Skip to main content

2024 | Buch

Natural Energy, Lighting, and Ventilation in Sustainable Buildings


Über dieses Buch

This book explores the theoretical background and provides an experimental analysis of using natural energy resources in sustainable building design. It brings together an international group of contributors focusing on ways natural energy, lighting, and ventilation can improve the performance of electrical, lighting, and mechanical systems. Contributions explore how natural resources can contribute to sustainable development goals while meeting energy demands and maintaining acceptable interior air quality and natural illumination needs. Coverage includes green building design, renewable energy integration, photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, natural lighting, and natural ventilation.

Natural Energy, Lighting, and Ventilation in Sustainable Buildings offers practical and promising solutions for novel challenges in sustainable design for electrical engineers, energy engineers, architectural engineers, and related professionals, as well as researchers and developers from engineering science.


Chapter 1. Sustainable Buildings: A Comprehensive Review and Classification of Challenges and Issues, Benefits, and Future Directions
During the last few years, the importance of moving toward sustainable industries has been recognized by everyone, which has a significant influence on global warming. One of the most important objectives of sustainability is to reach energy efficiency and reduce carbon emission. Due to the importance of this issue, a huge amount of valuable studies have been done in this field, and a significant number of studies still are required to investigate the limitations of this topic. This study aims to have a comprehensive review of sustainable buildings from various perspectives. The most important contribution of this chapter is to study the challenges, obstacles, objectives, interests, and preferences of sustainable buildings from the perspective of different stakeholders. The review process involved analyzing papers published on three scientific and reliable databases, including review articles, conference proceedings, and journal papers. The papers focused more on the details of different aspects of improving energy efficiency and energy reduction to minimize the environmental, economic, social, and other impacts of fossil fuels. The outcomes of this study provide a valuable reference for stakeholders, including governments, policymakers, researchers, and decision-makers, and offer suggestions from the selected past studies. The review highlights the need for researchers to consider the challenges, benefits, and recommendations for future work in this area. The paper provides motivation and attracts future research endeavors to enhance energy efficiency in buildings and achieve sustainability.
Mehrdad Ghahramani, Daryoush Habibi, Mehran Ghahramani, Morteza Nazari-Heris, Asma Aziz
Chapter 2. The Challenges and Solutions in Sustainable Buildings
Energy is considered a fundamental issue in social and economic development in countries. In today’s world, the optimal use of energy has received attention due to the increasing need for energy and environmental issues. Considering that modern buildings and infrastructures include a significant part of energy consumption and greenhouse gas production, they have been given special attention. Sustainable buildings play a significant role in reducing energy consumption globally. Also, the need to use renewable resources has increased under the consequences of global warming and the reduction of fossil fuels. As a result, the use of these resources to supply energy to buildings and the design and construction of sustainable buildings have been the focus of many countries to achieve environmental goals. As a result, to reduce the adverse environmental effects and save energy consumption, the composition of renewable resource technology and sustainable buildings is considered a suitable solution and will be investigated in this section. Figure 2.1 shows a graphical abstract of this chapter.
Graphical Abstract
Sobhan Aghababaei, Farzaneh Boronuosi, Sasan Azad, Morteza Nazari-Heris
Chapter 3. Introduction and Literature Review to Deployment of Photovoltaic Systems in Buildings
Photovoltaic (PV) solar technology is one of the most promising developments in renewable energy. As the cost of solar panels continues to decrease, it is becoming more accessible and widely used in both urban and rural areas. Using solar energy to power our homes, businesses and communities can help reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and move toward a more sustainable future. This study examines modern technologies used in sustainable buildings, such as beeper systems and the mandatory implementation of photovoltaic systems in advanced countries. The methods of supplying electricity to buildings through photovoltaic systems are also discussed. Storage is a crucial topic in renewable energy and is discussed in the following sections. This study also critically examines the use of phase change materials (PCMs) as heat-absorbing materials in photovoltaic panels and their impact on heating and cooling in the interior of sustainable buildings.
Oweis Gholitabar, Ali Ghasemi-Marzbali
Chapter 4. Introduction and Literature Review to Deployment of Photovoltaic Systems in Sustainable Buildings
The concept of zero emission buildings imposed the photovoltaic panels’ integration in buildings. This chapter presents photovoltaic cells and panels that are suitable for building integrated systems. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Three building-integrated photovoltaic systems are discussed: roof photovoltaic system, cladding photovoltaic system, and semitransparent photovoltaic systems. The factors that have an important influence on power generation are also discussed. Some future developments are presented.
Daniel Tudor Cotfas, Petru Adrian Cotfas
Chapter 5. Building-Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) and Its Application, Design, and Policy and Strategies
This chapter presents a system description of building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) and its application, design, and policy and strategies. The purpose of this study is to review the deployment of photovoltaic systems in sustainable buildings. PV technology is prominent, and BIPV systems are crucial for power generation. BIPV generates electricity and covers structures, saving material and energy costs and improving architectural appeal. BIPV generates clean electricity on-site and reduces building energy consumption through daylight usage and cooling load reduction, contributing to net-zero energy buildings. However, its adoption is limited by higher system costs compared to typical roof-mounted systems. BIPV systems serve as the outer layer of a structure and generate on-site electricity or grid export, resulting in material and electricity cost savings and enhanced architectural appeal while reducing pollution. The BIPV market is expected to grow from $17.7B in 2022 to $83.3B by 2030, with a CAGR of 21.4% from 2022 to 2030. A graphical abstract for PV system deployment in sustainable buildings is shown in Fig. 5.1.
Graphical Abstract
Farzaneh Boronuosi, Sobhan Aghababaei, Sasan Azad, Mohammad Taghi Ameli, Morteza Nazari-Heris
Chapter 6. Integration of Small-Scale Wind Turbines in Sustainable and Energy Efficient Buildings
The integration of renewable energy resources in buildings is one way of achieving energy efficient and sustainable buildings (zero-energy buildings (ZEBs) or low-energy buildings), reducing fossil energy consumption, and cutting down carbon emissions in urban areas. Buildings are an integral component in the development of any city, and they provide a unique opportunity to contribute toward the achievement of the seventh sustainable development goal (SDG) of the United Nations, which is aimed at ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all. To buttress the importance of buildings to urbanization, the United Nations Environment Program launched the Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative to promote and support sustainable building practices that encourage energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Though photovoltaic systems have become increasingly popular with sustainable buildings, small-scale wind turbines can be integrated into such buildings to increase energy efficiency and cut carbon emissions. This chapter therefore investigates the different types of wind turbines available, the practical integration of such wind turbines in sustainable buildings, and the different factors affecting the performance of such small-scale wind turbines in sustainable buildings.
O. Apata, P. N. Bokoro, G. Sharma
Chapter 7. Operation Optimization of Sustainable Buildings
Following the restructuring of the electricity industry, various innovative concepts have emerged, such as intelligent parking lots, renewable energy sources, and sustainable buildings. This chapter presents a novel model that incorporates a thermal model, a fuel cell co-generation system, and a battery to minimize the operation costs of a sustainable building. The primary objective is to prioritize device performance and optimize other sustainable building equipment operations in order to minimize the day-ahead operation cost of sustainable building. The proposed model leverages a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) approach, optimized using the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) platform. Two various scenarios have been utilized to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. It’s worth noting that the proposed sustainable building model is based in Australia, and all input data relates to the summer season.
Mehran Ghahramani, Mehdi Abapour, Behnam Mohammadi-Ivatloo, Mehrdad Ghahramani, Morteza Nazari-Heris
Chapter 8. Design of Sustainable Buildings with Renewables
Sustainable buildings, also known as green buildings, have received significant attention globally in recent decades. This is the key solution to tackle the energy crisis caused by conventional buildings, which currently consume 30–40% of the world’s annual energy. The usage of such a higher energy further causes an increase in the prices of fossil fuel oils and, consequently, conventional buildings contribute a high amount of CO2 emission to greenhouses. The purpose of this chapter is to create a model of a conceptual sustainable building simulation that reduces the impact of CO2 emission, consumes less fossil fuel oil, and is materially sustainable under natural conditions. The design uses the maximum efficiency of renewable energy of wind turbines and solar panel cells, where the basic solar panel cell efficiencies are 5–20% and optimized for higher performance using intelligent mechatronic system methods. In addition, this chapter develops a method that eases the process of increasing solar panel cell efficiency. To obtain optimized designed solar panel cell generation, solar panel cells are modeled using simulation software applications, “Autodesk Revit and Dynamo (script programing language)”, which enable solar panel cells to trace the maximum sunlight intensity. Furthermore, the achievement of optimized energy usage and the integration of renewable energy with smart grids and the Internet of Things (IoT) can provide smart control applications and wise operational systems.
Berhane Gebreslassie, Akhtar Kalam, Aladin Zayegh
Chapter 9. Thermal Energy Storage (TES) for Sustainable Buildings: Addressing the Current Energetic Situation in the EU with TES-Enhanced Buildings
In the last century, global primary energy consumption and related CO2 emissions increased 10 times, and they are still on the rise. The environmental sustainability and the limitation of the energy consumption of buildings are of substantial importance in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating the consequences of climate change. The main problem of the next years will be the necessity to find a compromise between energy demand and available energy resources. Europe, despite the lower emissions compared to other regions, will face very hard challenges due to (i) the extreme rise of energy prices that occurred in 2022 and (ii) the necessity to cut CO2 emissions and energy consumption to reach the targets of the European Green Deal for 2050. The technologies and systems able to store thermal energy allow the accumulation of energy when available (e.g., thermal energy from sun) in order to use it when and where necessary, with a consequent reduction of CO2 emissions. The use of insulating materials with TES capability may result in the compensation of energy absorption peaks caused by air conditioning or by space heating with a consequent reduction of energy consumption and related CO2 emissions. The present study, starting from some considerations regarding the energetic problem, greenhouse gas emissions in EU, and used energy source, presents the available energy storage technologies with particular attention to thermal energy storage. Different applications and available commercial technologies are analyzed.
Francesco Valentini, Giulia Fredi, Andrea Dorigato
Chapter 10. Introduction and Literature Review of the Application of Hydronic-Based Radiant Cooling Systems in Sustainable Buildings
Hydronic-based radiant cooling systems have been widely utilized for their energy efficiency and offering more thermal comfort for occupants when compared to conventional convection-based cooling systems. However, the potential risk of developing condensation on the surface keeps thermo-active building systems (TABS) from being applied in buildings located in warm and humid climate regions. This chapter presents a model predictive control (MPC)-based condensation prevention approach that allows the prevention of surface condensation during the cooling periods when the TABS is in operation. Based on future conditions predicted by the dynamic models, the MPC-based condensation prevention framework adjusts the surface temperature for the TABS in ways that guarantee occupant thermal comfort and energy efficiency without the development of surface condensation.
Deok-Oh Woo, Lars Junghans
Chapter 11. Performance Effectiveness of Daylight Modifiers for Optimizing Daylighting in University Buildings
Daylighting is a crucial factor for the comfort of humans. Insufficient daylighting can make residents feel more disoriented, anxious, and uneasy, while excessive daylighting can result in glare and severe heat gain. This chapter studies the effectiveness of daylight modifiers: dynamic glass, metal overhangs, and perforated panels on optimizing daylighting, glare probability, and solar heat gain with a focus on university buildings. Due to the building’s excessive natural light, this study focuses on the A. Alfred Taubman Engineering, Architecture, and Life Sciences Complex, which is home to the Marburger STEM Center at Lawrence Technological University. The majority of the building’s façade is made up of enormous curtain walls, which the inhabitants claim cause them to feel uncomfortably warm and endure substantial glare. Through the evaluation of several daylighting options and a cost analysis, this study seeks to identify the most effective remedy for occupant discomfort. In this study, dynamic glass, post-construction overhangs, and perforated paneling were all considered daylight modification techniques. To find the best option, the cost and performance of each system are compared. There are recommendations for the best solution based on the performance of each modifier for glare likelihood, daylight autonomy, solar heat gain, and cost, as well as the significance of each parameter.
Gillian Anschutz-Ceja, Morteza Nazari-Heris
Chapter 12. Emotional Response to Different Lighting Conditions
Daylight and artificial light have a considerable and significant impact on humans daily. Daylight provides natural light, which saves energy and benefits the environment. However, daylight can cause harsh glares. Harsh glares come directly from the sun and reflect on surfaces, making the environment difficult to work in. Thus, the harsh response of daylight adds to the importance of artificial lights, making them more important to have once daylight is too harsh or nighttime intervenes. Artificial lights provide individuals with many different types of light. The spectrum chart provides a broad selection of colored lights. Colored lights can have a significant impact on individuals’ emotions. This chapter discusses the impact of lights on individuals’ emotions. The effects of artificial lighting on human physiological and psychological reactions are examined in this chapter with a focus on how human eyes adjust to light, age-related changes in light sensitivity, comfort levels as determined by a visual lighting spectrum chart, and the body’s reaction to artificial lighting. Additionally, the study explores the relationship between memory performance and LED illuminance, color temperature, and melatonin suppression. The chapter also examines how artificial light affects mood, considering a person’s cultural background, the weather, and how these factors affect light. Finally, it explores how different light hues are seen by people and how that affects perception. The chapter offers insights into how artificial lighting affects people and emphasizes the significance of lighting design and choice for the best human functioning through a study of numerous studies.
Dalia Saleem, Morteza Nazari-Heris
Natural Energy, Lighting, and Ventilation in Sustainable Buildings
herausgegeben von
Morteza Nazari-Heris
Electronic ISBN
Print ISBN