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Über dieses Buch

This book provides a concise, critical analysis of the key themes, theories, and controversies in nationalism studies. It offers an historically informed and sophisticated overview of classical and contemporary approaches to nationalism, as well as setting out an agenda for future research on nationalism and the emotions. In so doing, the book illuminates nationalism’s contemporary power and resilience, as manifested in the growth of far-right nationalist populism in Europe, the white ethno-nationalism of Trump in the United States, the resurgence of great power nationalism and rivalry in Asia, and the resilience of national secessionist movements in diverse parts of the planet. The widespread nationalistic responses to the coronavirus pandemic provide further confirmation of the continuing power of nationalism. All of these developments are discussed in the book, which will be an invaluable resource for nationalism scholars and students in Sociology, Politics and History.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: Resurgent Nationalism

Abstract
Since the end of the Cold War, world politics has been repeatedly convulsed by nationalist conflict and contention. The Global Financial Crisis that began in 2008 reinforced this trajectory. The growth of far-right nationalist populism in Europe, the white ethno-nationalism of Trump in the United States, the resurgence of great-power nationalism and rivalry in Asia, and the resilience of nationalist secessionist movements in diverse parts of the planet, are just some of the manifestations of heightened nationalist politics. More recently, the coronavirus pandemic underlines the power of contemporary nationalism. This introductory chapter provides some historical context for these developments, and for the renaissance in nationalism scholarship that has sought to understand them. It identifies the key themes and controversies around which debates in the field have turned, not least the definition and historical periodization of national phenomena. The chapter concludes by outlining the book’s key objectives, its organizational logic, and the content of each chapter.
Lloyd Cox

Chapter 2. The Contested Terrain of Nations, Nationalism and National Identity

Abstract
The definition of nations, nationality and nationalism are fiercely contested, and remain ambiguous and opaque, despite the proliferation of a sophisticated nationalism scholarship over the past forty years. This contestation and ambiguity, it is argued, does not arise exclusively or even mainly for intellectual reasons. Rather, they derive from sociological, linguistic and political factors that circumscribe the intellectual parameters within which debates about nations and nationalism occur. These are examined in the context of their historical development, with their political and intellectual effects being identified. The chapter continues by discussing some of the most important classical (nineteenth- and early twentieth-century) approaches to these issues (Marx, Mill, Renan, Durkheim and Weber), identifying their strengths, weaknesses and contemporary relevance. The final part of the chapter classifies and critically analyses five contemporary approaches to conceptualizing nations, nationalism and national identity. This analysis and immanent critique inform the elaboration of my own analytical terminology, which is summarized in the concluding remarks.
Lloyd Cox

Chapter 3. The Modern Origins of Nations, Nationality and Nationalism?

Abstract
A key debate in the literature on nationalism has focused on its relationship to Modernity, and whether nationalism is an expression or a cause of nations and national identification. The dominant position within the literature historically has been that nationalism is very much a product of Modernity, and that it invents nations rather than being their expression. Those who advance this position can be further classified into accounts that emphasize the socio-economic aspects of Modernity (capitalism and industrialism), and those for whom state building, war and democratic enlargement are the proximate sources of nations and nationalism. This chapter elaborates a close reading of some representative thinkers in both iterations of the modernist position. In terms of socio-economic accounts of modernity and nationalism, the works of Tom Nairn, Miroslav Hroch and Ernst Gellner are subject to critical scrutiny. The more political and state-focused account of nationalism is explored through an examination of the relevant works by Michael Mann, Andreas Wimmer and John Breuilly. The chapter concludes by taking stock of the strengths and weaknesses of the modernist position.
Lloyd Cox

Chapter 4. The Premodern, Cultural Origins of Nations and Nationality?

Abstract
The modernist orthodoxy that situates the emergence of nationalism in the Eighteenth Century has been subject to sustained criticism by those whom Anthony Smith has labelled ‘perennialists’ or ‘ethno-symbolists.’ This chapter examines and contextualizes the culturalist backlash to modernist theories of nationalism, critically analysing key contributions that posit the pre-modern origins of nations. It starts with accounts that argue that ancient nations can be identified in antiquity (e.g. Roshwald, Gat, Armstrong, Grosby), before analysing those that assert the origins of nations in medieval Europe (Hastings, Llobera). The chapter then engages in a critical discussion of the influential work of Anthony Smith, out of which I arrive at some conclusions about the debate around the origins of nations and nationalism. It is argued that nations and nationality are, along with states, constitutive of modernity, while modernity provides the cultural, political and economic impetus to the constitution of nations and nationality as novel forms of large-scale collective identity. They inherit and digest cultural elements from the pre-modern past, but these are fundamentally transformed and serve new cultural and political ends.
Lloyd Cox

Chapter 5. Nationalism and Populism in the Age of Globalization

Abstract
The renaissance in nationalism studies beginning in the 1980s occurred at the same moment that globalization discourse was becoming ubiquitous. Much of the early writing on globalization assumed that it would have a corrosive effect on national identity and nationalism. This emphatically proved not to be the case, with nationalism intensifying as global connections became denser and more extensive. This chapter disentangles contested ideas about the relationship between nationalism, globalization and populism. It begins by further elaborating on the fuzzy idea of globalization, identifying its key features and outlining four relatively discrete positions on its periodization. The discussion continues with a consideration of the relationship between globalization and the nationalist populist revolts that have marked contemporary political development. Here particular attention is paid to accounts emphasizing economics and inequality on the one hand, and those emphasizing the role of identity, on the other. The chapter ends by problematizing this bifurcation, arguing that it is unhelpful.
Lloyd Cox

Chapter 6. Conclusions: The Emotional Power of Nationalism

Abstract
The power of nationalism to motivate human action, sacrifice, love and hatred remains undiminished. Yet today’s political, economic and social conditions are very different from those that gave rise to nationalism in the first place. What, then, explains the persistence of nationalism and the enduring power that it holds over people’s hearts as well as their minds? This chapter provides some provisional answers to this question by examining the role of collective emotions in engendering nationalist commitments. It is argued that if our understanding of nationalism and its persistence is to seriously advance in the coming years, it will be necessary for scholars to draw upon and creatively adapt the growing research into collective emotions, and their connection to the more instrumental bases of social and political life. It is only by grappling with the emotional appeal of nationalist identification, and exploring this in its relationship to rather than as an abstraction from group interests, that the resilience of national particularism in the Twenty-First century can be fully appreciated. Given the explosion of nationalist sentiment that we are presently witnessing, there are few issues that are more politically important.
Lloyd Cox

Backmatter

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