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Über dieses Buch

Over the past decade, knowledge assets and intellectual capital have been attracting an increasing amount of attention, not only from academics and CEOs, but also from national policy makers. To date, most studies of intellectual capital have focused at the organizational level, with an emphasis on explaining the role of “intangible assets” as a differentiator between accounting value and market value as a possible source of corporate competitive advantage. More recently, pioneers in the field, including the authors of this book, have begun to apply these methodologies to a broader scope, with the objective of comparing the intellectual capital indices at the national or regional level. As a result, an increasing number of world organizations and researchers are commissioned to investigate this future-oriented crucial national issue. Yet, the linkage between the value of intangible assets and how to quantify or benchmark it is still tenuous, not to mention easily misunderstood by a layman for guiding better decision making. With the belief that numbers talk and statistics hide valuable information, this book serves to present the authors’ research findings, covering 14 years (1995-2008) of intellectual capital information, comprised of human capital, market capital, process capital, renewal capital, and financial capital for 40 countries. The last three chapters go beyond analysis of current intellectual capital factors, and present practical tools for launching initiatives at the national level. The book will serve as an essential resource for researchers, policy makers, and business leaders concerned with issues of economic growth and competitiveness, innovation, and business creation.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction of National Intellectual Capital

Abstract
National wealth, national competitiveness, and economic development are issues of concern for national leaders, policy makers, and world organizations. As a result, various kinds of national ranking have caught the attention of relevant parties, such as the World Competitiveness Yearbook published by the International Institute for Management Development (IMD). The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) also estimates and reports the potential future wealth of its member countries. Such ranking enables national leaders to locate the relative position of their own nation in the global arena, find a benchmarking nation, and then appropriately strategize their policies for securing national development and competitiveness.
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 2. Background of National Intellectual Capital

Abstract
Intellectual capital, the source of the competencies and capabilities deemed ­essential for national economic growth, human development, and quality of life (Malhotra 2003), have been attracting an increasing amount of attention. Particularly, the results of national level intellectual capital studies and ranking provide a direction for nations to benchmark and to make wise decisions in the effective investment of national intangible assets and their development in the era of the knowledge economy. This chapter first describes the motivation for writing and publishing this book and the national intellectual capital models that are currently in use; this is followed by the obstacles that hinder the measurement of national intellectual capital, and then a presentation of the measurement framework proposed in this book.
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 3. Methods and National Intellectual Capital Ranking of 40 Countries

Abstract
As mentioned in the previous two chapters, the intellectual capital of a nation requires a comprehensive system of variables to help uncover and manage that nation’s invisible wealth; yet, measurement models of past studies have constraints for an on-going cross-country national intellectual capital (IC) comparison of a relatively large scale. This book proposes a moderate set of national intellectual capital indicators that is validated and can be easily replicated for follow-up trend analysis.
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 4. National Intellectual Capital of Five Nordic Countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden)

Abstract
Based on data from 1995 to 2008, all five Nordic countries are listed among the top ten in the National Intellectual Capital Indices (NICI40) for 40 Countries. Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, and Norway ranked number 1, 2, 4, 7, and 9, respectively (2007 and 2008 data for Iceland were unavailable). Denmark has the highest score in human capital and the second highest score in process capital; Finland has the highest score in process capital; Norway has the highest score in financial capital; and Sweden has the second highest scores in both human capital and renewal capital.
National intellectual capital ranking of five Nordic countries
 
Humancapital
Marketcapital
Processcapital
Renewalcapital
Financialcapital
Overall IC(NICI40)
Mean
7.84
6.41
7.25
6.16
9.71
37.37
SD
0.22
0.28
0.33
1.35
0.17
1.68
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Denmark
8.15
1
6.62
4
7.42
2
5.81
7
9.69
9
37.69
4
Finland
7.79
4
6.61
5
7.71
1
7.36
3
9.56
18
39.03
1
Iceland
7.58
7
6.55
7
6.86
9
5.14
9
9.67
10
35.80
7
Norway
7.72
5
5.96
15
7.06
5
4.71
14
10.00
1
35.45
9
Sweden
7.98
2
6.31
10
7.18
4
7.78
2
9.63
13
38.89
2
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 5. National Intellectual Capital of Four Larger Western European Countries (France, Germany, Ireland, UK)

Abstract
The four relatively large Western European countries are among the ­second quarter percentile (11–20th) of national intellectual capital indices for 40 countries (NICI40). France, Germany, Ireland, and the United Kingdom ranked number 20, 15, 13, and 19, respectively. In taking into account each individual country’s overall ranking, both France and Germany have a relatively better score in renewal capital (ranked #10 and ranked #6); Ireland has a very good score in market capital (ranked #2), while France is particularly weak in market capital (ranked #35).
National intellectual capital ranking of four larger European countries
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall IC (NICI40)
Mean
6.35
5.76
6.09
4.82
9.63
32.65
SD
0.14
1.06
0.44
0.84
0.05
1.19
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
France
6.50
15
4.67
35
5.51
20
4.96
10
9.60
17
31.24
20
Germany
6.31
20
5.55
23
6.12
16
5.88
6
9.62
14
33.48
15
Ireland
6.42
17
7.21
2
6.58
11
3.87
20
9.70
7
33.77
13
UK
6.18
21
5.62
21
6.13
15
4.57
17
9.61
15
32.11
19
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 6. National Intellectual Capital of Four Smaller Western European Countries (Austria, Belgium, Netherlands, Switzerland)

Abstract
The four relatively small Western European countries are in the top 20 in the National Intellectual Capital Indices for 40 Countries (NICI40). Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland ranked number 12, 16, 8, and 3, respectively. The Netherlands and Switzerland have a higher level of national intellectual capital than do Austria and Belgium. Switzerland has the overall best score in renewal capital (ranked #1) and the Netherlands is strong in market capital (ranked #3). Both Austria and Belgium ranked relatively higher in financial capital (ranked #8 and #12) than in their overall NICI40 ranking. Austria is relatively weak in renewal capital (ranked #16) and Belgium is relatively weak in market capital and process capital (both ranked #18).
National intellectual capital ranking of the four smaller European countries
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall IC (NICI40)
Mean
6.99
6.33
6.54
5.62
9.71
35.18
SD
0.13
0.45
0.54
1.61
0.06
2.30
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Austria
6.89
12
6.25
13
6.52
13
4.60
16
9.70
8
33.96
12
Belgium
7.01
9
5.86
18
5.79
18
4.66
15
9.64
12
32.97
16
Netherlands
6.89
11
6.95
3
6.79
10
5.21
8
9.73
5
35.56
8
Switzerland
7.17
8
6.26
12
7.04
6
7.99
1
9.78
4
38.24
3
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 7. National Intellectual Capital of Four Southern European Countries (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain)

Abstract
The four Southern European countries are in the third quarter percentile (21st to 30th) of the National Intellectual Capital Indices for 40 countries (NICI40). Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain ranked number 29, 24, 26, and 22, respectively. Both Greece and Italy ranked higher in financial capital (ranked #23 and #19, respectively) than in their overall IC ranking. Italy is weak in market capital (ranked #36). Portugal lags five ranks behind (ranked #31) its overall IC ranking in renewal capital and Spain is relatively weak in renewal capital (ranked #25).
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall intellectual capital
Mean
5.86
5.02
4.88
2.25
9.40
27.39
SD
0.29
0.37
0.38
0.36
0.14
1.13
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Greece
5.43
28
4.82
32
4.32
29
1.96
29
9.36
23
25.87
29
Italy
6.07
23
4.60
36
5.07
23
2.62
23
9.54
19
27.90
24
Portugal
5.94
25
5.26
26
4.95
24
1.91
31
9.22
25
27.28
26
Spain
5.98
24
5.39
24
5.16
21
2.50
25
9.47
20
28.51
22
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 8. National Intellectual Capital of Four East Central European Countries and South Africa (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, South Africa, Turkey)

Abstract
The countries of this cluster are at the bottom half of National Intellectual Capital Indices for 40 Countries (NICI40), with Czech Republic and Hungary in possession of a higher level of national intellectual capital. Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, South Africa, and Turkey ranked number 27, 23, 33, 31, and 34, respectively. In comparing each individual country’s overall IC ranking, Hungary ranked better in human capital and market capital (both ranked #19), Poland is particularly weak in market capital and process capital (ranked #39 and #35, respectively), and Turkey is comparatively better in market capital (ranked #27).
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall IC (NICI40)
Mean
5.26
5.02
4.02
2.04
8.76
25.10
SD
0.78
0.66
0.61
0.42
0.31
2.29
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Czech Republic
5.34
29
5.56
22
4.51
28
2.57
24
9.16
26
27.15
27
Hungary
6.33
19
5.68
19
4.71
27
2.34
26
8.94
27
27.99
23
Poland
5.61
26
4.04
39
3.23
35
1.95
30
8.77
28
23.59
33
South Africa
4.71
36
4.84
31
4.02
30
1.84
32
8.37
36
23.79
31
Turkey
4.33
38
4.98
27
3.61
32
1.51
36
8.57
33
22.99
34
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 9. National Intellectual Capital of Two North American Countries (Canada, USA)

Abstract
The two North American countries are in the first quarter percentile of National Intellectual Capital Indices for 40 Countries (NICI40). Canada and the USA ranked number 10 and 5, respectively. Comparatively, Canada has better human capital (ranked #3) and the USA has better financial capital (ranked #2). The USA is relatively weak in market capital (ranked #17).
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall intellectual capital
Mean
7.72
6.11
6.77
6.00
9.80
36.40
SD
0.17
0.28
0.28
1.64
0.12
1.61
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Canada
7.84
3
6.31
9
6.57
12
4.84
12
9.71
6
35.26
10
USA
7.6
6
5.91
17
6.97
8
7.16
4
9.88
2
37.53
5
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 10. National Intellectual Capital of Four Latin American Countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico)

Abstract
The four Latin American countries are all ranked in the last quarter percentile of National Intellectual Capital Indices for 40 countries (NICI40) except for Chile. Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico ranked number 38, 37, 28, and 35, respectively. Chile is particularly strong in market capital (ranked #6) and has a comparatively higher score in process capital (ranked #25) than in its overall IC ranking #28. However, Chile’s market capital strength did not transfer to financial capital (ranked #30). Brazil finds itself in a similar situation; its comparatively high market capital (ranked #33) did not transfer in equivalent strength to financial capital (ranked #35). On the contrary, Argentina lagged behind in market capital and process capital (ranked #40 and #40, respectively), yet its financial capital ranked #32.
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall intellectual capital
Mean
4.82
5.09
3.50
1.53
8.63
23.57
SD
0.30
1.09
0.96
0.24
0.14
2.30
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Argentina
5.12
31
4.01
40
2.78
40
1.43
38
8.65
32
22
38
Brazil
4.43
37
4.81
33
3.11
38
1.63
35
8.43
35
22.41
37
Chile
4.96
33
6.6
6
4.91
25
1.8
33
8.7
30
26.97
28
Mexico
4.75
35
4.95
28
3.19
37
1.24
40
8.75
29
22.88
35
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 11. National Intellectual Capital of Australia and New Zealand

Abstract
Australia and New Zealand are listed in the top 20 in the National Intellectual Capital Indices (NICI40) for 40 countries, namely 11th and 18th. In comparing the two countries’ overall rankings, Australia scores higher in human capital (ranked #10) and process capital (ranked #7), while New Zealand is relatively strong in market capital (ranked #11); however, this advantage does not transfer to its financial capital (ranked #22)
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall intellectual capital
Mean
6.91
6.21
6.65
4.00
9.51
33.26
SD
0.15
0.07
0.54
0.70
0.21
1.53
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Australia
7.01
10
6.16
14
7.03
7
4.49
18
9.65
11
34.34
11
New Zealand
6.80
14
6.26
11
6.27
14
3.50
21
9.36
22
32.18
18
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 12. National Intellectual Capital of Three East Asian Countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan)

Abstract
The three East Asian countries are mainly in the second quarter percentile­ of National Intellectual Capital Indices for 40 Countries (NICI40). Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan ranked number 14, 21, and 17, respectively. In comparing each individual country’s overall ranking, Japan is particularly strong in renewal capital (ranked #5), yet weak in market capital (ranked #37). South Korea is comparatively better in renewal capital (ranked #19) and weak in market capital #34. Taiwan is also comparatively strong in renewal capital (ranked #11), yet this advantage did not effectively transfer to its financial capital (ranked #21).
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewalcapital
Financial capital
Overall intellectual capital
Mean
6.48
5.11
5.49
5.37
9.41
31.85
SD
0.34
0.73
0.55
1.47
0.18
2.31
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Japan
6.82
13
4.60
37
5.68
19
7.03
5
9.60
16
33.73
14
South Korea
6.15
22
4.79
34
4.87
26
4.23
19
9.24
24
29.28
21
Taiwan
6.47
16
5.94
16
5.92
17
4.84
11
9.38
21
32.55
17
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 13. National Intellectual Capital of Four Southeast Asian Countries (Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)

Abstract
The intellectual capital of the four Southeast Asian countries of our study varies considerably. Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand earned ranks of 25, 39, 6, and 30, respectively, for the NICI40. In comparing each individual country’s overall ranking, Singapore is particularly strong in market capital (ranked #1) and process capital (ranked #3). Malaysia and Thailand are also relatively strong in market capital (ranked #8 and #20, respectively); however, such strength was not effectively transferred to their respective financial capital (ranked #31 and #37, respectively). The Philippines have the lowest score in national intellectual capital in this cluster.
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall intellectual capital
Mean
SD
5.45
0.69
6.38
1.49
4.89
1.75
2.40
1.60
8.51
1.04
27.62
6.49
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Malaysia
5.53
27
6.50
8
5.11
22
2.01
28
8.66
31
27.80
25
Philippines
4.85
34
4.93
29
3.25
34
1.47
37
7.38
39
21.88
39
Singapore
6.39
18
8.39
1
7.25
3
4.77
13
9.85
3
36.65
6
Thailand
5.02
32
5.68
20
3.96
31
1.36
39
8.15
37
24.16
30
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 14. National Intellectual Capital of the Four BRIC Countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China)

Abstract
The national intellectual capital rankings of the four BRIC countries are all in the fourth quarter percentile (31–40th) of National Intellectual Capital Indices for 40 countries (NICI40). Brazil, China, India, and Russia ranked number 37, 36, 40, and 32, respectively. In comparing each individual country’s overall ranking, Brazil is better in market capital (ranked #33); China scores higher in market capital (ranked #25) and renewal capital (ranked #27); and Russia is relatively strong in renewal capital (ranked #22). Yet China is relatively weak in human capital (ranked #39), India is also weak in human capital (ranked #40), and Russia is weak in both market capital (ranked #38) and process capital (ranked #39).
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall intellectual capital
Mean
4.43
4.77
3.17
2.10
7.86
22.32
SD
0.64
0.50
0.27
0.55
0.77
1.23
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Brazil
4.43
37
4.81
33
3.11
38
1.63
35
8.43
35
22.41
37
China
4.18
39
5.27
25
3.49
33
2.12
27
7.49
38
22.55
36
India
3.79
40
4.91
30
3.22
36
1.78
34
6.96
40
20.67
40
Russia
5.30
30
4.07
38
2.85
39
2.87
22
8.57
34
23.65
32
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 15. National Intellectual Capital Development: Trajectory from a Poor to a Fast Growth Country

Abstract
This chapter reports the five fastest growth and the five poorest countries with China and India overlapping for a total of eight countries. The growth rate of the five fastest growth countries in descending order is China 294%, India 155%, Russia 148%, Ireland 141%, and Poland 141%, in comparing their GDP per capita (PPP) from 1995 to 2008. The 14 years mean GDP per capita (PPP) of the five poorest countries in ascending order is India US$1,708, Philippines US$2,582, China US$3,139, Thailand US$5,858, and South Africa US$7,387.
National intellectual capital ranking of the five fastest growth and five poorest countries
 
Human capital
Market capital
Process capital
Renewal capital
Financial capital
Overall intellectual capital
Mean
4.99
5.12
3.83
2.16
8.17
24.26
SD
0.82
1.01
1.18
0.83
0.88
4.02
Country
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Score
Ranking
Ireland
6.42
17
7.21
2
6.58
11
3.87
20
9.70
7
33.77
13
Poland
5.61
26
4.04
39
3.23
35
1.95
30
8.77
28
23.59
33
Russia
5.30
30
4.07
38
2.85
39
2.87
22
8.57
34
23.65
32
China
4.18
39
5.27
25
3.49
33
2.12
27
7.49
38
22.55
36
India
3.79
40
4.91
30
3.22
36
1.78
34
6.96
40
20.67
40
Philippines
4.85
34
4.93
29
3.25
34
1.47
37
7.38
39
21.88
39
South Africa
4.71
36
4.84
31
4.02
30
1.84
32
8.37
36
23.79
31
Thailand
5.02
32
5.68
20
3.96
31
1.36
39
8.15
37
24.16
30
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 16. Dynamic Systems in National Intellectual Capital

Abstract
This book reports on the national intellectual capital of 11 country clusters, namely, Nordic, large European, small European, Southern European, East Central European, North American and Latin American countries as well as Australia and New Zealand and East Asian, Southeast Asian, and the BRIC countries.
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

Chapter 17. Policy Implications and Future Perspectives

Abstract
Over the past few decades, intangible assets or intellectual capital, such as knowledge, patents, and innovation, have been identified as fundamental sources of wealth and progress.
Carol Yeh-Yun Lin, Leif Edvinsson

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