Nanotechnology has been established in membrane technology for decades. In this book, comprehensive coverage is given to nanotechnology applications in synthetic membrane processes, which are used in different fields such as water treatment, separation of gases, the food industry, military use, drug delivery, air filtration, and green chemistry. Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles, and dendrimers are contributing to the development of more efficient and cost-effective water filtration processes. Gas separation and carbon capture can be significantly improved in flue gas applications. Nanoporous membrane systems engineered to mimic natural filtration systems are being actively developed for use in smart implantable drug delivery systems, bio artificial organs, and other novel nano-enabled medical devices. The microscopic structure of nanoporous ceramic membranes, mainly focusing on zeolite materials, as well as the energy-saving effect of membrane separation, contribute to various chemical synthesis processes. In the food industry, nanotechnology has the potential to create new tools for pathogen detection and packaging. For each application, nanotechnology is mostly used to make composite membranes, and the book provides a detailed look at the mechanisms by which the composite membrane works in each application area.