate (DMG) is demonstrated in flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) devices, which could modulate the energy-band structure in channel area of the devices by adopting two kinds of metals with different work functions, leading to low-power characteristics and functional configurability simultaneously. First, concept and principles of CNT-based DMG technology are introduced, followed by demonstrations of low-power characteristics of DMG devices under the transistor configuration. Then, after the exhibition of the devices under diode configuration, factors that could affect the electrical performances of DMG devices are identified. Finally, the flexibility of DMG devices and multifunctional integrated circuits (ICs) are demonstrated, together with the discussion of future perspectives of DMG technology.
Li Xiang, Youfan Hu

Chapter 3. Integration of Cost-Efficient Carbon Electrodes into the Development of Microbial Fuel Cells

Abstract
Microbial fuel cells are a renewable energy technology that can generate electricity from organic fuel such as wastewater, whilst simultaneously treating it. In order to implement this technology at larger scale, a major challenge is the choice of suitable electrode material that determines system performance and cost. This chapter discusses carbon-based electrodes and characteristics of carbonaceous materials that are both high performing and cost-effective in light of the technology implementation at larger scale for practical applications. The focus is on the most recent findings and incorporation of lightweight, robust and biocompatible carbon fibre electrodes in the form of carbon veil both as the anode and cathode counterparts and their suitability in larger scale designs. The chapter also presents modification strategies of this substratum with microparticles such as activated carbon as another cost-effective approach that may assist in bringing this technology closer to market.
Jiseon You, Iwona Gajda, John Greenman, Ioannis A. Ieropoulos

Chapter 4. Bridging Electronics and Micro Energy Storage

Abstract
The development of small, smart and remote objects requires microscale components and energy autonomy. Activated carbon electrodes with high specific surface areas, achieving high electrical double layer capacitances present an opportunity to associate electronic components and energy storage. Transistors are a key element in any integrated circuit and the use of carbon gate electrodes has proven efficient to achieve low-voltage (sub-1 V) current modulation, reducing the energy required to operate them. Furthermore, the monolithic integration of an ion-gated transistor and a supercapacitor allowed to store and reuse up to 50% of the energy used to switch on the transistor. This paves the path to low-power, durable and autonomous devices able to function on small ambient energy harvesters and/or energy storage units.
Alexander Masson, Federico Poli, Francesca Soavi, Clara Santato

Chapter 5. Nanoporous Composite Sensors

Abstract
Nanoporous composite sensors provide great opportunities to tune their characteristics for specific functions beyond the intrinsic properties of constituent materials. To make nanoporous composites, one needs to mix matrix materials with fillers and introduce small scale pores. While many different classes of materials can be utilized for the synthesis of nanonporous composites, we will focus on carbon-based materials as they are the most common and widely utilized materials. In this chapter, carbon-based filler and matrix materials will be introduced to inform selection based on sensor application and environment, followed by fabrication methods to control the internal and external structure of the composites to have desired properties. Finally, we will conclude by discussing current challenges and future opportunities.
Adebayo Eisape, Bohan Sun, Jing Li, Sung Hoon Kang

Chapter 6. Laser-Induced Graphene and Its Applications in Soft (Bio)Sensors

Abstract
In recent years the technological importance of graphene increased significantly also in the field of soft, flexible and wearable electronics. In this chapter a simple one step process to create 3D porous graphene structures into flexible polymer films is highlighted. By laser scribing polymer precursor substrates with commercially available laser scribing setups the polymer is converted into so-called Laser-Induced Graphene (LIG) via a photothermal conversion. The properties of this material and the influence of different processing parameters on its composition and structure are introduced. Different transfer methods for stretchable applications are discussed. Three main application fields of LIG for soft (bio)sensors are identified: piezoresistive, electrophysiological and electrochemical sensors. Each of the application fields is highlighted more in detail and an overview of recent publications is given. Concluding with an outlook on the future of LIG – including improvement of patterning resolution and the use of renewable, bio-derived precursors – this chapter provides a broad overview of LIG for soft and flexible sensor devices.
Alexander Dallinger, Kirill Keller, Francesco Greco

Chapter 7. Production of Carbon Nanofoam by Pulsed Laser Deposition on Flexible Substrates

Abstract
Nanostructured, ultra-low density carbon materials known as “carbon nanofoams” are attracting a growing interest for novel applications in many fields, from hydrogen storage and catalysis to advanced targets for laser-driven particle acceleration. Pulsed laser deposition has emerged as one of the most promising and versatile techniques for the synthesis of nanofoam, especially whenever a flexible substrate is required. Here we will review the most recent advances about the production and charaterization of carbon nanofoams by means of the pulsed laser deposition with nanosecond laser pulses. In particular, we will address the process of foam growth starting from the aggregation of carbon nanoparticles in fractal-like structures, demonstrating how it is possible to control nanofoam properties exploiting unconventional process parameters such as the laser repetition rate. Finally, the deposition of carbon nanofoams on flexible substrates for superintense laser-matter interaction is discussed as an illustrative example of the potential of the technique.
Alessandra Maffini, Andrea Pazzaglia, David Dellasega, Valeria Russo, Matteo Passoni

Chapter 8. Porosity of Nanostructured Carbon Thin Films

Abstract
The multiscale (from nano to macro) characterization of porous materials, in particular of thin films integrated in sensors, as in electrochemical, catalytic and biomedical devices, asks for non-invasive methods. Since the mechanical and morphological properties of the substrate may affect the resulting structural organization and the network of the porous film structure, the porosity of the thin film has to be characterized in situ, without removing it from the integrating substrate, by recognizing the different contributions.
This chapter deals with standard methods used to characterize porosity, the theoretical framework used to describe the evolution of porosity with film thickness, the development of combined approaches which provide the possibility to describe many features of pores in thin films on different length scales. As a case study we present an in-depth analysis of the porosity and structure of carbon cluster-assembled thin films used as electrodes in energy devices.
Alessandra Del Giudice, Giulio Benetti, Claudio Piazzoni, Francesca Borghi

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen